openpress.alaska.edu/coro-venezuela-identidades-locales-corianidad.php Indeed, many perish in their amorous quest. The monarch ensconces his daughter in a remote location to try to prevent the decimation of the ranks of his knights, but without success. Two knights in particular, the best of friends, secretly woo Mirabella at night, each unaware of the threat posed by the other.
Eventually, with the rivalry discovered, the two engage in combat for the right to pursue Mirabella's favors. Grisel kills his friend and competitor, and soon enjoys nocturnal rendezvous with the princess. One night they are surprised in flagrante delicto due to the treachery of a servant. Both are imprisoned until the question of culpability can be resolved. The law of the land states that the individual most responsible for inducing the other into illicit dalliance will be executed, and the lesser transgressor perpetually exiled.
Even under torture, each of the lovers accepts full blame.
To overcome the impasse, the king agrees to a debate between a representative of each sex to decide which gender has a greater role in enticing the other to love. A lengthy debate ensues between the formidable combatants, replete with personal insults and vicious indictments of the opposite sex.
The judges, all men, ultimately declare Torrellas the winner. Mirabella's father, torn between paternal sentiment and his duty to uphold justice, declares that she must suffer execution by flames. On the day that the sentence is to be carried out, Grisel hurls himself in the fire, in order to join his beloved in death. With one of the pair dead, however, and justice therefore served, Mirabella's sentence is revoked. Unable to live without Grisel, she bides her time until alone, then jumps into the lion pit, where she is savagely torn to bits and devoured.
He is bound and stripped by the ladies, and then cruelly tortured all night long until all the flesh has been flayed from his bones. The corpse is burned, and each of the ladies gathers some ashes as a blazon of their triumph. Nevertheless, Flores reasserts the status quo by undermining, through authorial manipulation, the vengeance wrought by the woman.
Further evidence is offered by the fact that the names given to the protagonists in the Tragedias de amor are those employed in all the European translations. Nevertheless, for the purpose of analyzing the Tragedias de amores literary mimesis, the versions offered by Juan de Flores and the anonymous translator of of the Grisel y Mirabella story show negligible differences.
The principal difference is one of length. The later translation adds some extraneous material, mostly in the form of invented dialogue, that in no way alters the intentions of the original. The prolixity of the translator led J. In truth, the substance of the three versions of the story are strikingly similar, if we disregard the verbose additions of the European translations. The only appreciable dissimilarity that separates model and continuations at most points is a modernization of the Castillian. In the example that follows, chosen arbitrarily, the king, after torture has failed, wonders how he will get the truth out of the pair of lovers.
I have chosen to reproduce the original orthography only for the text of Grisel y Mirabella :. Before comparing and contrasting the texts in more depth, it will be helpful to consider the general context in which the tale appears in the Tragedias de amor. This rather obscure pastoral romance, with its pretense to vast erudition, is in the tradition of Lope de Vega's Arcadia , from which it borrows liberally 7. This admission of appropriation of outside sources should blunt any possible accusation of plagiarism.
This is plausible in view of the fact that the origin of the story was unknown in the early seventeenth century. It was not at all uncommon in the period for authors of short fiction, and especially of the novella, to borrow the plots of their narrations from the Italian masters of the genre. It is not until the prologue to Cervantes's Novelas ejemplares that an author boasts of originality in his plots.
His borrowing of the story, and refashioning of certain elements to suit his own particular needs, was a well-established practice. The Tragedias de amor is made up of five books of the fifteen that the author claims to have written , each with a brief allegory to summarize its didactic intention. In terms of plot development, the Tragedias relies heavily on the technique of the interrupted story.
As the action progresses, each narrative thread is related in halting fragments, by different narrators, from their unique perspectives. A series of often violent peripetia interrupt the narration at crucial points in the stories. By the end of the first and only published part, very little has reached resolution.
The reader is left dissatisfied, with an incomplete narrative, in anticipation of a continuation that never materialized. The issue of imitation, or plagiarism, is a particularly difficult one to decide for the pastoral romance. One of the most intertextual of literary modes, pastoral depends for its success on a fixed canon of topoi that must be included and refashioned by each author. Every one of the pastoral novelists repeats certain conventions that can be traced back at least as far as Theocritus and Virgil.
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It comes as no great surprise, consequently, to learn that the Grisel y Mirabella story is not the only example of imitation in the Tragedias de amor. Another apparent borrowing from the first of Lope's two pastoral romances is the revelation of the secret properties of twelve stones, from natural philosophy f. The inclusion in Tragedias de amor of the episode documenting the tragic love of Grisel and Mirabella in no way strikes the reader as arbitrary or out of place.
Rather, it is framed quite naturally. The story under consideration follows logically in part because it is the third of a series of anecdotes in the novel that share the common element of an untrustworthy servant who precipitates the transgression of social mores, and in part because the telling of tales to illustrate moral truths is a standard feature of the Spanish pastoral romance.
Significantly, with respect to what will follow in the tale of Aurelio and Isabela Grisel and Mirabella , a group of wise men exonerate the perpetrator of the homicide, while the servant is publically burned to death ff. In some ways, this situation parallels the sentence of the judges in favor of Torrellas in Grisel y Mirabella , and perhaps prefigures that planned for Torrella's counterpart Afranio in the never published continuation of Tragedias de amor.
The second incidence of a corrupt servant takes place in Tragedias , somewhat surprisingly, within the bower itself. Again, the transgression involves unsanctioned sexuality, though the shock is somewhat tempered by having it narrated from a safe temporal distance. The violence does not occupy the foreground, or principal narrative plane: it is told rather than shown. The series of three is completed with the Grisel and Mirabella story, in which a maid of Mirabella's, unable to keep a secret, is the direct cause of the tragedy that follows.
All three anecdotes are intended to teach a moral lesson to the shepherds who hear or experience them. The appropriation of the plot of this narrative, then, serves a clear and distinct purpose in the Tragedias. The narration of the material imitated out of the Historia de Aurelio y de Isabela and ultimately, out of Juan de Flores evolves convincingly from the course of events depicted.
The framework that houses the story is typically pastoral. Marcelo, who is an ardent misogynist, is the stock pastoral character of a pastor desamorado , accused by his fellow shepherds of being an enemy of love. The disaffected shepherd freely admits this and gives his reason for despising the love passion.
The diatribe against love, and evil women, incorporates many of the standard arguments enjoined by the misogynists, and common to many of the Spanish pastoral novelists. His vituperation includes, as does the Grisel y Mirabella itself, isolated verses from Pere Torroella's infamous Maldezir de mugeres 9. It falls to Eusebio to come to the defense of woman and love. Ironically, his apology itself appropriates at least one concept from the Maldezir : that nature, and not woman, is to blame for their alleged defects. After thus whetting their curiosity, the shepherds present ask Eusebio to tell his story, both for their entertainment and to persuade Marcelo of the error of his ways.
The transition between the events transpiring in the pastoral pleasance and the actions depicted in an ancient sentimental romance could not be more gentle. Eusebio proceeds to narrate the story first penned by Juan de Flores. With some minor differences and omissions, which will be summarized presently, Tragedias de amor follows the plot exactly from the beginning to the crucial juncture where the judges retire to deliberate their decision. There is one respite in the telling of the story, a kind of narrative aside to lend variety and break the monotony.
Daciano's gentle chiding allows him the opportunity to introduce a pastoral convention, the praise of pastoral life, while at the same time he is able to disabuse Eusebio of the notion that pastoral simplicity is the same thing as ignorance. The latter's profuse recantation affords him the chance to condemn urban dwellers. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products.
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