In the meantime I can only say that as to my nephew, Mr. Williams, though I have from long knowledge and experience of him a high opinion of his abilities, activity and integrity, I will have no hand in his appointment or in approving it, not being desirous of his being in any way concerned in that business. Barclay was at leisure from more pressing business, I rendered to him all my accounts, which he examined and stated methodically. By his statement he found a balance due me on the 4 of May , of livres nineteen sols 3 den.
Printed in Sparks' Benjamin Franklin, Vol. Ill, p. Benjamin Franklin and Germany 21 mistake I had overcharged — about three pence halfpenny sterHng. He never swerved in the great cause of independence, even at the cost of war, which was in every respect opposed to his peace-loving nature.
His diplomatic correspondence may not be as entertaining as that of Adams from Holland, or the Spanish letters of Jay, which he enlivened with pithy bits of European gossip, yet those of Dr. Franklin are unique in clearness of style, brevity, and all the essentials for the accomplishment of their varied purposes. In short, they are just as typical and characteristic of the many- sided and versatile personality, as is the Autobiography or his more personal letters. They teem with a wholesome wit, a healthy wisdom, coupled with the knack of saying just the tactful thing at the critical moment.
He knew to the most exact fraction the capacity of the heavy sack of diplomatic nuts and filled it so that it could stand upright, after he had carefully balanced it, and better still he could crack the nuts within and share them with his countrymen most generously. He always hit the nail upon the head, and if the hammer slipped and hit his fingers, he hunted some timely maxim and kept his own counsel. The Continental Assembly could not have shown sounder judgment than the selection of such a citizen as Franklin for such an important foreign post.
For forty years he had been busied in Pennsylvania politics. No man was better acquainted with the conditions of not only this state, but of practically all the habitable sections of the other states. In the French struggle against the forces of England, he had arranged for the transportation of troops by securing the services of the much needed wagons of the Pennsylvania farmers.
Was his brain ever free from some new innovation for the betterment of the Colonies? The results of his well devised schemes are widely known, to the present day throughout the world. Not only had the State of Pennsylvania felt the benefits of his services, but for a number of years he had been the spokesman of Continental affairs in the mother country, as representative of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Georgia. Experience had prepared and reared him in all the intricate arts of efficiency for his position as the American com- missioner at the court of France.
One of the characteristics, which assured his unfailing success, was, as De Witt expresses it, "he could see in the future and live in the present". First Visit, Franklin had visited Paris in and again in , as an honored guest, and he was welcomed back in , with a cordiality which proved his growing and permanent popularity. Europe was the target for the guns of American diplomatists. From the coffers of these Powers must come the gold for carrying on the struggle at home.
Here the means must be found for supplying the American troops. On this foreign soil were the opportunities for the display of the powers of capable diplomat- ists.
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We find American privateers in the ports of Holland, France and Spain, being cargoed for services at home; here the naval tactics were planned, before their coming in touch with Continental conditions. When we carefully examine the political letters of Franklin, we cannot fail to be impressed by the great responsibility which rested upon his shoulders. The loans to the Colonies were intrusted entirely to his hands, in fact they were De Witt, Jefferson; p. Benjamin Franklin and Germany 23 paid to him alone.
It was to him that Congress had to turn for the payment of the national debts, contracted abroad. He was recognized as the sole agent in Paris, and even although bills were at times directed to Adams, Jay, or Laurens, still to Franklin the ultimate appeal had to be made. His labors seem too intricate for one man to manage alone, but his accounts have proved him to be the master of his duties and tasks.
His only secretary, at this time, was his grandson, who might relieve him in copying from drafts, many of which are preserved today, but could not, of course, draft a single official document. If he had been sur- rounded ijy congenial colleagues, his heavy burdens might have been greatly lightened, but he was handicapped by assistants, who were jealous, selfish and suspicious and only too ready to be a hindrance to his plans.
France had warranted confidence in the honesty and integrity of Franklin and no matter who his col- leagues may have been, he was the one personality whose influence and persuasion resulted in the friendly alliance with her. Franklin, his conduct leaves Congress nothing to desire. It is as zealous and patriotic as it is wise and circumspect.
Frank- lin, you may without hesitation say, that we esteem him as much on account of his patriotism as the wisdom of his conduct; and it has been owing in a great part to this cause, and the confidence we put in the veracity of Dr. Franklin, that we have determined to relieve the pecuniary embarrassment in which he has been placed by Congress. We do know that the companion of these journeys was the "steady and good friend Sir John Pringle", who also had been his fellow- traveller on the visit to the Netherlands and Germany in the summer of The only letter written, while he was in France , is that in which he describes his experiences to his clever friend, Miss Stevenson.
His electrical experiments had already 24 Benjamin Franklin and Germany been the herald of his entree into France, where they had been carefuhy investigated by the abbes Nollet and D'AHbard. Yet it is not exactly true to ascribe the cordial welcome which the scientist received as entirely due to his electrical innovations. The far-sighted Durand, no doubt, clearly saw the diplomacy of favoring the agent of the Colonies in England.
Franklin felt this underlying motive and was successful in visiting Paris, with- out the British government being cognizant of his absence. Durand's visits to him, at this time, opened up the way for his acceptance into the social whirl of the metropolis. Franklin wisely saw the reason for his popularity, as he expresses it: "I fancy that intriguing nation would like very well on occasion to blow up the coals between Britain and her colonies; but I hope we shall give them no opportunity. Dupont de Nemours, the life- long friend of Franklin, and the Abbe Baudeau.
The French editor of Franklin's works, James Barbeu Dubourg, was also an active force among these men. We have the positive proof of this visit to France in a letter to his son, in which he carefully admonishes him to maintain the utmost secrecy on the matter. From London dated October 9, , he writes to Mrs. Deborah Franklin, "My dear Child, I returned yesterday Evening from Paris safe and well, having had an exceeding pleasant Journey, and quite recovered my health. Dubourg had been the recipient of these Frank- lin papers and had passed them on their way to Dupont.
Franklin's Second Visit, In July, , Franklin visited Paris again. The only mention of this journey is a letter addressed to Samuel Cooper, of Boston: "I have just returned from France, where I find our Benjamin Franklin and Germany 25 dispute much attended to, several of our pamphlets being trans- lated and printed there, among others my Examination and the Farmers' Letters, with two of my pieces annexed, of which last I send you a copy.
In short all Europe, except Britain, appears to be on our side. Franklin was again in London by September ist. Franklin's Third Visit to Paris. Franklin left Philadelphia on October 26, He arrived on the French shore on November 29th. The Reprisal, under Captain Wilkes, after carrying off two prizes, landed Franklin with his two grandsons at Auray on December 3rd. They pro- ceeded by post to Nantes, where they arrived on the 7th, then reaching Paris on the 21st.
Perhaps some of the delay was due to Franklin's condition. The proprietor refused any rent for Franklin's apartments, until the independence of the American Colonies was established, and being a true politician in every sense of the word, Franklin readily accepted this most generous offer and we find him maintaining his establishment, according to Mr. Adams, in a most extravagant manner. To be sure, he kept servants in sufficient number to entertain any guests who felt inclined to enjoy his kind hospitality, and with full rights of an American ambassador rode to the city in a carriage drawn by his own horses ; but the wide display of unnecessary extravagant luxury can not be proved.
When his arrival was known throughout Europe, his numer- ous friends began to welcome him back to the Old World, and one of the first was the German naturalist and physician at the court of Vienna, Jan Ingen Housz, who assured Franklin that he hoped he had come to re-establish the amicable feeling between the mother country and her colonies. He ex- pressed his keen desire to see Franklin and though the Abbe Niccoli, the representative of the Duke of Tuscany, did his utmost to bring about a meeting of these men, fate intervened.
The abbe sent an invitation to Franklin to take a cup of chocolate on Wed- nesday, May 28th. Franklin was of the opinion that this would give to a meeting with the Emperor the appearance of pure acci- dent. Turgot was present with Franklin, who writes of the affair as follows: "The Emperor did not appear, and the Abbe since tells me that the number of other persons who occasionally visited him that morning, of which the Emperor was informed prevented his coming; that at twelve, understanding they were gone, he came but I was gone also.
Joseph and Benjamin. A Conversation Translated from a French Manu- script. The letter was expressive of that high esteem, which great abilities gain even from the rulers of nations, and intimated the intention of the royal stranger, who had long wished to have personal acquaintance with his American Benjamin Franklin and Germany 27 Excellency ; and who intended to wait upon him the next day, not as Emperor, but as a private person, desirous of acquiring knowl- edge by the conversation of a man, who had distinguished himself as a philosopher and politician, by sharing in the dangers of a con- test, which had added the liberty to his country.
The urbanity which the political hero of the Western world, had acquired during a long life, added to that great sense of propriety, for which he is eminently distinguished, determined him to return an answer in person. He waited upon the illustrious stranger at his hotel immediately. It was agreed that they should enjoy each other's company for one day at a small retired spot a few miles distant from Paris, where the old philosopher used to rest himself from the fatigues that accom- pany a political life.
Scarcely had the venerable old man arrived from Paris, when his Imperial Visitor alighted from a post-chaise at the gate. The Imperial Joseph, forgetting the ideal distinctions of rank, threw his arms around the old man and embraced him with a cordiality and sincerity that is seldom manifested or felt by princes. Here did these illustrious characters meet to discuss their opinions and exchange their sentiments. They proceeded to philosophize upon human conditions. Your people have learned the habit of obedience, which will overcome prejudice; but to a lawless and ungovernable disposition the Americans add prejudices peculiar to themselves; and if there was a man who could benefit his country by good code of laws, the Americans would not adopt them!
The author satisfies our curiosity as to the means which dis- close this conversation with this explanation : "All that at present can be said on this subject is that Accident, but not dishonorable, not unfair means, has brought this important conversation before the eyes of the public. I respect very much the character of that. Monarch, and think this if I were one of his Subjects, he would find me a good one. Stating briefly the mutual feelings of Austria and the Ameri- can colonies we can say, that "Prince Kaunitz saw in the close and intimate friendship between Franklin and Ingen Housz the Court Physician of Vienna a means to perpetrate a treaty at some future time between their two representative powers.
And there can be no doubt that such a result was due to this inti- macy. Schlitter; pp. Benjamin Frmiklin and Germany 29 ter plenipotentiary whom he hath appointed to reside near us that their Imperial Majesties the Empress of Russia and the Emperor of Germany actuated by sentiments of humanity and a desire to put a stop to the calamities of War have offered their mediation to the belligerent powers in order to promote peace.
Now know ye we desirous as far as depends upon us to put a stop to the effusions of blood and convince all the powers of Europe that we wish for nothing more ardently than to terminate the war by a safe and honourable peace relying on the justice of our cause and persuaded of the wisdom and equity of their imperial Majesties who ever have so generously interposed their good offices for pro- moting so salutary a measure have constituted and appointed and by these present do constitute and appoint. Thomas Jefferson governor of the commonwealth of Virginia our Minister plenipotentiary giving and granting to them or such of them as shall assemble or in case of death, ab- sence, indisposition or other impediment of the others to any one of them full power and authority in our name and on our behalf, in concurrence with his most Christian Majesty to accept in due form the mediation of their Imperial Majesties, the Empress of Russia and the Emperor of Germany.
In testimony whereof we have caused these present to be signed by our president and sealed with his seal. Done at Philadelphia, this fifteenth day of June in the year of our Lord one thousand seven and eighty one and in the fifth year of our Independence. By the United States in Congress assembled. The letter reads thus : ' Papers of Continental Congress, Vol.
I leave likevirise an Intimate Friend at that Court. Whereas his most Christian Majesty our great and beloved friend and ally, hath informed us by his minister plenipotentiary whom he hath appointed to reside near us that their imperial Majesties, the Empress of Russia and the Emperor of Germany actuated by sentiments of humanity and a desire to put a stop to the calamities of War have offered their mediation to the belligerent powers in order to promote peace.
Commissioners Appointed. John Adams, Hon. Giving and granting to them or any one of them full power to accept the mediation of the aforesaid powers.
June 15, I78i. You are instructed and authorized to announce to Library of Congress. Smyth, Vol. IX, p. Library of Congress. Benjamin Franklin and Germany 31 his Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Germany or his Ministers the high sense which the United States in Congress Assembled entertain of his exalted character and eminent virtues and their earnest desire to cultivate his friendship and to enter into a Treaty of Amity and Commerce for the mutual advantage of the Subjects of his Imperial Majesty and the Citizens of the United States.
His journey was not at this time an official one, but the following letter of recommenda- tion from Montessuy shows the encouragement which that gov- ernment promised Carmichael. William Carmichael du Maryland, qui se trouvant icy avec Le Depute des Colonies Anglaises s'est decide lui Les demands qui je Lui ai gaittu et a ma sollicitation a se rendu de Votre Excel- lence — Je desire beaucoup qu'il puisse, etablir quelques Branches d' Commerce de La Prusse.
Sire un debouche advantageux du Product de ses Manufactures je serais flatte, d'en pouvoir tirer ces objets si cela ne contrarie point les vues de V. J' attendrai done les ordres, qu'elle est suppliee de me faire passer a ces sujets — Ne serait-il pas possible, par suite de cette operation, de faire " Wharton Diplomatic Correspondence, Vol. Original letter signed by Chas.
Car- michael, but the Baron Schulenburg was personally a little scep- tical of this enthusiastic presentation of the matter and we find this admonition in a letter addressed to Montessuy, on the i6th of October: "En attendant les reponses detailles des Agens des dites Colonies je vous conseille serieusement, Monsieur, d'aller bride en main, et de prendre toutes les precautions possibles, pour ne vous compromettre en aucune fagon, ou qu'il est absolument necessaire de sonder le terrain avant que de s'engager a la moin- dre chose.
The king received the fol- lowing from his minister: "Si a I'arriver du Sr.
Carmichael je dois entrer avec lui et en quelle qualite je dois le recevoir? Carmichael, on faut cependant rien precipiter avec lui. Your excellency will no doubt be surprised at not sooner hearing from me after my return to France, the truth is, that I wished to be able to give you some satisfaction on the sub- ject I had the honor of conversing with you on at Berlin and at the same time to give you the real state of our Situation in Amer- ica.
The Arrival of Mr. Franklin at Paris, almost at the instant of my return to that City with the multiplicity of affairs in which, we were consequently involved prevented me from receiving such a State of our prices and our Shipping for Exportation, and would put it in my power to tell you whether or not we could comply with the terms proposed by Mr.
Our Sailors, in the first place are engaged in Privateering or in the Sei'vice of the Public, to which they are excited by the prodigious Captures made on the English. This their transportation service has done effectually for their subjects, while it impoverishes the State. In this respect England shows superior wisdom, for it is lavish 34 Benjamin Franklin and Germany of blood and treasure to retain while with open arms we court the rest of Europe, but your nation particularly to accept the riches derived from our commerce.
The demand being very great with us. Without appearing to cut at all in the matter. Adminis- tration must employ some of your richest merchts. The advantages they will gain will excite others. As to the State of our Public affairs, the campaign is like to end more favorable for us, than we imagined at the moment we declared our inde- pendence.
Each of whom we now regard with that kind of Animosity as will eternally keep alive Benjamin Franklin and Germany 35 the flame of war untill we are separated forever. I have the honor to be "Your Excellency's most obedient humble sert. We have now their commands to inform his Prussian Majesty's Ambassador here, that they propose to send a minister to your respected Court with all Commercial Expedition, prop- erly empowered to treat upon Affairs of Importance; and that we are in the meantime instructed and authorized by Congress to solicit the Friendship of your Court, to request that it would afford no Aid to their Enemies, but use its good Offices to pre- vent the landing of Troops by other Powers to be transported to America for their destruction, and to offer the free commerce Photographs of original letter.
We have taken the earHest Opportunity of obeying those commands. Franklin, "Silas Deane, "Arthur Lee. Prussian Archives, Berlin p. Thom- son, Sec, May 12, p. Thulemeier to the king, relating to declaring the port of Emden or Stettin free, with a copy of the communication of " Library of Congress. Addressed to Thulemeier at the Hague. The Hague, February 11, p. Thulemeier to the king on Franklin's signing of the treaty and on ratification by Congress, enclosing a copy of the English translation of the Plcin Pouvoir, etc.
Baz'arian Archives, Munich, Reference made to Franklin's return from Paris to America, August i, Prussian Archives, Breslau, Rep. Journal iiber engangene Cabinets Ordres , No.
Kdniglich-Sdchsisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, in Dresden, Com. XXXVa, Bl.
Marz, Auf Bl. Abschrift da- von befindet sich umstehend. Victory, "cand. I'Antiquite eut eleve des Autels au puissant Genie, qui, au profit des Mortels, embrassant dans sa pensee le Ciel et la terre, sut dompter la Foudre et les Tirans. I'Europe eclairee et libre doit du moins un temoignage de souvenir et de regret a I'un des plus- grands hommes qui aient jamais servi la Philosophie et la Liberte.
Lee has readily undertaken this journey. Benjamin Franklin and Germany 39 , and signed by the three agents, B. We have their commands the orders of Congress of the United States to inform his Prussian Majesty's Ambassador here that they propose to send a minister to your respective court with all convenient expedition, properly empow- ered to treat upon affairs of importance, and that we are in the meantime instructed and authorized by Congress to solicit the friendship of your court, to request that it would offer no aid to their enemies, but use its good offices to prevent the landing of troops by other powers to be transported to America for their destruction, and to offer the free commerce of the United States to the subject of Prussia.
But considering the great importance of establish- ing a free commerce between the two countries as soon as possible, and confident that every objection may be obviated, and the wished-for intercourse opened and established on the most certain and beneficial grounds to promote the interests of both countries, we propose that one of us shall wait on your excellency as soon as conveniently may be done, to explain personally the situation of America, the nature, extent and importance of its commerce and the methods by which it may be carried on with Prussia to mutual advantage.
In the proposed interview we are confident the difficulties mentioned by your excellency may be surmounted, and a very considerable of American commerce be turned to Prussia by measures neither dangerous or expensive. He informed Schulenburg of his intended trip as follows: "Sir: In conse- quence of the letter, with in conjunction with my brother com- missioners. Franklin and Mr. Deane, I have the honor of writing your excellency, I intend to depart from hence to Berlin before this time. But an accident having happened, which in- evitably prevents me from setting out, I am under great anxiety 40 Benjamin Franklin and Germany lest your excellency should impute my delay to a wont of that perfect respect which I ought to feel for your excellency's court and character.
Schulenburg replied to this on the 20th, acknowledging the receipt of his letter and also that on the part of the three American agents, Franklin, Deane and himself: "I still appre- hend difficulties which may interfere in the present circumstances with the establishment of a direct commerce between his Majesty's subjects and the Colonies of North America, and that I consider our Correspondence on this subject rather as preliminary to what may come to pass than as negotiations from which any immediate advantage may be expected.
Lee does not in any way read between the lines, but acting upon the responsibility of his mission, he proceeded to Berlin and informed the Prussian minister of his arrival on June 6th and asked for an interview. The arrogance of Arthur Lee's spirit must have revolted at the attitude of the foreign court of Prussia with its conservatism.
On May 8, , he wrote Baron Schulenburg in regard to his intended visit to Berlin. The reply from the Prussian minister gave no encouragement, as we read in the letter from him on May 20th, speaking of the forced delay of which Lee had writ- ten, ''this leads me to believe, sir, that you have no reason to distress yourself on account of this delay. It is not possible to quicken this German indifference. See papers now first published from original MSS.
Benjamin Franklin and Germany 41 June 4th and was received in conference by the minister, since the king was absent at this time from the Prussian capitol. In fact had he been in the vicinity, he would by no means have received this representative of the Colonies. He sent lists of commodities, which might be an incentive for infusing an enthusiasm in the venture of establishing a commerce, but the condition of the Prussian fleet at this period, as Frederic repeatedly asserts in his letters, was such as to warrant the utmost caution on the part of his country.
The theft of Lee's papers in Berlin by an English emissary and their immediate return, is a story that has been repudiated and argued to the detriment of the American's diplo- matic caution and defended again, as an accident entirely beyond his jurisdiction.
The success of his mission he clearly states in a letter to the commissioners in Paris, dated the 15th of June, Berlin : "The letters you have received from hence will show you how the wind blows here; I have tried all in my power to make it change — hitherto in vain. In ten days I shall set out on my return. There can not be a state of more quiescence than prevails in this place; what is merely commercial is planned, but whether it will be adopted remains to be determined.
The attitude of Lee, however, suf- fered no whit in its aggressiveness, for we find him missing no opportunity to offer, by letters, to Schulenburg any inducement for the encouragement of trade. November 13th of the same year he wrote to this minister as follows : " The great knowledge of this gentleman in commerce will enable him to throw far more light on that subject than I was able to com- municate.
William Lee, the king having repeatedly declared his sentiments respecting the actual difficulties attending a commercial connection with America, not- withstanding his constant good disposition towards the Colonies, 42 Benjamin Franklin and Germany can not possibly conjecture, as circumstances have not changed, what proposition Mr. Lee can make more acceptable to his majesty, nor consequently what can be the object of his mission. Schulen- burg assured him of the king's interest in all things that pertained to the growth of his trade. It was evident to the mind of Lee that it was inopportune for either the court of Berlin or Vienna to take an open part with the cause of the Colonies, for fear that Hanover would join the forces of the adversary.
We can sum up these endeavors of the commissioners to these courts in a word, which embraces failure and yet a certain degree of success in the final move, which resulted in the estab- lishment of a trade between the Powers and the independent thirteen American States. Britain and another of us rendered unable by Age and a painful malady to perform a hard Journey, there is a Difficulty in Meeting with Your Excellency for the purpose either of any intermediate Place, or at that of your Residence which in respect to the King we might otherwise willing do.
The new form sent by Congress had necessitated a revision of the Prussian treaty to so large an extent that almost new negotiations were found ultimately inevitable. The Prussian minister showed him- self interested and active. The treaty was drawn up between the parties concerned. The negotiation was carried on by corre- spondence between Paris and The Hague and was finally signed by Mr. Adams, Mr. Jefferson and Dr. Franklin in Paris, and by Baron Thulemeier at The Hague, a special understanding having been arranged that the agents might sign in different cities.
The Prussian agent says on the 24th of January : "The English lan- guage being familiar neither to the Prussian Chancery, nor to the King nor his ministers, it has become necessary that I should make a French translation, and to prove its exactness, I have caused it to be placed by the side of the annexed observations.
Germain, twelve miles from Paris, July 18, "I did my last public act in this Country just before I set out which was signing a Treaty of Amity and Commerce with Prussia. Our joint letters have already informed you of our late proceedings, to which I have nothing to add, except that the last act I did, as Minister Pleni- potentiary for making treaties, was to sign with him two days before I came away, the treaty of friendship, and commerce that had been agreed on with Prussia and which was to be carried to the Hague by Mr.
Smyth, Benjamin Franklin, Vol. Printed in Smyth, Vol. IX, P Benjamin Franklin and Germany 45 meyer on the part of the King, who without the least hesitation had approved and conceded to the new humane articles proposed by Congress. Prussia has likewise an inclination to share in a Trade with America, and the Minister of that Court, tho' he has not directly propos'd a Treaty, his given me a Pacquet of Lists of several sorts of Merchandise they can furnish us with, which he requests me to send to Amer- ica for the Infonnation of our Merchants. Unlike him, France had been in direct conflict with her enemy in the New World.
Europe had been the arena for the wild tigers and lions to tear each other to pieces for seven direful years. The wonderful strategy of the Prussian ruler against the enormous force of Russia and Austria combined, we have already seen. In the face of the glories of Frederic the Great, France found her- self humbled and utterly defeated on all sides. Most especially she suffered under the lash of Britain in the North American Colonies; although France was necessarily but awaiting an op- portunity to repay the foe in her own coin.
Printed in Smyth, IX, p. Printed in Sparks' Diplomatic Correspondence, Vol. IV, pp. Would the French mon- arch venture in where others feared to tread? The French people were already at this early date stirred to their souls by the grand and glorious theme of social equality. The entire nation reached out its hand to the new strugglers for human rights.
This was France when Franklin reached Bordeaux. She was a nation hostile to Great Britain by the long continued tradi- tion of centuries, an humbled nation, smarting to recover her lost prestige and to console her wounded pride, a nation whose heart was just beginning to throb with new ideas, but saw these new conceptions trampled on, in danger of being crushed by this hereditary and victorious foe. She was also a nation which saw in the American trade an object worth striving for. It was natural that the United States should turn to France first among the nations of Europe.
America naturally could not feel as assured of the other nations, but to lose no opportunity of any possible assistance, she wisely sent her agents to the courts of Austria, Spain, Russia, Prussia and the United Netherlands. In the Seven Years' War Spain had felt keenly the goad of England's enmity, but her possessions in America would not tend to induce her action in any support of the insurgents.
Franklin's task, however, was not an easy one and although the main field of his action was France and, in the narrower term, Paris, still he was the most responsible agent of all those sent, and it was through him as the final author- ity of the official jurisdiction of the home Congress that any treaties or alliances were formulated. Nothing could be more striking than the contrast between the luxury of our capitol, the elegance of our fashions, the magnificance of Ver- sailles, the still brilliant remains of Monarchical pride of Louis XIV, and the polish and superb dignity of our nobility on the one hand, and on the other hand, the almost rustic apparel, the Benjamin Franklin and Germany 47 plain but firm demeanor, the free and direct language of the enjoys, whose antique simplicity of dress and appearance seem to have introduced within our walls, in the midst of the effiminate and servile refinement of the eighteenth century, some sages contemporary with Plato or republicans of the age of Cato and Fabius.
This unexpected apparition, produced upon us a greater effect in consequence of its novelty, and of its occurring precisely at a period when literature and philosophy had circulated amongst us an usual desire for reforms, a disposition to encourage innova- tions and the seeds of an ardent attachment to liberty. The year of was a very memorable one for Franklin. In February of that year he underwent his famous examination in the House of Commons, relative to the repeal of the American Stamp Act.
There was no event in Franklin's life more credit- able to his talents and character or which gave him so much celebrity as this examination before the House of Commons. In that year he was made a member of the Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften at Gottingen. I, Art. Juli war feierlich, als gewohnlich. Die beiden Englischen beri'ihmten Gelehrten, der Konigl. Leibmedicus Herr Pringle und Benjamin Franklin aus Pensilvanien, die damals auf einer Reise nach Deutschland, sich in Ciottingen sich [sic] befanden, nehmen als Mitglieder ihre Stelle ein. Societat zugetragen haben.
It upheld a scientific approach conception of the Sublime as a quality of perceived, incomprehensible immensity and of sheer to religion and an abandonment of Yiddish in favor of Hebrew, the language of tradition. It was tremendously frustrating not to be able to touch my wife, to speak tenderly to her, to have a private moment together. Since my release, my schedule has been crowded with numerous duties and responsibilities, which have left me little free time for writing. These were most helpful in following Franklin's diplomatic career, Benjamin Franklin spent from June 15 to August 13, , in Germany. Weinmayr: Zwischen Mensch und Mensch. Each of us would write out a summary of the story we were given; these summaries were then passed among us, and later smuggled to the general section. Many thanks!
Ludwig Schlosser zu Petersburg, der schon seit einigen Jahren ihr Correspondent gewesen, hier bei seiner Auswesenheit und den Herrn Benjamin Franklin aus Pennsylvanien bei seiner Durchreise durch Got- tingen dazu genannt. To v,v,! Band II, S. Konigin von England Leibartzt 9 Benjamin Franklin. Schlozcr die Zeitrechmmg vom Siindflut bis atif Salomon betreffend writes thus : "Als Franklin vor einigen Jahren, mich diinkt , in Gottingen war, versicherte mir dieser grosse Kenner seines Vaterlandes und genaue Mathematiker, die Englischen Colonien in Nord Amerika verdoppelten sich alle 25 Jahre.
In the Pyrmonter Brunnenarcliiv, which contains a list of guests at Pyrmont from , published in Berlin, , we read this entry under the year : ''Leibmedicus Ritter Pringle aus London und Dr. Franklin aus Pennsylvanien kommt aus London. Franklin's visit excited the highest interest in Germany. But the importance of his visit for America was not this interest which he awakened in the German fatherland, but the seed which took root in Franklin's breast to establish an American Gottingen, which bore fruit in the establishment of the public college of the City of Philadelphia — since the present University of Penn- sylvania.
With Franklin we have the human link of fellowship, which was born then and which has since so strongly tied Ger- many and the United States in bonds of friendship and good feeling. Franklin's companion on this journey, as later on his visits to France, was Sir John Pringle, who advised Franklin to join him on his eight weeks' tour, stopping first at Pyrmont for the waters. Franklin upon arriving there decided that air, exercise and a change of scene might be beneficial and filed with a desire to know more of the country which he was visiting for the first and last time, left his good friend and visited the prin- cipal cities nearest Prymont.
We have record only of his visits at Gottingen and Hanover. The results of his examination before the House of Commons which did more than anything else to give him celebrity as a political economist had not then been published. Bcnjainin Franklin and Germany 51 "Paris, Feb. When your friends in Paris met together their first word was to talk of You. The wishes for your fortunate Voyage and pleasing sight of your family and friends Became a National Sentiment — in my tour through Ger- many I have Been Asked thousand questions about you, when I felt equally proud and Happy to Boast of our Affectionate in- timacy.
In the correspondence to Franklin we find but one letter which throws light upon his visit to Hanover. This is a letter from Johann Friedrich Hartmann, written in Latin, dated the Calendes of October, , in which he says: "Often have I recalled the happy occasion, when I was permitted to see and talk The American Philosophical Society.
Franklin Papers. The Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt had sent to Gottingen a special emmissary to offer his salutations to Franklin, but unfortunately the latter left that very day; and the hope of seeing him was frustrated. Hartmann in Hanover, in order to see his apparatus for strong electrical ex- periments. No doubt it was through Sir John Pringle that the interest between Hartmann and Franklin was mutually aroused.
That Franklin knew himself at least the names of famous men, noted for their electrical experiments, is proved in a letter to his friend, Peter Collinson, in which he says, describing a dinner, to be given in Philadelphia: "A Turkey to be killed for our dinner by the electrical shock, and roasted by the electrical jack before a fire kindled by the electrified bottle, when the healths of all the famous electricians in England, Holland, France and Germany are to be drunk from electrified bumpers under the discharge of guns from the electrical battery.
Nairne, the mathematical instrument maker, made a number of them from the one that Franklin brought from Germany. Am Auch sie hatte an einer Bushaltestelle gestanden. Juni verschwindet Sabine N. Nach Ansicht der Staatsanwaltschaft hatte Egidius S. Mittwoch, Zur Startseite. Diesen Artikel Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Jetzt aufrufen. Frederike Klee. Andreas Cheesy. Guido Dasbach. Paying supporters also get unlimited streaming via the free Bandcamp app. Purchasable with gift card. Kein PayPal? Kein Bandcamp Account? Kein Problem! Einfach eine Nachricht schreiben, dann geht auch Abholung oder Vorkasse.
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