http://www.blueberrybearbooks.com/wp-content/sweet-tomatoes/wa-douglasville-tire-deals.php This natural selection is good for the herd as a whole, because the general speed and health of the whole group keeps improving by the regular killing of the weakest members. In much the same way, the human brain can only operate as fast as the slowest brain cells. Excessive intake of alcohol, as we know, kills brain cells.
But naturally, it attacks the slowest and weakest brain cells first. In this way, regular consumption of beer eliminates the weaker brain cells, making the brain a faster and more efficient machine. A hero is one who knows how to hang on one minute longer. Novalis A human body can bear only up to 45 del unit of pain. But at the time of giving birth, a woman feels up to 57 del. This is similar to twenty boned getting fractured at a time. Charles Churchill A kind heart is a fountain of gladness, making everything in its vicinity freshen into smiles.
Washington Irving A kiss is a lovely trick designed by nature to stop speech when words become superfluous. Edmond Rostand, Cyrano de Bergerac A kiss makes the heart young again and wipes out the years. Rupert Brooke A leader is best when people barely know he exists, when his work is done, his aim fulfilled, they will say: we did it ourselves.
Lao Tzu A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way. John C. Maxwell A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on. Sir Winston Churchill A lie never lives to be old. Sophocles A life is not important except in the impact it has on other lives.
Jackie Robinson A light wind swept over the corn, and all nature laughed in the sunshine. Anne Bronte A line is a dot that went for a walk. Paul Klee A little bit of blood makes a really big cloud. A little controversy makes everything more interesting. A lot of people are afraid of heights. Steven Wright A man has two options in a relationship: either stand up and be the man she needs or sit down, so she can see the man behind him. A man is already halfway in love with any woman who listens to him. Brendan Behan A man must know his destiny.
If he does not recognize it, then he is lost. By this I mean once, twice, or at the very most three times fate will reach out and tap a man on the shoulder. If he has the imagination, he will turn around and fate will point out to him what fork in the road he should take. If he has the guts… he will take it. George S. Patton A man must not deny his manifest abilities, for that is to evade his obligations. William Feather A man of personality can formulate ideals, but only a man of character can achieve them.
Herbert Read A man should always consider how much he has more than he wants. Joseph Addison A man should look for what is, and not for what he thinks should be. Albert Einstein A man too busy to take care of his health is like a mechanic too busy to take care of his tools. Spanish Proverb A man travels the world over in search of what he needs and returns home to find it. George A. Moore A man who has nothing to live for is capable of anything. A man who treats his woman like a princess is a proof that he has been born and raised in the arms of a queen.
Joan Welsh A mind that is stretched to a new idea never returns to its original dimension. Oliver Wendell Holmes A moment on the lips, forever on the hips. Victor Hugo A nessuno interessa l'uomo che sparisce. A nest is supposed to be a temporary environment - are you still snuggled safely into yours? A nice thing of getting old is nothings frightens you. A pedestrian is someone who thought there were a couple of gallons left in the tank. A person often meets his destiny on the road he took to avoid it.
A pessimist is one who makes difficulties of his opportunities and an optimist is one who makes opportunities of his difficulties. Harry S. Truman A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty. Winston Churchill A photograph is a secret about a secret. The more it tells you the less you know. Diane Arbus A place for everything, everything in its place. Benjamin Franklin A problem is a chance for you to do your best.
Duke Ellington A problem well stated is a problem half-solved. Charles Kettering A pure hand needs no glove to cover it. Nathaniel Hawthorne A quiet mind cureth all. Robert Burton A real man never strikes a woman. You push some, if you have to, but you never strike. A relationship is like standing on wet cement: the longer you stand the more difficult is to leave, and even if you leave, you leave your footprints behind. A relaxed mind is a creative mind. A room hung with pictures is a room hung with thoughts.
Joshua Reynolds A rule says you must do it this way. A principle says this works. A short saying often contains much wisdom. A silent hug means a thousand words to the unhappy heart. A simple grateful thought turned heavenwards is the most perfect prayer. Doris Lessing A smile is a curve that sets everything straight. Phyllis Diller A starlight wishper with butterfly voices, currents of light cannot be fought. A strong positive attitude will create more miracles than any wonder drug. Patricia Neal A stumble may prevent a fall.
English Proverb A successful man is one who can lay a firm foundation with the bricks other have thrown at him. David Brinkley A successful marriage requires falling in love many times, always with the same person. Mignon McLaughlin A sudden bold and unexpected question doth many times surprise a man and lay him open. Francis Bacon A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops. Henry Adams A thief thinks everyone steals. A tisane made up of a mixture of orange, rosewater and mint. A tree falls the way it leads.
Seuss A true friend is someone who sees the pain in your eyes while everyone else believes the smile on your face. A true friend never gets in your way unless you happen to be going down. A very small degree of hope is sufficient to cause the birth of love. Stendhal A virgo infelix! A volte bisogna perdere per vincere. A volte la gente ha bisogno che la propria fiducia venga ricompensata. A volte leggiamo delle cose che ci fanno capire di colpo di non aver vissuto niente, non aver provato niente, non aver sperimentato niente fino a quel momento.
A volte per pensare in mega, bisogna pensare in piccolo. A volte si preferisce rinunciare ad un amico che ad un motto. A waist is a terrible thing to mind. Tom Wilson A walk in the park with your best friend: priceless. A well-tailored suit is to women what lingerie is to men. A will finds a way. Orison Swett Marden A wise girl knows her limits. A smart girl has none. A wise king never makes war. But be must always be prepared for it. A woman can be anything the man who loves her would have her be.
James M. Rudyard Kipling A word of advice, if I may. Whether I heed it or not will be another matter entirely. Saving Mr Banks A year from now you may wish you had started today. Karen Lamb Abbiamo cominciato male, vero? Finora non ho fatto che accarezzarti contro pelo.
Abbiamo tutti le nostre macchine del tempo: quelle che ci riportano indietro, i ricordi, e quelle che ci portano avanti, i sogni. Abracadabra: to make something from nothing. Absence — that common cure of love. Lord Byron Absence makes the heart grow impatient, frustrated, resigned, and eventually fonder. Absence sharpens love, presence strengthens it.
Thomas Fuller Absolutely No Smoking. Abstract art: a product of the untalented sold by the unprincipled to the utterly bewildered. Al Capp Abused patience turns to fury. Thomas Fuller Accept the risk and then reap the rewards. Accident is the first building block of evolution. Interstellar Accogliereste il mio parere, qualunque esso sia, con indulgente sarcasmo According to Greek mythology, humans were originally created with 4 arms, 4 legs, and a head with 2 faces.
Fearing their power, Zeus split them into two separate parts, condemning them to spend their lives in search of their other halves. Accustom yourself continually to make many acts of love, for they enkindle and melt the soul. Saint Teresa of Avila Act as if it were impossible to fail. Dorothea Brande Act as if what you do makes a difference. It does. William James Action is the foundational key to all success.
Pablo Picasso Action may not always bring happiness; but there is no happiness without action. Benjamin Disraeli Action speak louder than words. Actions prove who someone is. Words prove who they wanna be. Wells Adopt the pace of nature: her secret is patience. Ralph Waldo Emerson Affetti? Inutili debolezze. Affoghiamo in un mare di baci, riemergiamo in un mare di passione. After a while, you just want to be with the one that makes you laugh.
Big, Sex and the City season 1 After climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. Nelson Mandela After silence, that which comes nearest to expressing the inexpressible is music. Aldous Huxley Age does not protect you from love. But love, to some extent, protects you from age. Jeanne Moreau Age is an issue of mind over matter. Mark Twain Ai mariti che vi hanno conquistato, agli sfigati che vi hanno perso e.. Aime qui tu aime. Aime le coeur qui pour toi se detruit. The person that says they love you, does not, but the person who loves you, watches and is silent.
Alcuni sono incidenti di percorso; lui sarebbe una storiella. Parliamo di questo. Lei non crede nelle informazioni riservate, vero? All action results from thought, so it is thoughts that matter. Sai Baba All art is autobiographical. Federico Fellini All blame is a waste of time. No matter how much fault you find with another, and regardless of how much you blame him, it will not change you. Wayne Dyer All change is not growth, as all movement is not forward. Ellen Glasgow All glory comes from daring to begin.
Eugene F. Ware All great achievements require time. Maya Angelou All is not as lost as it seems. All labor that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence. All life is an experiment. The more experiments you make, the better. Ralph Waldo Emerson All men who have achieved great things have been great dreamers. Orison Swett Marden All my life, my heart has yearned for a thing I cannot name.
Andre Breton All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them. Walt Disney All relationships go through hell. Real relationships get through it. All sweeping assertions are erroneous. Letitia Elizabeth Landon All the art of living lies in a fine mingling of letting go and holding on.
Havelock Ellis All the beautiful sentiments in the world weigh less than a single lovely action. James Russell Lowell All the cute things you do simply tickle my heart. All the windows of my heart I open to the day. John Greenleaf Whittier All things are difficult before they are easy. Thomas Fuller All things excellent are as difficult as they are rare. Baruch Spinoza All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them. Galileo Galilei All water has a perfect memory and is forever trying to get back to where it was.
Almost every wise saying has an opposite one, no less wise, to balance it. Santayana Always bear in mind that your own resolution to succeed is more important than any other. Abraham Lincoln Always believe in what you know about me and not in what you heard about me. Always desire to learn something useful. Sophocles Always do right; this will gratify some people and astonish the rest. Mark Twain Always give without remembering and always receive without forgetting. Brian Tracy Always keep your words tender, just in case you have to eat them tomorrow.
Deborah Kaplan Always make new mistakes. Esther Dyson Always read something that will make you look good if you die in the middle of it. Just like everyone else. Always seek out the seed of triumph in every adversity. Amami poco, ma continua. Amicitia numquam intempestiva, numquam molesta est. Ammittit merito proprium qui alienum adpetit.
Jacopo da Lentini Amor mi ha fatto tal ch'io vivo in foco. Martin Buber An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last. Winston Churchill An arrow can be shot only by pulling it backward. An artist cannot fail; it is a success to be one. Charles Horton Cooley An empty canvas is a living wonder… far lovelier than certain pictures. Wassily Kandinsky An intellectual says a simple thing in a hard way. An artist says a hard thing in a simple way. Charles Bukowski An obstacle is often a stepping stone.
One is Evil. It is anger, jealousy, greed, resentment, inferiority, lies and ego. The other is Good. It is joy, peace, love, hope, humility, kindness, empathy and truth. An ounch of action is worth a ton of theory. Anche la luna ha un lato oscuro. Anche se ho detto che ti odio.. Le tue parole, i tuoi sguardi..
Anche se non sei poeta tu puoi dire tutto quello che vuoi. A photograph is a secret about a secret. The more it tells you, the less you know. And in my dreams I will always find my way back to you.
And now, this is the sweetest and most glorious day that ever my eyes did see. Thomas Moore And what he greatly thought, he nobly dared. Homer And what is so rare as a day in June? Then, if ever, come perfect days. James Russell Lowell And will you succeed? You will, indeed! It leaves evidence. Sei pronta ad affrontarlo? Anello con Ametista sul Pollice Sinistro - "il pollice per i dottori, l'indice per i mercanti, il medio per i pazzi, l'anulare per gli amanti, il mignolo per gli studenti" Angel dal ciel disceso per troppo peso.
Angeli, non fate sorgere il sole stamani: tenete l'illusione nelle vostre mani. Anger and resentment can stop you in your tracks. It needs nothing to burn but the air and the life that it swallows and smothers. The only upside to anger, then, is the person you become. Someone that knows that the truth is, at best, a partially told story. That anger, like growth, comes in spurts and fits, and in its wake, leaves a new chance at acceptance and the promise of calm. Anger is a feeling that makes your mouth work faster than your mind. Evan Esar Animal nullum inveniri potest quod neque natum umquam sit et semper sit futurum.
Animation is not the art of drawings that move but the art of movements that are drawn. Norman McLaren Animla plenum rationis et consilii vocamus hominem. Another good reducing exercise consists in placing both hands against the table edge and pushing back. It comes from trying to control it. Any experience can be transformed into something of value. Everything depends on the way you look at things. You cannot have the success without the failures. Any growth requires a temporary loss of security. Madeline Hunter Any trouble I get myself in now - even an honest mistake - will be a hundred times worse than if any normal person did it.
Ahmed Abdul Qader Any truth is better than indefinite doubt. Arthur Conan Doyle Anyone can be passionate. It takes real lovers to be silly. Rose Franken Anyone can count the seeds in an apple, but only God can count the number of apples in a seed. Anyone can do something when they want to do it. Anyone who keeps the ability to see beauty never grows old. Franz Kafka Anyone who says that only sunshine brings happiness has never danced in the rain.
Anything can happen. Anything looked at closely becomes wonderful. Ammons Anything simple always interests me. David Hockney Anytime you see a turtle up on top of a fence post, you know he had some help. Alex Haley Apologizing does not always mean you are wrong, it just means that you value your relationships more than your ego. Appena alzato, sorridi. Approach women like you do wild animals, with caution and a soothing voice.
Architecture is the will of an epoch translated into space. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Are you asking me out? I would pick you up, take you to a restaurant. Then we would see a movie, probably a romantic comedy featuring the talents of Hugh Grant or Sandra Bullock. And would you agree that the primary way we would evaluate either the success or failure of the date would be based on the bio-chemical reaction during the goodnight kiss?
Are you for real? Are you listening to me? Escher Are you sure you said nothing to him? Arguing with a woman is like getting arrested. Everything you say can and will be used against you. Armat spina rosas. La spina difende le rose. Arriving at one goal is the starting point to another. John Dewey Art attracts us only by what it reveals of our most secret self.
Alfred North Whitehead Art cannot be modern. Art is primordially eternal. Egon Schiele Art depends on luck and talent. Francis Ford Coppola Art distills sensations and embodies it with enhanced meaning. Miguel de Unamuno Art does not reproduce what we see; rather, it makes us see. Paul Klee Art enables us to find ourselves and lose ourselves at the same time. Thomas Merton Art is a step from what is obvious and well-known toward what is arcane and concealed.
Khalil Gibran Art is anything people do with distinction. Henry A. Kissinger Art is not a thing; it is a way. Elbert Hubbard Art is not what you see, but what you make others see. Edgar Degas Art is one thing that can go on mattering once it has stopped hurting. Elizabeth Bowen Art is the signature of civilizations. Beverly Sills Art is the unceasing effort to compete with the beauty of flowers - and never succeeding. Gian Carlo Menotti Art, in itself, is an attempt to bring order out of chaos. Not my mother, my elder sister, my best friend.
So I make sure to say it to Mia, because a positive physical outlook has to start at an early age. Kate Winslet As a rule, we find what we look for; we achieve what we get ready for. I just watch what they do. Andrew Carnegie As knowledge increases, wonder deepens. Charles Morgan As long as a man stands in his own way, everything seems to be in his way.
Ralph Waldo Emerson As long as there is someone in the sky to protect me, there is no one on earth who could break me. As love without esteem is capricious and volatile; esteem without love is languid and cold. Jonathan Swift As much as I converse with sages and heroes, they have very little of my love and admiration. I long for rural and domestic scene, for the warbling of birds and the prattling of my children. John Adams As you slide down the bannister of life may the splinters never point the wrong way.
As you think, so shall you become. Bruce Lee Ascolta bene. Non le mie parole. Ma il tumulto che si scatena nel tuo corpo quando ascolti te stesso. Ti chiedo di ascoltarmi attentamente. Oggi io voglio darti la mia Benedizione. Io nome genitore , ti benedico! Ti chiedo perdono dal profondo del mio cuore per tutto quello che non ho potuto darti, per le mie mancanze. Ti amo. Yuliana Albeaez Assumere un incompetente equivale a rafforzare la concorrenza.
At a certain point in your life, probably when too much of it has gone by, you will open your eyes and see yourself for who you are. Especially for everything that made you so different from all the awful normals. And you will say to yourself, "But I am this person".
And in that statement, that correction, there will be a kind of love. At the end of the game, the king and the pawn go back in the same box. At the right moment, you have to do what nobody expects. At this point that you will make a startling discovery. At times I think and at times I am.
Atarassico - Imperturbabile, immune da emozioni, affetti, passioni. Attende tibi. Prendi cura di te stesso. Attitude: It is our best friend or our worst enemy. Nick Hornby Audentes fortuna iuvat. Fortune favors the bold. Virgil, Aeneid X. Be silent, unless what you have to say is better than silence Autumn arrives in early morning, but spring at the close of a winter day. Elizabeth Bowen Autumn is a second spring when every leaf is a flower. Albert Camus Autumn wins you best by this, its mute appeal to sympathy for its decay.
William Allingham Avarus ipse miseriae causa est suae. Avrei voluto che restassimo amici. B Bachelors have consciences, married men have wives. Samuel Johnson Baci avuti facilmente, si dimenticano facilmente. Vance Cooke Bad habits are like a comfortable bed, easy to get into, but hard to get out of. Bad habits are like chains that are too light to feel until they are too heavy to carry.
Warren Buffet Bad literature is a form of treason. Joseph Brodsky Badate ai fanciulli, amici miei, badate sempre ai fanciulli, se vi sta a cuore di averne degli uomini. Stasera, Giuseppe Ungaretti Basta un breve momento di dolcezza per svelarci come dovrebbe essere la vita. Be with someone that makes you happy. Be as you wish to seem. Socrates Be bold. Be confident.
Be alive. A gallery of possibilities awaits you when you make change your friend. Bob Bone Be brave, young lovers, and follow your star. Oscar Hammerstein II Be brief, for no discourse can please when too long. Miguel de Cervantes Be careful what you set your heart upon - for it will surely be yours. James A. Baldwin Be careful who you trust. If someone will discuss others with you, they will certainly discuss you with others. Be faithful to that which exists within yourself.
Be great in act, as you have been in thought. Jean Paul Be happy. Sidonie Gabrielle Colette Be intent upon the perfection of the present day. William Law Be kind to everyone you meet, for they may be facing a harder battle. Plato Be miserable. Or motivate yourself. Wayne Dyer Be not afraid of growing slowly, be afraid only of standing still.
Chinese Proverb Be obscure clearly. White Be of love a little more careful than of anything. Be proud of what you are Be so busy loving your life you have no time for hate, regret or fear. Be specific in what you want, and use specific words. Empower yourself, and become the person you dream about. Be still. The quieter you become, the more you can hear. Ram Dass Be stronger than your excuses. Be sure to ask for us by name. Be sure to taste your words before you spit them out. Be sure you put your feet in the right place and then stand firm.
Abraham Lincoln Be thankful for everything for soon there will be nothing. Be thankful for the bad things in your life. Be the one who has an understanding and a forgiving heart, one who looks for the best in people. Leave people better than you found them. Be the person your dog thinks you are. Be truthful, nature only sides with truth.
Seuss Be with someone who knows what they have, when they have you. Be yourself. Everyone else is taken. Oscar Wilde Be yourself. The world worships the original. Nietzsche Beautiful things that seem impossible happen everyday. Beauty gets the attention. Personality gets the heart. Beauty is a light in the heart. Kahlil Gibran Beauty is eternity gazing at itself in a mirror. But you are the eternity and you are the mirror. Gibran Beauty is in your eyes. William Congreve Beauty is whatever gives joy. Edna St. Because he would take no time off for friends or rest or social life, Balducci accused him of trying to escape the world by fleeing into marble.
He admitted to his friend that he was half right; the sculptor carries into the marble the vision of a more luminous world than the one that surrounds him. But the artist was not in flight; he was in pursuit. He was trying with all his might to overtake a vision. Did God really rest on the seventh day? I had best create another species, one apart. Lao Tzu Become addicted to constant and never-ending self improvement. Before going to sleep every night, forgive everyone and sleep with a clean heart.
Before I refuse to take your questions, I have an opening statement. Ronald Reagan Before we go any further from now on can you give me some kind of a signal every once in a while just so I know any of this is getting through to you? Before you assume, learn the facts.
Before you judge, understand why. Before you hurt someone, feel. Before you speak, think. Before you put on a frown, make absolutely sure there are no smiles available. Tim Beggs Before you were born I carried you under my heart. Mandy Harrison Begin anywhere. John Cage Begin at once to live, and count each separate day as a separate life. Seneca Begin to be now what you will be hereafter. William James Beginning today, treat everyone you meet as if they were going to be dead by midnight. Extend to them all the care, kindness, and understanding you can muster, and do it with no thought of any reward.
Your life will never be the same again. Og Mandino Beh diciamo che ho dalla mia secoli di esperienza e di scuse Joseph Conrad Being aware without drawing attention. Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. Lao Tzu Being defeated is often a temporary condition. Giving up is what makes it permanent. Being male is a matter of birth, being a man is a matter of age, but being a gentleman is a matter of choice. Ricky Gervais Believe and act as if it were impossible to fail.
Charles F. Kettering Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, or who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agrees with your own reason and your own common sense. Siddhartha Gautama Buddha Believe while others are doubting. Theodore Roosevelt Better be without sense than misapply it as you do. Better three hours too soon than a minute too late. William Shakespeare Better to beg forgiveness than ask permission. Better to forgive than be forgiven, better to understand than be understood, better to love than be loved.
Saint Francis Bevendo gli uomini migliorano: fanno buoni affair, vincono le cause, son felici e sostengono gli amici. Aristofane Beware of the dog. The cat is not trustworthy either. Beware of the half truth. You may have gotten hold of the wrong half. Beware the fury of a patient man. John Dryden Bibite ad vestrum futurum. Bid me to love, and I will give a loving heart to thee. Rose Kennedy Bisognerebbe essere dolci con tutti, anche con se stessi. Bisognerebbe essere orgogliosi del dolore: ogni dolore ci rammenta il nostro alto livello.
Novalis Blessed are the hearts that can bend; they shall never be broken. Albert Camus Blessed is the influence of one true, loving human soul on another. George Eliot Bona opinio hominum tutior est pecunia. Books are the quietest and most constant of friends; they are the most accessible and wisest of counselors, and the most patient of teachers. Charles William Eliot Books can be dangerous. Helen Exler Boys, you must strive to find your own voice.
Because the longer you wait to begin, the less likely you are to find it at all. Thoreau said, "Most men lead lives of quiet desperation". Don't be resigned to that. Break out! Don't just walk off the edge like lemmings. Look around you. Franklin P. Jones Bravery is the capacity to perform properly even when scared half to death. Omar N. Bradley Breathe until you die. Brevity is the soul of wit.
William Shakespeare Bring ideas in and entertain them royally, for one of them may be the king. Means lowering the biscuit into the tea and letting it soak in there and trying to calculate the exact moment before the biscuit dissolves, when you whip it up into your mouth and enjoy the blissful union of biscuits and tea combined. But charm is more valuable than beauty. We can still do things.
Atlas de enfermedades de la vulva spanish edition. Boccioli e voci di uccelli italian edition. ebook. Grabacin de audio digital spanish edition. Passione argentina. Dictionary English-Italian d'acqua, la civetta e l'usignolo; e ancora i rospi e [ ] cannaiola, il cannareccione, l'usignolo di fiume, la capinera, [ ] l'Ucraina grazie ai propri cantanti con voci vellutate. . di uccelli tra cui l'usignolo, l'upupa, la gazza, l'assiolo, [ ] . nel bocciolo, nell'usignolo, in un mazzolino di fiori, [ ] e .
Stephen Chbosky But I thought But more wonderful than the lore of old men and the lore of books is the secret lore of ocean. Lovecraft But what could be substitute for bullshit? Where would we be without it? By believing passionately in something that does not yet exist, we create it. Nikos Kazantzakis By this, I take it you think everybody is who they say they are. By three methods we may learn wisdom: first, by reflection, which is noblest; second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third, by experience, which is the bitterest.
Tutti nascondono un segreto e non vogliono che si scopra. E' la punizione per avere osato minacciarmi. Josiah Gilbert Holland Can you at least attempt to control your thoughts? Can you not fill my head with that sort of nonsense? Capii che nella migliore delle ipotesi Holden era un bambino, e nella peggiore un demonio. Se volevo rimettermi in carreggiata, dovevo sbarazzarmi di lui. A volte, prima di tornare sulla via della redenzione, bisogna fare qualche fermata.
Non sono riuscito a cancellarli dalla mia mente. Avevo definitivamente rinunciato ad essere capito dagli altri, quando sei arrivata tu. Holden Warder. La natura non crea due caratteri uguali in nessun caso. Trarre vantaggio da circostanze fortuite. Ricavare un senso da messaggi ambigui e contraddittori. Trovare somiglianze tra situazioni diverse nonostante le differenze che possono dividerle.
Notare distinzioni tra situazioni diverse nonostante le somiglianze che possono unirle. Sintetizzare nuovi concetti prendendo concetti vecchi e collegandoli in modi nuovi. Produrre idee nuove. Care and diligence bring luck. Thomas Fuller Care is a state in which something does matter; it is the source of human tenderness.
Rollo May Carlos: Come on. What could be so serious for a guy like you? You just have to wait a little while and another one comes along.
Cattura, nascondi e custodisci le lucine dell'arcobaleno Storia di Noi Due Cenerentola, coperta di stracci, viene trasformata dalla buona fatina in una splendida principessa Cerca di avere torto per una volta. Il mio ego te ne sarebbe grato. Cerca di concentrarti sui piaceri semplici, capisci?
Le piccole fortune. Cercati il tuo cavallo di battaglia. Certe scoperte appaiono semplicissime, dopo che sono state fatte. Certe volte tutta la vita si riduce a un unico folle gesto. Certi pensieri vanno lasciati impensati. Certi uomini non cercano qualcosa di logico, come i soldi. Certi uomini vogliono solo veder bruciare il mondo. Challenge yourself all the days of your life.
Challenges are what make life interesting; overcoming them is what makes life meaningful. Joshua J. Marine Challenging the meaning of life is the truest expression of the state of being human. Viktor E. Frankl Chance is a nickname for providence. Which is another way of saying that all history is inevitable, because it goes to the trouble of happening.
Another point of view says that history is independent of individual will, determined by social conditions and relations of production. These theories propose history immune to effort, remove from the choices of everyday life. But history is made by human beings and action and passion no less than fate or economics are its essential ingredients. Change comes like a little wind that ruffles the curtains at dawn and it comes like the stealthy perfume of wildflowers hidden in the grass.
John Steinbeck Change is as good as a rest. Change is just the combination of effort and time. Change your life today. Simone de Beauvoir Change your thoughts and you change your world. Norman Vincent Peale Character is how your treat those who can do nothing for you. Sentire che la potenza aumenta, che si vince una resistenza. O non vi vergognate? Avete paura, e vorreste farne? Che fortuna possedere una grande intelligenza, non ti mancano mai le sciocchezze da dire. Anton Cechov Che hai fatto in tutti questi anni? Che sarebbe la vita, senza il vino?
Antico Testamento, Ecclesiaste Che succede? Your task here is to remember where this person is pointing so that you can point at the same boxes in the same order, OK? OK, now you're keeping information in working memory, four positions, so that you can do something based on that information, right? Easy enough. Let's have another one. So the same task: remember where this person points. Any volunteers here, in the first row? That's a bit harder. This illustrates the key problem here, and the key problem is that working memory is limited.
Capacity to store information is limited. If I were to test you, you would remember roughly seven items here. This has been termed "the magic number seven". It's thought to be a very important limit on information processing ability of the human brain. But, some of you might remember eight, some of you might remember only six - so, that's normal - but when you get an unusually low working memory, you run into problems. Children with low working memory capacity, they have problems remembering instructions, what to do next, they are inattentive, they fail in mathematics, they struggle with reading comprehension.
So I said, "We have a problem, and I think I have, a partial, at least, solution. One finding from our and others' research is that this is not a global problem all over the brain, but it seems to be restricted to a set of bottleneck areas in the brain and the connections between them.
Here seems to be that the processing ability of these regions is also constituting the limitations of working memory. But on the other hand, we know that the brain is plastic. It can change with training. It can change with experience. For example, if you look at musicians, violinists, you see the brain areas controlling the fingers - they change as a result of practice. So why wouldn't you be able to change these regions as well? I teamed up with some computer game programmers to make a program where - a computer program where children could train working memory. We want them to train on tasks similar to the one that I showed you here, to do that for at least 45 minutes - that's about how long That's again about as long as they could manage to do this.
Using computer-game-like design made it slightly more motivating. We also could use the computer program to adapt the difficulty level, so it's close to the capacity limit. That's a similar principle to when you do physical training. It's when you're close to your limits that you can actually change. Then, we wanted to test the effect of this and we did that in roughly the same way you go about when you want to try out a new drug. You have people randomized to either receiving the treatment - which is the working memory training in this study - or a placebo, which was a computer program where difficulty level was not adapted to the limit of the subjects.
Then you have psychological tests, measuring working memory capacity of the children before and after. So this was a very simplistic idea. This was a neuroscientist stumbling into the field of working memory and treating working memory as a muscle, rather than some magical black box. But it worked. When we looked at the test results, we could see that children doing the training, they have actually improved their working memory capacity by roughly 20 to 15 percent, and this has been replicated many times now.
So the magic number seven isn't so magic, after all. And other people have also shown that you can measure strengthening of connectivity between these regions as a result of working memory training. So we could show that indeed the brain is plastic. This is nice. We can push the limits. We can watch the changes that are happening in the brain. The third question is: does it matter? Does it matter for people in everyday life?
One thing that does matter is remembering plans and instructions, and we and others have now actually measured how long instructions can a child keep in mind and perform accurately, and does it change, and it does. So children going through the working memory training, they can now remember longer instructions. Another way to look at usefulness is actually asking parents and teachers about symptoms in everyday life, the behavior of the children in everyday life, about inattentiveness and if they can follow instructions.
Here we are looking at 13 studies that did that. They get inattentive symptoms in the group doing the training and how that changes, and in the control group and how that changes, and then comparing them. If there was no effect at all, you would see a little green dot precisely at the line here. But as you see, the green dots, they end up consistently to the left, meaning here that you have a reduction of inattention in the training.
And if you add this up, you can see that this reduction is around half a standard deviation, which is pretty good. We published the first working memory training study 12 years ago. Now there are more than a hundred studies that are published on different aspects of working memory training. We will know - we will continue to learn about how to do the working memory training, what's the most effective way to do this.
But we already see that there is an effect, that it is useful in practice. And now, we have more than 50 thousand children that have benefited from working memory training in more than 20 different countries. So the science tells us about the effects, but it's also interesting to hear from the children, and here are some comments. One says that, "Now I can remember what the teacher says. I could be looking for two days! Now I can find them at once", or, "I can sit and shut out the noise from around.
When I read, I can focus; before, I couldn't do that. Thank you. Applause Translation - Italian Sono sicuro che molti di voi conoscono bene la situazione in cui entri in una stanza, poi rimani in piedi di fronte al muro, e pensi, "Che dovevo fare qui? E' un tipo di memoria molto utile. La usi non solo per ricordare pensieri e istruzioni ma anche per tenere a mente informazioni importanti quando risolvi dei problemi. Ora ve lo dimostro testando la vostra memoria di lavoro.
Ok, ora state memorizzando 4 posizioni attraverso la memoria di lavoro, in modo da poter fare qualcosa basato su quest'informazione, giusto? Piuttosto facile. Proviamo con un altro. Lo stesso compito: ricordate dove indica questa persona. Qualche volontario, nella prima fila? Se dovessi testarvi, vi ricordereste 7 elementi a malapena. Mi sono detto, "Abbiamo un problema, e penso di avere, almeno in parte, la soluzione.
Per esempio, se osservi dei musicisti, dei violinisti, vedi le aree del cervello che controllano le dita, che cambiano con la pratica. Mi sono unito ad alcuni programmatori di videogiochi per creare un programma, un videogame, dove i bambini potessero allenare la memoria di lavoro. E' quando sei vicino al tuo limite che puoi effettivamente cambiare. Era un'idea molto semplice.
Questo era un ostacolo della neuroscienza nel campo della memoria di lavoro, trattare la memoria di lavoro come un muscolo, piuttosto che una sorta di magica scatola nera. Ma ha funzionato. Possiamo forzare i limiti. Possiamo osservare i cambiamenti che avvengono nel cervello. E' importante per le persone che vivono ogni giorno? Qui vediamo 13 studi che lo hanno fatto. Prendono i sintomi di disattenzione nel gruppo di allenamento e come cambiano, e nel gruppo di verifica e come cambiano, e poi si paragonano.
Se non ci fosse alcun effetto, vedresti un piccolo puntino verde esattamente su questa linea. Abbiamo pubblicato il primo studio sulla memoria del lavoro 12 anni fa. Uno dice: "Ora posso ricordare cosa dice la maestra. Cercavo per 2 giorni! Ora posso trovarle subito", oppure: "Posso sedermi e ignorare il rumore intorno.
Quando leggo, posso focalizzare; prima, non avrei potuto farlo". I'm 25 years old. I am the kind of speaker that speaks at a slow pace and deliberately. In November of , I found something on Wikipedia that changed my life. It was the words "selective mutism. It validated something I have been struggling with for years. More precisely, learning that I had this disorder motivated me to try to overcome it. Like me and others who didn't know about this disorder, it also motivated me to spread awareness.
Selective mutism had a huge impact on my life. I suffered with this condition from childhood to adolescence and into adulthood. Unlike most babies, I was a quiet one. I didn't make babbling noises, and I didn't cry for hunger. My parents enrolled me in physical, occupational, and speech therapy, but nothing seemed to make a difference. I taught myself how to crawl. I had my favorite toy and blanket across the room, and it wasn't too much later that I learned to walk at a very slow pace.
At age two, I still wasn't talking. If I wanted something, I would grunt and point. I didn't say a single word until I was about three or four years old. I also had a separation anxiety that left me clinging onto my mom. She even spoke for me. By the time I was five, I was a chatterbox. Laughter I asked a lot of questions and wouldn't stop to listen to the answers. Laughter It was like I was starving for social interaction, because outside of home, such as school, I remained mute. My throat closed up, and my lips were sealed shut.
A teacher would ask me a question, and I stared up at her, blinking, with watery eyes. There was this silent awkwardness between us. There was a lot of pressure on me. I would look down at my desk until she told me she would come back to me later and moved on to the next kid. Only then did I feel like I could suddenly breathe. I never understood why I couldn't talk and others could. My parents and teacher didn't know the reason why either. The teacher assumed I might be autistic. My doctor evaluated me for autism, but he didn't think I was autistic.
I went to play therapy, but there was the expectation that it didn't go so well. They thought I was choosing not to speak or listen, or pretending to act helpless. I was labeled as "shy". My anxiety put me behind in my education. From kindergarten, all the way to 12th grade, I had an Individual Educational Plan, and in it, I was marked down as having a learning disability. I always thought, if it wasn't for the anxiety, I would've done well in school.
I knew that I was very smart. However, I had to go to special education to catch up with my peers. It hurt me, more than it helped me, because it affected how I felt or see myself. It lowered my self-esteem. After I heard from others how shy I was, I began to believe that shyness was part of my personality, and I couldn't change it. The anxiety developed into other problems, such as a health anxiety, and perfectionism. I wouldn't raise my hand for fear of being wrong. I figured what I had was beyond shyness. I wondered what I had been struggling with. And I waited for somebody to help me, but nobody bothered.
So my anxiety and depression got worse, isolating myself from everyone else. I began to have panic attacks, and even worse, thoughts of death. A year ago, I recovered from my darkest days. I made a commitment to myself that I would not give up. Selective mutism wasn't a curse but a gift. I joined Toastmasters. Laughter Applause It showed me the light and hope for the future. I stumbled a couple of times, but I refused to let it pull me back into the dark.
Toastmasters built my strength and confidence. I became a counselor at the Youth Playhouse Theater. I enrolled in college. Since the first day of school, I've raised my hand nearly every day. Laughter Applause Right now, I am most proud of having this opportunity, standing here before you, giving a TEDx talk. There are new challenges to face, like becoming a librarian and a bestselling author. Laughter And I will cross those paths as they come. What I am learning is that life goes at its own pace, at its own time, and in its own way.
My life started out very slow, very unsure, very silent. What I didn't realize is that for me, my life was meant to happen in small increments, unhurried and unrushed. And in a world that's impatient to move and go, it's easy to get overlooked, because there's a lot of tedium and growing at a measured, steady pace. A flower doesn't flourish overnight. It doesn't go from bud to blossom in one gigantic burst. It takes patience, time, and a whole lot of precious tedium. The real magic is in the waiting to unfurl, unfold, and fully bloom into something magnificently and beautifully wondrous.
Nel novembre del , Ho trovato qualcosa su Wikipedia che ha cambiato la mia vita. Erano le parole "mutismo selettivo". Ha confermato qualcosa con cui ho combattuto per anni. Come me e altri che non sapevano di questo disturbo, mi ha motivato a diffonderne la consapevolezza. Il mutismo selettivo ha avuto un enorme impatto sulla mia vita. A differenza di molti bambini io ero una tranquilla. Non facevo versi, e non piangevo per la fame. I miei genitori mi hanno fatto fare terapia fisica, occupazionale e del lunguaggio, ma niente sembrava che facesse differenza.
Ho imparato da sola a gattonare. Avevo il mio giocattolo preferito e la coperta dall'altra parte della stanza e non molto tempo dopo ho imparato a camminare molto lentamente. A due anni ancora non parlavo. Se volevo qualcosa, grugnivo e indicavo. Soffrivo anche l'ansia da separazione che mi faceva aggrappare a mia madre. Lei parlava persino al posto mio. Entro i 5 anni, ero diventata una chiaccherona. Risate Ho fatto moltissime domande e non smettevo di ascoltare le risposte. La mia gola si serrava, e le mie labbra erano sigillate. Un insegnante mi faceva una domanda, ed io stavo davanti a lei, guardandola con gli occhi lucidi.
C'era questo silenzio imbarazzante. E un sacco di pressione su di me. Solo allora potevo finalmente respirare. Nemmeno i miei genitori e l'insegnante sapevano il motivo. L'insegnante credeva fossi autistica. Pensavano che stessi scegliendo di non parlare o ascoltare, o fare finta di essere incapace. Ero etichettata come "timida". La mia ansia mi ha lasciato indietro nell'educazione. Dalla prima elementare, fino al liceo, ho avuto un programma di educazione personale, e in questo ero annotata per avere un disturbo di apprendimento. Ho sempre pensato, se non fosse stato per l'ansia, Avrei fatto bene a scuola.
Sapevo di essere molto intelligente. In ogni modo, dovevo avere un'educazione speciale per raggiungere i miei pari. Ha abbassato la mia autostima. L'ansia ha sviluppato altri problemi, come l'ansia della salute e il perfezionismo. Non alzavo la mia mano per paura di sbagliare.
Come sono cresciuta, ho iniziato a soffrire di agorafobia, disturbi ossessivi compulsivi e depressione clinica. Ho pensato che quello che avevo andasse oltre la timidezza. Mi sono domandata con che cosa stessi combattendo. E ho aspettato che qualcuno mi aiutasse, ma nessuno si disturbava a farlo. Ho iniziato ad avere attacchi di panico, e, ancora peggio, pensieri di morte. Un anno fa, mi sono ripresa da quei giorni bui.
Ho fatto una promessa a me stessa che non mi sarei arresa. Il mutismo selettivo non era una maledizione, ma un regalo. Ho partecipato a Toastmasters. Risate Applausi Toastmasters mi ha mostrato la luce e la speranza per il futuro. Ho esitato un paio di volte, ma mi sono rifiutata di farmi trascinare indietro nel buio. Toastmasters ha sviluppato la mia forza e confidenza. Sono diventata una consulente al Youth Playhouse Theater. Sono entrata al college. Fin dal primo giorno di scuola, ho alzato la mano quasi ogni giorno. Ci sono nuove sfide da affrontare, come diventare una bibliotecaria e un'autrice di bestseller.
Un fiore non sboccia in una notte. Non diventa da bocciolo a fiore all'improvviso. Ci vuole pazienza, tempo, e tantissima preziosa noia. Applausi English to Italian: Can a computer write poetry? This is a provocative question. You think about it for a minute, and you suddenly have a bunch of other questions like: What is a computer? What is poetry? What is creativity? But these are questions that people spend their entire lifetime trying to answer, not in a single TED Talk.
So we're going to have to try a different approach. So up here, we have two poems. One of them is written by a human, and the other one's written by a computer. I'm going to ask you to tell me which one's which. You're not going to have long to read because we haven't got long to do this speech. Have a go, start reading. Hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human. OK, most of you. Hands up if you think Poem 2 was written by a human. Very brave of you, because the first one was written by the human poet William Blake. The second one was written by an algorithm that took all the language from my Facebook feed on one day and then regenerated it algorithmically, according to methods that I'll describe a little bit later on.
But most of you got that right, it's probably a little bit easy. So let's try another test. Again, you haven't got ages to read this, so just trust your gut. Poem 1: A lion roars and a dog barks. Poem 2: Oh! So if you think the first poem was written by a human, put your hand up. And if you think the second poem was written by a human, put your hand up. It was much harder. The answer is, the first poem was generated by an algorithm called Racter, that was created back in the s, and the second poem was written by a guy called Frank O'Hara, who happens to be one of my favorite human poets.
Laughter So what we've just done now is a Turing test for poetry. The Turing test was first proposed by this guy, Alan Turing, in , in order to answer the question, can computers think? Alan Turing believed that if a computer was able to have a to have a text-based conversation with a human, with such proficiency such that the human couldn't tell whether they are talking to a computer or a human, then the computer can be said to have intelligence.
So in , my friend Benjamin Laird and I, we created a Turing test for poetry online. It's called bot or not, and you can go and play it for yourselves. But basically, it's the game we just played. You're presented with a poem, you don't know whether it was written by a human or a computer and you have to guess. So thousands and thousands of people have taken this test online, so we have results.
And what are the results? Well, Turing said that if a computer could fool a human 30 percent of the time that it was a human, then it passes the Turing test for intelligence. We have poems on the bot or not database that have fooled 65 percent of human readers into thinking it was written by a human. So, I think we have an answer to our question. According to the logic of the Turing test, can a computer write poetry?
Well, yes, absolutely it can. But if you're feeling a little bit uncomfortable with this answer, that's OK. If you're having a bunch of gut reactions to it, that's also okay because this isn't the end of the story. Let's play our third and final test. Again, you're going to have to read and tell me which you think is human.
Poem 1: Red flags the reason for pretty flags. So hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human. Whoa, that's a lot more people. So you'd be surprised to find that Poem 1 was written by the very human poet Gertrude Stein. Now before we go on, let me describe very quickly and simply, how RKCP works. So RKCP is an algorithm designed by Ray Kurzweil, who's a director of engineering at Google and a firm believer in artificial intelligence.
So, you give RKCP a source text, it analyzes the source text in order to find out how it uses language, and then it regenerates language that emulates that first text. So in the poem we just saw before, Poem 2, the one that you all thought was human, it was fed a bunch of poems by a poet called Emily Dickinson and looked at the way she used language, learned the model, and then it regenerated a model according to that same structure.
But the important thing to know about RKCP is that it doesn't know the meaning of the words it's using. The language is just raw material, it could be Chinese, it could be in Swedish, it could be the collected language from your Facebook feed for one day. It's just raw material. And nevertheless, it's able to create a poem that seems more human than Gertrude Stein's poem, and Gertrude Stein is a human.
So what we've done here is, more or less, a reverse Turing test. So Gertrude Stein, who's a human, is able to write a poem that fools a majority of human judges into thinking that it was written by a computer. Therefore, according to the logic of the reverse Turing test, Gertrude Stein is a computer. Laughter Feeling confused? I think that's fair enough. So far we've had humans that write like humans, we have computers that write like computers, we have computers that write like humans, but we also have, perhaps most confusingly, humans that write like computers.
So what do we take from all of this? Do we take that William Blake is somehow more of a human than Gertrude Stein? Or that Gertrude Stein is more of a computer than William Blake? Laughter These are questions I've been asking myself for around two years now, and I don't have any answers.
But what I do have are a bunch of insights about our relationship with technology. So my first insight is that, for some reason, we associate poetry with being human. So that when we ask, "Can a computer write poetry? How do we say who or what can be part of this category? I also believe that Alan Turing understood this, and that when he devised his test back in , he was doing it as a philosophical provocation. So my second insight is that, when we take the Turing test for poetry, we're not really testing the capacity of the computers because poetry-generating algorithms, they're pretty simple and have existed, more or less, since the s.
What we are doing with the Turing test for poetry, rather, is collecting opinions about what constitutes humanness. So, what I've figured out, we've seen this when earlier today, we saw that William Blake is more of a human than Gertrude Stein. Of course, this doesn't mean that William Blake was actually more human or that Gertrude Stein was more of a computer.
It simply means that the category of the human is unstable. This has led me to understand that the human is not a cold, hard fact. Rather, it is something that's constructed with our opinions and something that changes over time. That is to say, the category of the human is unstable. So my final insight is that the computer, more or less, works like a mirror that reflects any idea of a human that we show it.
We show it Emily Dickinson, it gives Emily Dickinson back to us. We show it William Blake, that's what it reflects back to us. We show it Gertrude Stein, what we get back is Gertrude Stein. More than any other bit of technology, the computer is a mirror that reflects any idea of the human we teach it. So I'm sure a lot of you have been hearing a lot about artificial intelligence recently.
And much of the conversation is kind of, Can we build it? Can we build an intelligent computer? Can we build a creative computer? What we seem to be asking over and over is can we build a human-like computer? But what we've seen just now is that the human is not a scientific fact, that it's an ever-shifting, concatenating idea and one that changes over time. So that when we begin to grapple with the ideas of artificial intelligence in the future, we shouldn't only be asking ourselves, "Can we build it? Ma queste sono domande alle quali le persone dedicano tutta la loro vita per rispondere, non un singolo TED Talk.
Quindi dobbiamo provare in un altro modo. Qui sopra abbiamo due poesie. Dovrete dirmi quale appartiene all'uno e all'altro. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Ok, la maggior parte di voi. Alzate le mani se pensate che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un umano. La maggior parte di voi ha indovinato, forse era troppo facile. Proviamo con un altro test. Poesia 2: Oh! Siete veramente belli! Se pensate che la prima poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano.
Ok Se pensate che la seconda poesia sia stata scritta da un essere umano, alzate la mano. Nel io e il mio amico Benjamin Laird abbiamo creato un Turing test on line per la poesia. Si chiama "bot o no", lo puoi vedere e fare per conto tuo. Ti viene mostrata una poesia, tu non sai se sia stata scritta da un essere umano o un computer e devi indovinare.
Centinaia e centinaia di persone hanno fatto questo test on line, di cui abbiamo i risultati. Quali sono i risultati? Quindi abbiamo una risposta alla nostra domanda. Facciamo il terzo e ultimo test. Di nuovo, dovrete leggere e dirmi quale ritenete essere umano. Poesia 1: Bandiere rosse la ragione di belle bandiere. Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 1 sia stata scritta da un essere umano.
Alzi la mano chi pensa che la poesia 2 sia stata scritta da un essere umano. Prima che vada avanti, lasciate che vi descriva brevemente come funziona RKCP. Quindi, si sottopone a RKCP un testo, questo lo analizza per capire come viene usato il linguaggio, e poi ricrea un linguaggio che copia il precedente.
La poesia che abbiamo visto prima, la poesia 2, che tutti pensavate fosse umana, ha preso un gruppo di poesie della poetessa Emily Dickinson, ha osservato il modo in cui ha usato il linguaggio, ha imparato il modello, e poi ha ricreato un modello secondo la stessa struttura. E' solo materiale grezzo. Risate Siete confusi? Mi sembra giusto. Quindi cosa deduciamo da tutto questo?
Risate Queste sono domande che mi sono fatto per quasi due anni ormai, e non ho ancora la risposta. Quello che ho sono parecchie idee sulla nostra relazione con la tecnologia. Come facciamo a dire chi o cosa fa parte di questa categoria? Credo anche che Alan Turing lo abbia capito, e quando aveva ideato il suo test nel , stava lanciando una provocazione filosofica. Noi gli mostriamo Emily Dickinson, lui ci restituisce Emily Dickinson. Noi gli mostriamo William Blake, lui ce lo riflette.
Sono sicuro che molti di voi hanno sentito parlare molto di intelligenza artificiale recentemente. E la maggior parte della questione era, Possiamo costruirla? Possiamo costruire un computer intelligente? Possiamo costruire un computer creativo?
My name is Maria Sundin, and I'm an astrophysicist. There are lots of connections between astrophysics and water, but today, I want to tell you about why the Earth has water at all, and that it's not so easy to find another planet if we should mess up this too badly. So I will talk about water on other planets in our Solar System, and the search for planets around other stars. Are there other terrestrial worlds out there? Are there other worlds like our planet? Well, the history of water is It started with the Big Bang. Hydrogen has been around for a long time.
Hydrogen is one of the components of water. The other component is oxygen. We breathe oxygen, and I don't know if you've thought so much about where the oxygen comes from, but oxygen is created in the interior of stars. And when the stars explode, this oxygen is spread into the Universe. On this picture you see an exploding star. Several stars had to explode before our Sun was created.
When a star is created, like our Sun - this happened about five billion years ago - there's some extra debris gathering around the star that will form the planets. Since a few stars had exploded, this debris around what was to become the Sun, had some oxygen in it, and lots of hydrogen, and these elements together are joined to form water. There's quite a lot of water in the Universe, mostly in the form of ice; liquid water is much more uncommon.
In the early days of the Earth, the Earth was bombarded by comets. Comets are I believe I've heard that about ten times the amount of water in our oceans today was bombarded on the Earth very early in the history.
So I truly believe through the process of growing your own food, as small as you want to start it, it's really up to you, and it's a project, it's okay to fail, it's okay if something doesn't grow, you try again, because I truly believe we can regain a sense of ethics for the land; we can regain a sense of self in time of need; and we can regain healing for the communities that need it so much. Allo sporco giapponese dovevo 70 dollari. Collana: Theologie lethielleux. Eighty-five works, the largest collection of drawings and engravings representing the art of the founder of Futurism. Carriola —Carretta - Se- dia sopra rotelle - Carruc- cio - Garrinola.
We have some bigger planets in our Solar System - Jupiter, Saturn - they are protecting us for the moment from lots of impacts. During the first half billion years of the Earth's existence, it was bombarded continuously with comets. So the water was brought to us by comets and by out-gassing of the material that the Earth was created from. So the water comes from space, and it has come from space in many ways, both in the material that the Earth was created from, but also, it was bombarded by comets.
So we have a very nice planet with liquid water, and that is because it's at the right distance from the Sun, so it's warm enough, and we have an atmosphere, we have air that keeps a nice pressure on the planet, so that we can have big oceans. That's not so easy to find. We also believe that the possibility of having life is very highly connected to having liquid water. We don't know how life started on the Earth, but we know very much that life is very old. As soon as the planet "calmed down", life started to exist here. I can't tell you if there's other life out in the Universe.
If I ever happen to tell anybody that I'm an astronomer, the first question I get is is there life out there? But what I hope we can do rather soon is to tell you something about are there other Earth-like planets out there, where the conditions are the same. Looking at our neighbor Mars, it is today a cold, dry, desert planet. It's smaller than the Earth. But during the time that life arose on Earth, originated here, Mars was very different. It had a huge ocean on the northern hemisphere.
It had an atmosphere. So conditions were rather similar on Mars and on the Earth. Perhaps life started on Mars as well. We don't know that as yet, but the conditions were very similar. If we talk about life in the Universe, people usually want the big spaceship landing right outside there, so we can, you know, try to communicate and stuff. But I would be almost just as intrigued if I'd found a dead bacteria or something very small life-like on Mars, because that could give us the key to the question of whether life originates if you have a place where the conditions are favorable.
The reason why Mars has changed too much is that it's smaller than the Earth. The lesser gravity means that Mars has been unable to keep its atmosphere. So, it's a very low pressure on the surface. If you were to pour out a glass of water on the surface of Mars, it would just evaporate instantly.
But there has been lots of water there, and this picture shows an old river delta on Mars. So just imagine this neighbor planet - it has had oceans, it has had rivers; it's been a very different world. So worlds can change. This means that Mars is not a very good candidate perhaps for life today, because there's no liquid water on the surface, and there's no protecting ozone layer there. Perhaps there could be some very simple life forms below the surface.
We might find out, or perhaps they are not there. But there's one place in our Solar System where liquid water might exist that's not the Earth. It's this small moon. The moon is called Europa. It's one of Jupiter's moons. If you look at Europa, it looks like a big ice ball. Why would you have liquid water out in the outer regions of the Solar System?
Well, Jupiter has approximately 60 moons; we have one. If you combine the gravity working on Europa from the big Jupiter - Jupiter is so much bigger than the Earth - and the 60 other moons, you have different forces acting on Europa all the time, heating it. There's one moon that's even closer to Jupiter that's called Io. It has constant volcanoes because there's so many forces acting on it. Europa is a little bit further from Jupiter, and it looks like a big ice ball with cracks in it. We have had a few probes out there, taking pictures of the surface of Europa.
The people who are looking at the ice claim that the surface of Europa, it looks more like the Arctic than the Antarctic. The difference, of course, is that on the Arctic, at the North Pole, you have ice floating on water. If you look at the Antarctic, you have ice lying on a continent. They say that Europa shows more features that look like ice floating on water. So perhaps, out on this small moon, could be a very… several kilometers thick crust of ice, but there may be a huge subsurface ocean there, and in that case, it's the only other place than the Earth in our Solar System where you have liquid water.
The conditions are probably quite similar to the conditions very deep in our own oceans. You have some heat from the interior of the moon. It's dark, of course, but you have liquid water, you have carbon, all the other elements that life is formed from here on the Earth, and you have energy. So, it's a very interesting place, and I hope that you will have the chance to learn more about it. Several expeditions to this moon are planned. The first thing is to try to find out is there an ocean there. And we'll see if somebody is swimming in it. If we are to leave our own Solar System - I hope we don't have to, actually - in about a billion years, the Sun is constantly increasing its luminosity, its output, its power, so actually, in about a billion years, the Earth will be too hot to have liquid water.
A billion years is a very long time. Human history is quite short, actually. Sometimes when you talk about astronomy, people think that, "Oh, we are so small and insignificant, just living on this very small planet, and having to repress things and not to think about it. But I believe we are quite remarkable. We have a very short history of science, of thinking like that, but we constantly keep asking ourselves those questions: where do we come from?
Why does everything look like it is and what can we do? What are those things shining up there? I don't say that we have all the answers as yet, but at least we know something about the And also, a little bit into the future. I hope that mankind's future will be very long; I sincerely hope so. So we have at least a billion years to solve our problems, but I think it's important to start today, but then we have to travel outwards, perhaps to Mars, perhaps to Europa. But is there some place else to go to? In , we started to find the first planets around other stars. This is not a photo; this is a drawing by an artist.
We can't take any pictures of these other planets as yet. So finding planets around other stars is a fairly new kind of science. About one year ago, we had discovered , which means that we can start to make some statistics. The fun thing is that we found so many planets that nobody has ever said that there was going to be out there, and the question was really could there be another Earth or is this the only one? There are so many really strange things out there: super Earths, hot Jupiters, ice giants.
We are trying to keep up with the nomenclature right now. With new telescopes, during , the number of discovered planets is now exceeding 2,, and we are finally getting some reports on perhaps Earth-sized planets at least. There actually seems to be quite a good chance of finding ocean planets or water worlds out there, that is planets that have no continents; just very, very deep oceans.
You have some variations of these. If you move them a little bit further from their star, you get big icy planets, ice giants. If you move them a little bit towards the stars, you get steam, some kind of sauna planets. I really want to impress upon you that Universe is always stranger than we can imagine, but it is a support of our thinking from a very long time: how common are we and our kind of planet? I mean, you are students, most of you; you can try to find out this, what's out there. Some of them might be Earth-like also.
The problem is that they are very small compared to a star, so they are hard to find. We have some different methods of trying to find them. So far, the Earth-like planets are very few, but I believe that in five years, we will know very much more about this. If we have to leave our home in a billion years, perhaps we will know where to go. Applause Translation - Italian Grazie. Mi chiamo Maria Sundin, e sono un'astrofisica. Ci sono altri mondi come il nostro pianeta?
Bene, la storia dell'acqua risale a E' iniziata col Big Bang. E quando le stelle esplodono, questo ossigeno si sparge nell'Universo. Nella foto vedete una stella esplosa. Parecchie stelle dovettero esplodere prima che fosse creato il nostro sole. Da quando un po' di stelle sono esplose, questi detriti intorno, che avrebbero formato il sole, avevano dell'ossigeno dentro, e molto idrogeno, e questi elementi insieme si sono uniti per formare l'acqua.
Nei primi tempi della terra, essa era bombardata da comete. Le comete sono Durante il primo mezzo miliardo di anni dell'esistenza della terra, era bombardata continuamente dalle comete. Ma durante il periodo in cui la vita nasceva sulla terra, Marte era molto diverso. Aveva un oceano enorme nell'emisfero nordico. Aveva un'atmosfera. Le condizioni su Marte erano simili a quelle sulla terra. Noi non lo sappiamo ancora, ma le condizioni erano molto simili. Se parliamo di vita nell'universo, le persone vorrebbero una grande astronave che atterri qui fuori per poter, sapete, comunicare e via dicendo.
Se dovessi versare un bicchiere d'acqua sulla superficie di Marte, questo evaporerebbe immediatamente. Quindi i pianeti possono cambiare. Forse potrebbero esserci alcune forme di vita sotto la superficie. E' questa piccola luna. La luna si chiama Europa. E' una delle lune di Giove. Se osservi Europa, sembra una grande palla di ghiaccio. Bene, Giove ha circa 60 lune; noi ne abbiamo una. Abbiamo avuto delle prove di questo, con delle foto alla superficie di Europa.
Se guardi l'Antartico, il ghiaccio si trova su un continente. Quindi forse, su questa piccola luna, potrebbe esserci Diverse spedizioni sono programmate verso questa luna. E vedremo se qualcuno ci sta nuotando dentro. Ma io credo che siamo davvero eccezionali. Abbiamo una storia molto breve di scienza, di pensieri come questo, ma ci facciamo continuamente queste domande: da dove veniamo? Non dico che abbiamo tutte le risposte finora, ma almeno sappiamo qualcosa sui E anche, un po' di futuro.
Nel abbiamo iniziato a trovare i primi pianeti intorno ad altre stelle. Non possiamo ancora scattare foto di questi pianeti. Circa un anno fa ne abbiamo scoperti , che significa che possiamo iniziare a fare qualche statistica. Stiamo cercando di tenerci aggiornati con la terminologia ora. Con i nuovi telescopi, nel , il numero dei pianeti scoperti sta ora superando i , e stiamo finalmente avendo notizie sui pianeti della grandezza della terra. Possono esserci alcune variazioni. Se li sposti verso le stelle, hai del vapore, delle specie di "sauna" pianeti.
Alcuni di loro potrebbero anche essere come la terra. Abbiamo diversi metodi per scoprirli. Se dovessimo lasciare la terra tra un miliardo di anni, forse sapremo dove andare.