http://illll.xsrv.jp/components/xyham-bbq-smoker-mods.php Loach te engancha y te implica en la atrocidad del desenlace, pero ya es muy tarde para mi paciencia. Se trata de la lucha de las clases bajas e inmigrates contra los poderes empresariales que les someten. Biography of famed artist Salvador Dali, focusing mainly on his relationship with girlfriend Gala and the time they spent in New York City in and his early days in Spain collaborating with filmmaker Luis Bunuel. Un grupo de mujeres reclama a las tropas milicianas su puesto en el frente.
En nombre de la libertad, las mujeres libran su propia batalla para igualarse a los derechos de los hombres en la lucha armada. Una gozada de trabajo. Lo malo es que la zambullida de Courtois en el thriller no siempre es acertada. El guionista juega bien con el punto de vista para no pillarse los dedos con afirmaciones no suficientemente demostradas.
Los lunes al sol. Es la hostia. Caye y Zulema no tardan en comprender que, aunque a cierta distancia, las dos caminan por la misma cuerda floja. De su complicidad nace esta historia. Verano de , Imperio de Carlos V. De repente, Jota ve caer del cielo a una joven que ha sufrido un accidente de moto. A consecuencia del golpe la joven sufre amnesia total; ni siquiera recuerda su nombre.
Lo mejor: Stellan Skarsgard, un Goya formidable. Una serie de brutales asesinatos a menores se propaga por la ciudad. Los funcionarios de la embajada, para evitar la avalancha de periodistas, deciden cerrar las puertas, dejando dentro a los ocupas. Planean el secuestro de la hija de un conocido industrial, durante la ceremonia de la boda, pero ello fracasa por la ineptitud de los "mutantes".
Pero ahora la chica, ya deforme, puede entrar en la banda.
Don Arturo llega a Cuba cargado de promesas y souvenirs. En su primer polvo con Yoli sufre un infarto por sobredosis de un estimulante sexual. A pesar del peligro y las amenazas, Papito cree que es una oportunidad para recuperar a su amor y acepta el trato. La cultura Rastafari, Babilonia y mucho reggae.
Los Wailers la vieron y le pidieron a los realizadores que filmaran sus giras. Por casualidad Farmer Roots, su locutor de radio favorito, les hace dedo en una emergencia por llevar a su novia enferma a un hospital. Jah Bull y Baboo por sus principios rastafaris, no creen en la medicina tradicional y convencen a Farmer Roots de llevar a su novia enferma a un conocido doctor herbalista llamado Bongo Hu. Blethyn vuelve a desatar su asombrosa capacidad para representar, con derroches de malicia, el candor, la inocencia y el despiste. Situaciones imposibles, vueltas de tuerca arbitrarias y un final tan sorpresivo que la historia y los personajes parecen otros.
After a young actress unknowingly eats her roommate's pot cupcakes, her day becomes a series of misadventures. Los chicos deciden ganar algo de dinero traficando con ella. Sin embargo, nada sale como estaba planeado y una serie de imprevistos les obliga a separarse. El periodista Kazajo debe viajar a Estados Unidos por orden de su gobierno. Basada en hechos reales..
Languages: English Estranged by the degree of corporate influence within the largest U. Cualquier parecido con la realidad no es pura coincidencia. Vive feliz con su esposa y sus cinco hijas, todas ellas solteras. Una tarde, mientras hace su reparto, conoce a Perchick, un pobre estudiante de Kiev con ideales revolucionarios.
En el interrogatorio, la mujer dice oir voces y ver visiones divinas. Languages: French, German French Resistance activist Andre Devigny is imprisoned by the Nazis, and devotes his waking hours to planning an elaborate escape Lyon, Languages: French Mouchette is a young teenager living in the tough country. Her mother is going to die, and her father does not take care of her Retrato de la triste existencia de una chica que es maltratada por su padre y humillada por la gente de su pueblo.
A mitad del camino de la vida , entre su mujer Gaelle, su joven amante Nathalie y sus principios vapuleados por el vendaval de la historia, Bruno, periodista comunista, no sabe para donde tirar. Carole Bouquet Daniel Massu Category: Franc Bruneau Isabelle Cizar Year:. Daniel Damien Jouillerot is the overweight and socially inept son of Pierre Olivier Gourmet and Genevieve Carole Bouquet , a couple who run a boarding school for troubled kids.
Daniel makes friends with Zygelman Raphael Goldman , but when Zygelman is thrown out of school after an incident involving the undergarments of a female classmate, Daniel falls in with Jean-Claude Franc Bruneau , a student with a criminal streak who brings Daniel in as an assistant in his latest illegal business venture. Basado en un hecho real. Un joven americano desaparece tras el golpe de estado de Pinochet. Un filme magistral y, sobre todo, necesario.
Pero dos hombres luchan desde dentro. Languages: Amharic, Hebrew, Frenc Esta conciencia lleva a Frank a luchar contra los despidos. En defensa de esta idea hasta boicotea la huelga de la que participa su hijo. A documentary portrait of a one-room school in rural France, where the students ranging in age from 4 to 11 are educated by a single dedicated teacher. After the end of the military dictatorship in Argentina in , Floreal is released from prison. Instead of returning to his wife Argentina, , fin de la dictadura militar.
Tigre, encargado del centro, designa a uno de sus mejores hombres para hacer el interrogatorio. Toda una muestra de dominio narrativo" M. A estos otros les mataban. Los textos de Benedetti, Juan Gelman y Oliverio Girondo intercalados con gusto, lo hacen un film interesante, intenso y liberador.
Desde el asado, hasta los maltrechos bares rioplatenses. Procurando sobre todo, prolongar la vida y el amor. En , en Madrid, sus caminos vuelven a cruzarse. Tras el encuentro, se dan cuenta de que, a pesar de que el amor sigue latente, sus destinos discurren por rumbos separados. Basada en hechos reales. Pablo Dictadura militar argentina Echarri Lautaro Delgado minutes. Languages: Thriller. Ambos forman pareja y cuando son felices, ella muere.
Zapa llega a su nueva ciudad. Pero, en apariencia, la vida del hombre que debe proteger no corre demasiado peligro. Lo que alcanzamos a ver de su vida personal es conflictivo. Existe un juego entre lo que el protagonista ve, lo que nos es permitido observar, y lo que pertenece al espacio off. Nada parece unirlos cuando se conocen y nada puede separarlos desde entonces. Encuentran a Ana, una chica sin rumbo ni ilusiones. Desde entonces son tres, amenazados y perseguidos por gente que quiere eliminarles y por otros que quieren utilizar el ejemplo de su aventura imposible. Una historia donde hay caballos domados y hombres indomables.
Nene, Gaucho y El Cuervo son atracadores de bancos profesionales. Durante el tiempo que permanecen ocultos, las relaciones personales entre la pareja Nene-Gauch o se deterioran sensiblemente. Para el delito que desencadena la trama se les suma el Cuervo Pablo Echarri en calidad de chofer. Corre Obviamente, la cosa se complica.
Pero el temporal no pasa. Los documentos falsos no llegan. Imita a un famoso cantante de tangos argentinos Polaco Goyeneche , por lo que la gente le conoce como El Polaquito. Pese a ello, El Polaquito acomete una denodada lucha contra la mafia, sin medir riesgos ni consecuencias, procurando emprender, definitivamente, el camino de amor que ha trazado junto a Pelu. Conmovedora, sincera y realista.
Los actores, todos, absolutamente magistrales. El de la inestabilidad, el trabajo en negro y el miedo a perderlo todo de un momento para otro. Inimaginable Argentina. Todos en el pueblo saben que espera en vano. Languages: Spanish Drama. Mara Caparigua, testigo de los acontecimientos, rememora aquellas dolorosas jornadas. Lutero es un hombre lleno de ilusiones.
Ante la constante amenaza de muerte a la que se ve sometido, le ayudan a escapar. Mientras tanto, la postura desafiante de Lutero ha impulsado el malestar de la gente. Su lucha espiritual se ha vuelto sangrienta y los campesinos empiezan a quemar iglesias, a romper vidrieras y a destruir reliquias. The feared bandit Cobra Verde Klaus Kinski is hired by a plantation owner to supervise his slaves Como lo oyen. Aviso: deja en estado de shock. Languages: Uno es un viejo retirado y eventual Santa Claus, el otro un profesor de historia que acaba de gastarse el sueldo en saldar sus deudas de bebida.
Holocausto nuclear. Languages: Aventuras. Esperamos al menos una pista sobre las causas del derrumbe del Imperio Maya, pero en lugar de eso tenemos a un Rambo precolombino. Years after the assassination of President George W. Bush in Chicago, an investigative documentary examines that as-yetunsolved crime. Si se tratara de John F. Bush, el actual presidente de Estados Unidos. Macy Languages: English, Spanish Year:. He saw suffering and tried to heal it.
He saw war and tried to stop it. Senator Robert F. Kennedy who was shot in the early morning hours of June 5, in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, and 22 people in the hotel whose lives were never the same. Miles de estudiantes valientes y comprometidos con la causa mostraron su rechazo contra un sistema escolar en el que se encontraban excluidos y tratados de manera injusta.
Eli, camino de clase, convence a una pareja de rockeros para hacerles unas fotos. Entonces comienzan las preguntas El ritmo seduce y adormece una historia seca, sencilla, sin concesiones: la cotidianeidad previa a la tragedia. Nos sorprende mostrando sus acciones al mismo nivel y con el mismo distanciamiento que un chico que revela fotos, o que unas alumnas que charlan en el comedor. Explicar los motivos, detallar los pormenores de los hechos, no entra en la mente del director. Scott: New York Times "Escalofriante, una obra maestra.
Una asombrosa aventura del lenguaje. No obstante, su vida se convierte en una pesadilla cuando prueba el amor prohibido y comete el crimen de pensar libremente. Languages: Nigel Hawthorne Year:. Puesta en escena impactante y turbia. Languages: English "Time brings all things to light. De nuestro pasado. De nosotros mismos. Lo mejor: la intensidad in crescendo del viaje. Lo peor: los aires de grandeza de su primera media hora. A pesar de sus nobles intenciones, consigue que el espionaje resulte aburrido. Languages: English "Life is more than the sum of its parts. A pre-operative male-to-female transsexual takes an unexpected journey when she learns that she fathered a son, now a teenage runaway hustling on the streets of New York.
Pounder 91 minutes Monica Calhoun. Su aspecto inusual y sus maneras parecen sospechosas a Brenda, la exasperada propietaria con problemas financieros.
Pero una magia excepcional opera entre las dos mujeres, transformando este solitario desierto en un maravilloso —y popular— oasis. Hope can set you free. Mark Thackeray es un profesor negro de una escuela de los suburbios de Londres donde predominan los estudiantes rebeldes. Copa Volpi a la mejor actriz Imelda Staunton. Vera Drake vive con su marido Stan y sus hijos, Sid y Ethel. No tienen dinero, pero son felices, y se sienten una familia unida. Vera se dedica completamente a esta familia trabrajadora, pero tiene un secreto: ayuda a jovencitas a practicar abortos, una actividad ilegal.
Una noche una tormenta obliga a su marido a traer a casa a un vecino, el Dr.
See below for discussion of the report. See also Gibson, Paracuellos, pp. Gallego, Madrid, p. Carrillo Memorias, pp. Barcelona: Argos Vergara, p. Graham, The Spanish Republic at War, p. Boris Volodarsky to the author, 14 June Jorge M. Moscow: Editorial Progreso, pp. Kolpakidi and Dmitri P. Castro Delgado, Hombres, pp.
For overall figures, see Gibson, Paracuellos, pp. Gibson, Paracuellos, pp. Carrillo interview with Gibson, Paracuellos, pp.
Elorza and Bizcarrondo, Queridos camaradas, p. Encinas Moral, ed. Carrillo, En marcha, pp. Graham, Socialism and War, pp. Chapter 3: A Fully Formed Stalinist: — Jacq Serrano, Maquis, pp. Serrano, Maquis, p. Pike, Jours de gloire, pp. Marco Carretero, Guerrilleros, p. Nuestra Bandera, No. David J. Mundo Obrero, 29 January Arriba, 30 November Foreign Relations of the United States , V, pp. Arriba, 28 March Ya, 6 July ; Arriba, 5, 6 July Marco Carretero, Guerrilleros, pp.
I am grateful to Michel Lefevbre forproviding me with a copy of these interviews with his father. Ribelles de la Vega, Luis Montero Sabugo, pp. Gros, Abriendo camino, pp. Chapter 4: The Elimination of the Old Guard: — Mundo Obrero, 10 November, 8 December Alba, El Partido, pp. Caminal, Comorera, pp. A slightly expurgated version of his report was also published as apamphlet with the same title. Reuniones CC, 5 vols, I, Tomo 7. Carrillo denied that he had made the remark: Carrillo, Memorias, p.
Chapter 5: The Solitary Hero: — Madrid:Ediciones 99, pp. Editorial Planeta, pp. Losa, Caza de rojos, pp. Carmen Grimau in correspondence with the author. Urban, ed. Santiago Carrillo, Discurso ante una asamblea de militantes del Partido n. Carrillo, Nuevos enfoques, pp. Vanguardia Obrera, No. Mundo Obrero,No. Mundo Obrero, 5 February Solanum storkii C. A—B drawn from Heiser Illustration by Margaret Tebbs. The inflorescences of members of the Dulcamaroid clade, as in most Solanaceae , are terminal with a subtending lateral bud. The inflorescence usually occupies a position at the end of branches, but if growth continues from the axillary bud it can appear lateral.
In some species the inflorescences are borne on what appear to be short shoots with very reduced leaves e. Solanum inodorum is extreme in this regard with the flowering shoots seeming to be axillary in larger leaves. In fact, the inflorescence is terminal on a short shoot with much reduced, almost bract-like, leaves. The basic inflorescence, as in all other species of Solanum , is a scorpoid cyme with a variety of branching patterns.
In the Dulcamaroid clade inflorescences are usually very large and highly branched. Lippman et al. They suggest that delays in floral termination perhaps mediated by S , or the genetic pathway that S defines coupled with sequential expression of AN anantha , another tomato inflorescence mutant provide a developmental framework for the modulation of sympodial branching in the entire family. Solanum salicifolium Phil. In any given inflorescence only a few flowers are open at a time up to about in species with large inflorescences like Solanum sanchez-vegae.
The pedicel scars are irregularly and relatively widely spaced, and the space between scars is generally greater more basally in the inflorescence. Differentiation between the peduncle and the end of the shoot is difficult to determine in most species, but in some species e. Solanum aligerum Schltdl. A drawn from Martinez S. Solanum pubigerum Dunal.
A—E drawn from Reveal et al. The pedicels of species in the Dulcamaroid clade are distinctive in being inserted into a tiny sleeve of tissue that appears to arise from the inflorescence rhachis see Figure 2c in Knapp ; this is one of the few morphological synapomorphies for the clade. This is most pronounced in the species of the Solanum nitidum group, in which the sleeve is sometimes up to 2 mm long and forms a small cup in which the base of the pedicel sits Figure 2C.
In most species the pedicel is articulated slightly above the base, leaving a small peg or cup on the inflorescence axis; this accentuates the zig-zag appearance of the inflorescence architecture that results from sympodial growth. The colour of the pedicel sleeve is sometimes e. Inflorescences of members of the Dulcamaroid clade. A—G drawn from Clark and J. Clark photographs taken in the field H drawn from Wright , NY. Pedicel orientation in the species of the group is generally deflexed or slightly nodding at anthesis. In fruit, those species with pendent inflorescences generally have deflexed pedicels, but shrubby species such as those of the Solanum nitidum group have erect pedicels in fruit e.
The calyx is typically sympetalous and 5-merous with the tube and lobes more or less equal in size. The shape of the calyx lobes varies considerably and is a useful character for species identification. Lobes vary from mere undulations of the calyx rim e. Solanum imbaburense S. Knapp ; apices are usually acute to acuminate, but are occasionally rounded e. Pubescence of the calyx tube and lobes usually parallels that of the pedicels and inflorescence rhachis, but is generally sparser. The corolla of members of the Dulcamaroid clade is sympetalous, 5-merous and regular, in common with the vast majority of Solanum species.
Color is either white or varying shades of purple; many species have populations of both color forms, and in Solanum dulcamara these have been described many times at the infraspecific level. Solanum laxum growing in full sun often has pale violet rather than the more commonly encountered white flowers, but the degree to which flower color is environmentally or genetically determined is not clear.
At the base of the corolla tube is often a ring or irregular area of differently colored tissue refered to as the eye. In the group of species found in the temperate zone e. This character can be difficult to see in herbarium specimens. The center part of Solanum flowers is usually UV absorbent and seen by bees as a dark guide to the prominent anther cone Buchmann et al. Solanum endoadenium has a prominent green eye, but the tissue is not shiny, perhaps indicating it is not homologous with the similar structure in Solanum dulcamara see Figure 5. Flowers of members of the Dulcamaroid clade.
A Solanum lyratum Knapp et al. Corolla shape varies from deeply stellate Solanum uncinellum , Figures 5 , to pentagonal Solanum wallacei , Figure Solanum macbridei is unusual in having campanulate corollas Figure The tips are usually somewhat cucullate e. In those species with dense overall pubescence, the abaxial surface of the corolla lobes is also usually densely pubescent.
Corolla diameter varies from approximately 1 cm Solanum endoadenium to almost 5 cm Solanum wallacei ; most species have corollas that range from 1. Solanum amygdalifolium Steud. Solanum dulcamaroides Poir. Solanum lyratum Thunb. Solanum macbridei Hunz. Solanum uncinellum Lindl. A—F drawn from Hammel et al.
Solanum wallacei A. May G drawn from Walker Some species of the Dulcamaroid clade have pores that do not elongate at all e. Anthers in the group are generally ellipsoid, but those of Solanum dulcamara and Solanum uncinellum are elongate and tapering and those of Solanum dulcamaroides and Solanum boldoense are almost spheroidal. The anthers of Solanum aureum occasionally appear pubescent due to the prescence of elongate papillae on the dorsal surface see Figure All five anthers in most of the species of the group are morphologically identical; some taxa, however, have filaments of different length, making the flowers zygomorphic.
This filament length difference ranges from quite subtle Solanum seaforthianum , Figure 86 to very conspicuous Solanum uncinellum , Figure 5F , Flowers of Solanum flaccidum Vell. Dean Solanum seaforthianum Andrews. Some plants of Solanum lyratum have dark purple anthers; this appears not to be related to light or exposure but may be genetic.
I have not seen dark anthers in any other member of the group, but anther color is variable in the Cyphomandra clade section Pachyphylla Dunal, Bohs Nitrogen and protein content of pollen grains is the same as for other species of Solanum Buchmann , and is typical for a buzz-pollinated plant. The gynoecium is typically bicarpellate; the carpels are fused in a superior ovary with axillary placentation.
The ovary is usually conical to globose or slightly ellipsoid and usually glabrous; if pubescent; the trichomes are only sparsely present at the apex e. The flowers lack nectaries, as do all other species of Solanum. The style is simple, straight or slightly curved, glabrous or variously pubescent, and is exserted beyond the anthers in all but Solanum luculentum S. Knapp see below. The stigma is capitate e. The ovules are anatropous and non-arillate.
As with all species of Solanum , the fruit is a bicarpellate berry. Fruits of members of this group are usually brightly colored and juicy see Figure 6 for respresentative photographs. Many species change fruit color through maturation; for example, Solanum nitidum has green immature fruits that pass through a stage of being bright red before turning dark purple at full maturity. This makes it difficult to use fruit color as an identification aid, and in Solanum uncinellum fruit color has been variously recorded on labels as blue, dark purple, red and white.
Without in-depth field studies it is unclear whether these represent populational or regional differences or maturational changes. Fruit surface morphology is usually shiny, but in some species the pericarp is distinctly dull and non-shiny e. Solanum endoadenium has bright orange fruits that appear to dry on the plant and release the seeds see Figure 6D ; this has not been studied in detail. Fruit diameter varies from less than 1 cm Solanum angustifidum , Solanum viscosissimum , Solanum pittosporifolium Hemsl.
Fruits of members of the Dulcamaroid clade. A Solanum pittosporifolium Knapp et al. Seed morphology has proved very useful in Solanum taxonomy. Enzymatic digestion of the outer testal walls reveals great variety in the morphology and structure of the lateral testal cell walls, varying both between and within groups Whalen ; Lester and Durrands ; Knapp and Helgason He described the development of the integument and recognised outer and inner layers of the seeds.
Seeds of members of the Dulcamaroid clade are oval, obovate or kidney-shaped in outline and flattened laterally. The cells of the outer epidermal layer in some species e. These hair-like outgrowths often greatly enlarge the outer layer of the integument and the seed coat appears pubescent; seed measurements here include these projections. In seeds from mature fruits the pseudohairs are translucent, connate or fused laterally to each other and tightly adpressed to the epidermis giving a silky appearance to the seed surface, or if long and distinct produce a hairy and shaggy seed surface.
In some species e. The testal cells form a reticulate or honeycomb pattern with cell outlines at the basal portions deeply sinuous and irregular e. Seed number per berry varies from few fewer than 10, Solanum leiophyllum Benth. Seed size varies from 1. Color varies from yellow or pale brown to dark brown.
Habitats and distribution. Members of the Dulcamaroid clade are both tropical and temperate, and occur in a wide range of habitats from deserts to lowland rainforest. Taxa occurring in the temperate areas of Asia and Europe occupy a wide range of habitats and elevations; Solanum dulcamara , for example, is found on sea coasts and extends into high elevations in the mountains of Italy and the Alps. Genetic work done in the early 20 th century Turesson revealed some hereditary component to the immense morphological variation in this species, but habitat is also important Turrill Solanum lyratum has been collected from sea level to more than m and is found in many forest types and even in weedy gardens in cities.
Most of the species of the group are not of conservation concern see Table 3 and species treatments but some have narrow distributions and are assessed as endangered or vulnerable. Conservation assessments for members of the Dulcamaroid clade calculated using methods in Moat For details see individual species treatments. Most species in the group are South American, and in the Americas the species of the group range from southern Oregon USA to central Argentina and onto the islands of the Caribbean. In South America highest species diversity occurs in two areas, the forests of Atlantic coastal Brazil and the eastern slope of the Andes from Colombia to Argentina see Table 2.
This circum-Amazonian pattern of species richness is common in other groups of Solanum Knapp b ; endemism follows the same pattern. Argentina has the highest species diversity in the Dulcamaroid clade with Peru and Ecuador very close behind , due in part to the mixing of species from these two centres of species richness, in addition to several endemics or near endemics along the Andean flanks. Geographical distribution of New World species of the Dulcamaroid clade species in square brackets are introduced or cultivated.
Floral biology and pollination. Most Solanum species have hermaphroditic flowers, but in some groups derived sexual systems are common Whalen and Costich ; Anderson and Symon ; Knapp et al. Andromonoecy is very common in the Leptostemonum clade Whalen and Costich ; Levin et al. Dioecy is phylogenetically widespread in Solanum , with dioecious species occurring primarily in the spiny solanums subgenus Leptostemonum Bitter, Anderson and Symon , but also in the non-spiny solanums in the Potato Anderson and Levine , the Geminata Knapp et al.
Knapp, pers. Solanum luculentum of the Dulcamaroid clade has all the morphological correlates of a dioecious species, but has not yet been examined in detail to determine whether or not it is indeed truly dioecious. If so, Solanum luculentum represents the independent evolution of dioecy in an otherwise completely hermaphroditic group, rather than within a predominantly andromonoecious clade, as is common in the spiny solanums Martine et al.
The evolution of dioecy in a group with strictly hermaphroditic flowers has also occurred in the Potato clade e. Self-compatibility SC is widespread in Solanum Whalen and Anderson and is essentially irreversible once acquired from the ancestral self-incompatible SI state , Only three species of the Dulcamaroid clade have been assessed for their compatibility status: Solanum dulcamara , Solanum laxum and Solanum wallacei Goldberg et al.
In greenhouses and field plots in Nijmegen Netherlands self-crosses of Solanum dulcamara proved difficult and set few seed G. There may be a geographic component to self-compatibility in Solanum dulcamara ; those reporting SC have used American collections naturalised and those reporting SI have used European accessions. Buchmann et al. That Solanum wallacei , an island endemic with a very narrow range, is SC is not at all surprising; it will be interesting to assess again the compatibility status of its close relative Solanum umbelliferum , which has been thought to be SI Buchmann et al.
Goldberg et al. It appears from the limited data available in the Dulcamaroid clade that widespread, clonal species e. Flowers of all members of the Dulcamaroid clade are typical for Solanum and are buzz-pollinated by a wide variety of bees. In temperate regions species are visited by various species of bumblebees Bombus ; Solanum dulcamara and cultivated Solanum laxum and Solanum crispum in Europe are both visited by several species of bumblebees pers.
I have also observed bumblebees visiting several of the montane tropical species of the group e. Pollen grains left on the anthers or near the pores by vibratile bees were collected by the gleaning bees from Solanum umbelliferum Andrena spp. These bees are not as efficient at effecting pollination, however, as they are not necessarily in contact with the stigma on every visit. Habitats of members of the Dulcamaroid clade. My goal for this revision has been to provide species circumscriptions for the members of this large and morphologically variable clade, while clearly highlighting those taxa where further in-depth research would be useful.
Biological Mayr , phylogenetic Cracraft and the host of other finely defined species concepts see Mallet are almost impossible to apply in practice when dealing with large, complex groups such as the clades of Solanum , and are therefore of little utility in a practical sense. It is important, however, to clearly state the criteria for the delimitation of species, rather than dogmatically follow particular ideological lines see Luckow ; Davis My decisions relied on clear morphological discontinuities to define the easily distinguished species.
Specific characters used for recognition are detailed with each species description and in the keys. Potential reasons for variability and intergradation are recent divergence and hybridization. In this revision I have tried to emphasise similarities between populations instead of differences, which so often reflect incomplete collecting or local variation. I have not recognised subspecies or varieties, as I do not feel these are useful categories, either in a taxonomic or evolutionary sense. The variation is better described and documented, rather than formalised with a name which then encumbers the literature.
I have been conservative in my approach, recognising as distinct entities those population systems sets of specimens that differ in several morphological characteristics. Minor differences in morphology, distribution, habitat, and ecology are important in some groups, where the common groundplan for the species is very similar. On the other hand, I have recognised several extremely widespread, polymorphic species, e.
In these species variation exists in certain characters, but the pattern of variation is such that no reliable units can be consistently extracted. In these cases the variability within and between populations seems more important than the variations of the extremes other taxonomists have recognised as distinct. In these cases I have described the variation, realizing that others may wish to interpret it differently. Many of the species of the Dulcamaroid clade are common and widespread e.
All numbered collections are cited in the Index to Numbered Collections. Any collections without specific numbers are cited as s. Mellon Foundation, was an invaluable resource for images of type specimens, and many of the isotypes identified here were discovered via the website. Many type specimens in European herbaria were photographed in the early 20 th century by J. These photographs are cited here with a F negative number F neg. Conrad V.
Morton of the Smithsonian also took photographs of many type and other nomenclaturally important specimens, these are cited as Morton negative numbers. With all specimens of types I have cited the barcode or accession number of each sheet if possible. Barcodes are cited with no space between the herbarium acronym and the number e. Some herbaria such as MA, have barcodes and accession numbers that are the same, these are cited as on the barcode label e. In the specimen citations I have selected specimens that represent the species range, and present these citations in alphabetical order by country rather than a geographical order.
For those taxa that are introduced and often naturalised Solanum laxum and Solanum seaforthianum I have separated the specimen citations into those from countries in the native range or presumed native range and those from countries where the species is introduced or naturalised. P de Candolle] and the names thus attributed only to Dunal.
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When threat status as determined by EOO and AOO differ, I have been conservative and selected the higher more threatened assessment as the overall assessment of the species for an example, see Solanum alphonsei , and have used my knowledge of the biology of these species to suggest amendments to these calculated values. These assessments are not complete in the sense of IUCN , but are indicative of the threat status for the taxa treated here. Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines, with or without prickles, glabrous or pubescent with unbranched or branched including stellate , often glandular hairs.
Inflorescences cymose, branched or unbranched. Flowers usually perfect, 4- 5-merous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx campanulate, sometimes accrescent in fruit, corolla rotate, campanulate, stellate, or urceolate, white, green, yellow, pink, or purple; stamens equal or unequal, the filaments generally short and inserted at the corolla base, the anthers basifixed, equal or unequal, blunt or tapered toward apex, opening by terminal pores, these sometimes expanding into longitudinal slits, or introrsely longitudinally dehiscent with age in sect.
Lycopersicon ; ovary 2-carpellate; ovules many; style articulated at base or above the base, usually slender; stigma capitate to elongate-clavate. Fruit a berry, usually fleshy but occasionally dry, usually many-seeded, the seeds often flattened; embryo curved, embedded in abundant endosperm. The generic description applies to Solanum including all those genera traditionally segregated from it: Cyphomandra Bohs , Lycopersicon Spooner et al. Data from chloroplast DNA sequences strongly support the inclusion of these segregates in a monophyletic Solanum Bohs Some workers e.
Dulcamara Moench, Meth. Solanum section Dulcamara Moench Dumort. Solanum subsection Holophylla G. Don, Gen. Lectotype species, designated by Seithe : Solanum cervantesii Lag. Solanum section Holophylla G. Solanum subsection Dulcamara Moench Dunal, Prodr. Solanum grad. Dulcamara Moench Dunal, Prodr.
Anthoresis Dunal, Prodr. Subdulcamara Dunal, Prodr. Solanum section Andropedas Rusby, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 4: Solanum section Dulcamara Moench Bitter, Bot. Solanum section Anthoresis Dunal Bitter, Bot. Solanum subsection Lysiphellos Bitter, Repert. Regni Veg. Type species: Solanum decorticans Sendtn. Solanum section Lysiphellos Bitter Seithe, Bot. Solanum section Jasminosolanum Seithe, Bot.
Solanum subsection Nitidum A. Child, Feddes Repert. Solanum section Californisolanum A. Vines or lax shrubs, woody at the base; stems weak and clambering or erect, sometimes winged, pubescent or glabrous, the trichomes unbranched or branched, never strictly stellate.
Sympodial units plurifoliate. Leaves simple or pinnatifid, sometimes deeply so such that the leaves appear pinnate, green, glabrous or variously pubescent with branched or unbranched trichomes, the branched trichomes sometimes very compact and echinoid multangulate ; petioles well developed, in vines often twining to aid in climbing. Inflorescences terminal, sometimes appearing lateral due to stem growth, simple or more usually many times branched, with up to flowers, not bracteate; peduncle present, often poorly distinguished from the leafy stem; pedicels inserted in a short sleeve of inflorescence tissue, articulated at the base inside the sleeve or just beneath the calyx Solanum boldoense.
The pharmacopoeia also includes 49 animal remedies derived from sources such as pigs, slugs, and humans. Viollet-le-duc Arquiteeto del Gobierno El viaje y los documentos del autor. Manila se quedan se venden con una prima de medio real fuerte. In the methodology for preparing the manuals at HC-Unicamp since , the premise was to obtain a document that is participatory, multidisciplinary, focused on work processes integrated with institutional rules, with objective and didactic descriptions, in a standardized format and with electronic dissemination. Rules for the use of the conditional tenses. Cuff explores five cases that span the period from the s, when federal support for slum clearance and public housing caused convulsions near downtown, to a huge s' mixed-use development on one of Los Angeles's last remaining wetlands.
Flowers 5-merous, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, usually perfect, one species probably dioecious Solanum luculentum ; calyx 5-parted, glabrous or pubescent; corolla 5-parted, rotate to stellate, white to purple, sometimes with spots at the base of the lobes; stamens 5, the filaments equal or unequal, glabrous or pubescent; anthers yellow or occasionally purple, ellipsoid or tapering, separate to tightly connivent, dehiscing by terminal pores, these usually elongating to slits with age; ovary globose to conical, usually glabrous, occasionally pubescent; style straight or slightly curved; stigma capitate to clavate.
Fruit a globose berry, yellowish green to red, orange or black when ripe, glabrous, the pericarp thin, shiny or matte; calyx lobes in fruit not accrescent. Seeds flattened, often appearing hairy from outgrowths of the lateral cell walls. Most members of the clade possess a combination of other characters that, although occurring elsewhere in Solanum , together distinguish the group; these are, 1 vining habit, 2 twining petioles, 3 large, terminal, branched inflorescences, 4 brightly colored fruits, 5 pinnatifid leaves at least in juvenile plants.
In the absence of a well-sampled phylogenetic study see above , I have divided the Dulcamaroid clade into a series of morphologically and geographically delimited groups see Table 4. These should not be interpreted as monophyletic groups or taxa, and future phylogenetic analyses including more species will certainly reveal structure within this large and variable clade. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses with a number of plastid regions T. I have included them here on gross morphological grounds whilst realising their evolutionary relationships may be with other taxa.
Species are presented here in alphabetical order without regard to putative evolutionary relationships. Informal species groups in the Dulcamaroid clade. For country distribution see Table 2 and individual species descriptions. In the species treatments here I have cited all type specimens I have seen with barcodes or accession numbers if possible see Materials and Methods for citation style. Those specimens I have not seen but whose existence is known from the literature or from others are indicated as n. Some of the infraspecific taxa, particularly in the widespread European species Solanum dulcamara were described from floristic accounts and did not have specimens cited in their original descriptions; I have not neotypified these.
This synoptic set of observations is intended to simplify the task of identifying a member of this large and highly variable group. Sterile plants of members of the Dulcamaroid clade are often difficult to identify, and even plants with either flowers or fruit can be difficult. I have included many leaf and whole plant characters so that sterile plants can be in many cases identified to a choice of a few taxa. Once this step has been done the user can read the descriptions and match distributions considering other characters not used in this list to the plant in hand.
In the following list, character states are followed by a list of species epithets in alphabetical order. Epithets in parentheses indicate that the state is relatively uncommon in that species. Species that vary in a particular character, for example in leaf trichome distribution, will be listed for each state present in that species. Not all relevant characters are considered; for example, I have listed tapering and globose anthers, but not ellipsoid anthers — common in most species in the group.
In this way diagnostic states can be easily seen. A question mark? Many species of the group are rather narrow endemics, occurring in only one country or region. Table 2 lists species recorded for each country of the Neotropics; this list must be used with care, as new collecting is constantly revealing range extensions. Shrubs or small trees: aligerum , angustifidum , coalitum , crispum , cutervanum , endoadenium , imbaburense , leiophyllum , macbridei , muenscheri , nitidum , pubigerum , ruizii , salicifolium , stenophyllum , storkii , umbelliferum , valdiviense , viscosissimum , wallacei.
Stems winged or strongly angled: aligerum , amygdalifolium , valdiviense , salicifolium. Stems warty or knobbly from persistent leaf bases: coalitum , dichroandrum , endoadenium. Stems and leaves with golden trichomes: aureum , ruizii , cutervanum , stenophyllum , storkii.
Glandular trichomes present anywhere on the plant incl. Dendritic deer-antler-like trichomes present: agnoston , aligerum , aureum , calileguae , coalitum , crispum , dichroandrum , imbaburense , kulliwaita , leiophyllum , macbridei , muenscheri , nitidum , sanchez-vegae , stenophyllum , umbelliferum , uncinellum , valdiviense. Most leaves pinnatifid or lobed on mature reproductive stems: alphonsei , angustifidum , calileguae , lyratum , seaforthianum , septemlobum , salicifolium , triquetrum , uncinellum , umbelliferum , viscosissimum. Leaves coriaceous and shiny: agnoston , coalitum , imbaburense , inodorum , leiophyllum , luculentum , macbridei , odoriferum , sanchez-vegae.
Venation not visible on upper surface: agnoston , inodorum , luculentum. Lower surface of leaves with tufts of trichomes in vein axils: agnoston , aligerum , flaccidum , laxum. Both leaf surfaces densely pubescent with simple never branched trichomes: aspersum , endoadenium , umbelliferum , wallacei.
Inflorescences simple: umbelliferum , salicifolium , valdiviense. Flower buds inflated: boldoense , dulcamaroides , seaforthianum , laxum. Flowers with shiny green spots at the base of the corolla lobes: dulcamara , endoadenium , lyratum , pittosporifolium , septemlobum , umbelliferum , wallacei. Calyx lobes long-triangular or with long tips: aligerum , alphonsei , crispum , imbaburense , kulliwaita , leiophyllum , muenscheri , nitidum , ruizii , salicifolium , stenophyllum , triquetrum.
Calyx lobes square quadrate : aligerum , pyrifolium , valdiviense. Calyx lobes lacking mere enations of the calyx rim : boldoense , dulcamaroides , sousae. Filaments unequal: angustifidum , flaccidum, seaforthianum , sousae , uncinellum. Mature berries red: boldoense , crispum , dulcamara , dulcamaroides , inodorum , lyratum , nitidum , pittosporifolium , pubigerum , salicifolium , seaforthianum , septemlobum , triquetrum , uncinellum , valdiviense.
Mature berries orange or yellowish green: aspersum? Mature berries black or purple: aligerum , amygdalifolium , angustifidum , aureum , coalitum , cutervanum , dichroandrum , flaccidum , imbaburense , kulliwaita , laxum , leiophyllum , macbridei , muenscheri , nitidum immature , odoriferum , pyrifolium , ruizii , sanchez-vegae , sousae?
North America and Mexico native or naturalised, not in cultivation : aligerum , dulcamara , dulcamaroides , pubigerum , sousae , triquetrum , umbelliferum , wallacei. Central America: aligerum , dulcamaroides , muenscheri , pubigerum , seaforthianum , storkii. SE Brazil: flaccidum , inodorum , laxum , odoriferum , viscosissimum. Above treeline in Andes: aureum , coalitum , imbaburense , leiophyllum , macbridei , nitidum , stenophyllum. Eurasia: dulcamara , lyratum , pittosporifolium , septemlobum.
Cultivated for ornament in both New and Old World often escaped : laxum , seaforthianum. Figure 8. Solanum agnoston S. A, B drawn from Holm-Nielsen et al. Differs from Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp in bearing tufts of dendritic trichomes in the vein axils of leaf undersides and elongate, densely pubescent buds; differs from Solanum laxum Spreng. Jaramillo et al. Bark of older stems pale greyish brown, glabrous. Leaves simple, 2—6. Buds narrowly ellipsoid, the corolla strongly exserted from from calyx before anthesis. Flowers all perfect, 5-merous. Calyx tube 1—1. Corolla known only from buds, ca.
Filaments with the tube ca. Ovary glabrous; style and stigma not seen. Fruit a globose berry, ca. Seeds ca. Chromosome number not known. Figure 9. Growing in dry scrub and high elevation forests in interAndean valleys at near m elevation. Data deficient DD ; known from only two specimens, assessment not possible. Solanum agnoston is known from only two localities, both along the main highway from Loja to Cuenca in southern Ecuador. It superficially resembles Solanum laxum , a species of southern Brazil that is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical environments, but differs from it in the dendritic trichomes of the lower leaf surfaces and the elliptic, pubescent buds.
The leaves of the paratype specimen Holm-Nielson et al. Label data on both specimens indicate the flowers are violet, but both duplicates of Jaramillo et al. Holm-Nielson et al. Figure Type: Bolivia. La Paz: Prov. Larecaja, Sorata, m, May , G. Solanum manicatum Bitter, Bot. Type: Peru. Ayacucho: Prov. Weberbauer holotype: B [F neg. Solanum dotanum C. Field Mus. Type: Costa Rica. Standley holotype: US [US]. Solanum grossum C.
Morton, Revis. Argentine Sp. Solanum Type: Argentina. Schiede s. Small tree or shrub, 1. Stems glabrous to densely pubescent with simple or dendritic uniseriate trichomes 0. Bark of older stems dark reddish brown, shiny. Leaves simple, 3. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, 4—15 cm long, many times branched, with 10—60 flowers, glabrous to pubescent, the trichomes simple or dendritic, ca. Buds pointed ovoid or turbinate with an apical nipple, the corolla strongly exserted from the calyx tube before anthesis.
Calyx tube 1. Corolla 1. Filament tube minute, the free portion of the filaments 0. Ovary glabrous; style 6. Fruit a globose berry, 1—1. Seeds 20—40 per berry, 2. Chromosome number: not known. Common from Mexico to Argentina, from — m. A gap in the distribution of Solanum aligerum occurs from Panama to Peru see discussion. Solanum aligerum has been collected most commonly in pine-oak forests in Mexico and adjacent Central America, and in cloud forests in the Andes. See Moat for explanation of measurements.
Solanum aligerum has the widest latitudinal range of all the New World members of the Dulcamaroid clade, occurring all down the cordilleras of both continents, but with a distinct gap between western Panama and Peru see below. In spite of this huge range, the species is remarkably uniform in general aspect, but varies considerably in pubescence. In Bolivia, several populations have been found with plants that are uniformly and densely pubescent with dendritic trichomes over all plant parts; at one time I thought these were a new species and annotated some material as such, but in studying the Dulcamaroid clade in detail it has become apparent that these plants are merely pubescence extremes in this widespread species.
They agree with other Bolivian material of Solanum aligerum in all other respects.
It would be interesting to investigate if this pubescence variation is due to some habitat variation not apparent from herbarium labels. Solanum aligerum is extremely similar to Solanum pubigerum , with which it broadly overlaps in central Mexico and Central America. The two species can be very difficult to distinguish, but Solanum aligerum has dendritic trichomes concentrated in the vein axils or over the entire lamina, while Solanum pubigerum has simple trichomes found all along the midrib on the leaf undersides.
Flowers are larger in Solanum aligerum with the calyx lobes quadrate rather than deltate this can be difficult to see , and the berries of Solanum aligerum are also larger and usually black or blackish green, rather than red, when ripe. The stems of S. In general the two species appear to not occupy the same forest types where their ranges overlap. The absence of Solanum aligerum in Colombia and Ecuador could indicate the northern and southern populations are in the process of differentation.
This disjunction is unusual, but has also been found in the potato species Solanum morelliforme Bitter that is disjunct between Guatemala and Bolivia Simon et al. Solanum morelliforme populations from south of the disjunction were morphologically as here in Solanum aligerum and molecularly identical. Without the locality being revealed, it is impossible to distinguish a plant of Solanum aligerum as coming from any particular area, so I am confident that these all represent a single taxon. Molecular studies at the population and geographical level may reveal some differentiating characters.
The holotype of Solanum aligerum was destroyed in Berlin and no duplicates have been traced. I have selected that in G as a lectotype, as that is where Mueller worked. Costa Rica. San Isidro del General, 12 Aug , Spellman et al. El Salvador.