The war most directly impacted those African Americans called to fight and labor in the military overseas. They frequently endured residential segregation, substandard living conditions, job discrimination, and in many cases, the hostilities of white residents. Davis, S. Families as Nurturing Systems. Others are useful as textbooks for students in family studies, counseling, psychology, psychiatry, and even sociology. Hildreth Y. Now What?
Laura Smith. Social History Assessment. Arlene B. Rudi Dallos. Families as Nurturing Systems. Donald G Unger. All About Yoga. Nina Patel. Love, Intimacy, and the African American Couple. Katherine M. Capturing the Power of Diversity.
Marvin D Feit. Mental Health Practice with Children and Youth. Lonnie R. Chance W. Case Studies in Couples Therapy. David K. Festus E. Special Education As a Socioeconomic Weapon. Rick Wallace Ph. How To Woo A Woman. Patrick R. Letha A See. At-Risk Youth. Robert F. Hildreth Y. Lucille Proulx.
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Would you like us to take another look at this review? No, cancel Yes, report it Thanks! You've successfully reported this review. Furthermore, college counselors should form connections with spiritual leaders e. College counselors could also partner with campus ministry leaders to recruit from these groups, as potential participants may not be as likely to learn of the groups through traditional counseling center advertising measures. College counselors should not only pay more careful attention to if African Americans students are seeking help but also to when African American students seek help.
College counselors could increase outreach efforts e. It could be helpful for students to hear about issues e. Also, it may be helpful to use language that is familiar to African American students. It seems that African Americans, even undergraduate students, prefer to go to their church family or biological family for help with a variety of issues e.
Only two of the participants in the current study disclosed they had seen a counselor. These findings are not surprising; however, what is noteworthy is that the few participants who sought professional counseling seemed to have very positive experiences.
Interestingly, those who sought counseling did so while they were in college. College counselors may also want to partner with school counselors, specifically those in school districts with high populations of African American students, to provide education on counseling services and support offered in college. Moreover, the participants were able to talk about their experiences among their peers in the focus group, suggesting that the stigma may not originate with peers but from outside influences.
Thus, group counseling may be particularly appropriate and beneficial for African American undergraduates. One of the surprising findings from this study was the tension around seeking help and the involvement of family. The participants articulated some mixed messages. Some stated that their parents and other family members would be their primary sources of support during difficult life moments, such as grief, or when experiencing mental health issues such as anxiety.
However, there was also some hesitation in telling family for fear that the family members would internalize and blame themselves for the student's decision to seek professional help. This is important for college counselors to know because African American college students may be receiving messages from influential people in their lives that it is not appropriate to see a professional counselor. Although many college counselors do outreach during orientation programs, it may be beneficial to increase outreach to students and their parents throughout their college experience.
These results may also have implications for retention rates for African American college students. Sharkin posits counseling is effective in increasing retention rates for college students. Owens et al. Connecting individuals to organizations that are specifically for African American students can provide a safe environment for students to share their experiences regarding racial climates on campus. Given the scarcity of research in this area, particularly in the counseling literature, there are many opportunities for future research.
Because of the geographic restrictiveness of the current study, future researchers should include representatives from various geographic regions. Studies with African Americans students who sought counseling for the first time in college could provide useful information regarding their attitudes and motivations for seeking counseling and their experiences with biological and church family members while in counseling. As with every study, this study is not without limitations. There are inherent limitations e. Although two participants volunteered they had used counseling, we did not directly ask participants this question on our demographic questionnaire.
Therefore, it is possible others had used counseling but elected not to share this information. The results of the study are consistent with previous research findings that suggested African Americans are less likely to seek help from college counseling services Kearney et al. There is a great opportunity for college counselors to help African American students get the needed support throughout their college experience.
Volume 21 , Issue 1. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of College Counseling Volume 21, Issue 1. Research Free Access. Avent Harris Corresponding Author E-mail address: aventj16 ecu.
Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract African American undergraduate students face numerous challenges during college; however, they are less likely to seek help from college counseling services. Data Analysis We followed Moustakas's steps for phenomenological data analysis as outlined in Hays and Singh Trustworthiness We used an auditor, an audit trail, referential adequacy, triangulation procedures, bracketing, and a thick description of the data to establish trustworthiness.
Culture Participants identified culture as one of the essential aspects of their experience in the Black Church. For example, Participant 6 noted, You know, it was a place of gathering, not only for worship but a place of social interaction, a place where people connect, and it was just that foundation. For example, Participant 6 stated, If you're feeling depressed and things like that there isn't really a lot of guidance toward praying, but sometimes you will hear a pastor or a deacon or someone come out and say, you know, we might be having sessions, where, if you wanna come pray with us, or if there's something heavy on your heart, and you wanna pray outside of the normal church hours.
Implications for College Counselors College counselors have a unique opportunity to reach African American students because access and cost barriers are less likely to exist with college campus counseling services. Implications for Future Research Given the scarcity of research in this area, particularly in the counseling literature, there are many opportunities for future research. Limitations As with every study, this study is not without limitations.
Conclusion The results of the study are consistent with previous research findings that suggested African Americans are less likely to seek help from college counseling services Kearney et al. Allen, A. Being examples to the flock: The role of church leaders and African American families seeking mental health care services. Contemporary Family Therapy , 32 , — Crossref Google Scholar.
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Forgot your username? Franklin, PhD. This system helps to organize and implement a treatment plan at the nuclear family, extended family, and systems levels. In , Boyd-Franklin was named Thomas J. Watson Fellow , which allowed her to study language and community in East and West Africa. She was also awarded with a Drs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nancy Boyd-Franklin.