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Temario especifico. Volumen 2. To understand why soccer made its way to Argentina in the first place and why Argentine-born soccer players were willing to represent Italy in international play at the FIFA World Cup, we must first come to understand the Argentine legal structures and social dynamics that made the country an attractive destination for immigrants in the latter half of the nineteenth and into the early twentieth century.
Between and the country more than quadrupled in size, from under two million to nearly eight million people. But the political leaders of the young nation also operated from hierarchical ideas about Europeans that shaded the public reception of this legislation in a stratified and racialized context. The Motivations of Argentine Government Immigration Policy After its initial independence from Spain in the early nineteenth century, Argentina aimed to define its nation in political rather than ethnic discourse.
The goal of early Argentine leaders was to frame a republican system that would stress equality, liberty, and popular sovereignty rather than an ethnocultural definition of the nation. This can be seen in the discourse around immigration that marks the earliest stage of independence. Don H.
While there were certainly small concentrations of Italians and other immigrant populations in Argentina during the first decades of independence in the early nineteenth century, the foundations which led to wider growth of the Italian diaspora were laid with the drafting of the Constitution. The document that was eventually signed on 1 May explicitly incorporated immigration as a fundamental point of emphasis. This document created the formal structures of an open-door policy that stimulated the transatlantic flow of immigrants from Europe, a process which was critical in the building of the modern Argentine state.
Building on the sentiments of earlier independence leaders such as Rivadavia, the language in the Constitution went even further in protecting the rights of foreigners on Argentine soil. These protections, when combined with latent prejudices against Mediterranean populations, meant that there was little incentive for Italians in Argentina to naturalize.
While Article 20 eliminated any legal incentive to take on Argentine citizenship, however, Italians were still selectively adopting cultural norms that were becoming more widespread across ethnicities and integrating into the nation through sport and other social organizations. Whereas Rivadavia had made no overt mention about Eurocentric immigration policy, the motivations had already begun to drift subtly toward racialized conceptions of whitening the population by midcentury. The Constitution made no explicit distinction between European countries in its pro-immigrant policy, though the leaders who signed the document were influenced by political theories that delineated not only between European and non-European immigrants but which also differentiated qualitatively between different European nationalities.
The next two sections of this chapter examine the immigrants that Argentine political leaders hoped to court and the real impacts of immigration on national demographics. Buenos Aires: La Cultura Argentina, , This attitude was not directly codified within the Constitution, but it was far from a hidden perception. The relevant sections of the Constitution that frame immigration as European immigration are rooted in this context of a racial discourse in which Italians—along with Spaniards and eastern European immigrants—were perceived to be second-class Europeans, almost of another continent.
As Argentina began to push its borders outward and began to evolve as an independent entity, vibrant communities were forming among many of the immigrant groups in the country. The British, for instance, developed a small but influential community that served as a critical source of both technical expertise and foreign capital as Argentina developed railroads, port facilities, and export-based industrial infrastructure over the latter half of the nineteenth century.
But they also introduced their own cultural forms, among which was soccer. June 20, is one of those mythic dates that looms large over the history of soccer in Argentina. When playing time 17 Juan B. Alberdi, quoted in Documentos de historia argentina , ed. Interestingly, it was also still used in some Italian-language literature that will be discussed at greater length in Chapter 4.
This spelling will be used only when applicable in terms of describing specific institutions and references. We know now that the match held on that Thursday afternoon was not the first time that soccer had been played in Argentina. For that matter, the local English-language media in the city were reporting on matches organized and held at the cricket club itself at least as early as Even nationalities such as the British, who Argentine leaders hoped would assimilate most readily into Argentine culture, were inclined to introduce their own cultural forms into the mix.
Subsequent generations of leaders were not immune to this hierarchical attitude toward European immigrants.
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, the Argentine president from to , did not hide his preference for German immigrants over other European nationalities. Sarmiento was among the group of oligarchic Argentine elites who saw no contradiction in drawing upon Italian influences to leave behind the Spanish colonial past and articulate a new national form of civil identity even as they disparaged the perpetuation of Italian identity among immigrant populations.
As Buenos Aires emulated European cities in reconfiguring its urban footprint in the late nineteenth century, it also drew upon a skilled Italian labor force that could help realize the vision that mirrored the shifting demographics of the Argentine population. Italians were hardly the only immigrant demographic to draw skepticism about the sincerity of their loyalties within Argentine society. But, as they were the immigrant nationality that rapidly became the predominant diaspora within Argentina in the late nineteenth century, it was Italians who drew the largest level of scrutiny.
The perpetuation of such prejudices among the most influential Argentine leaders would have grave consequences given the demographic realities of the growing immigrant populations in Argentina. Among the players in Palermo that late June day was William Boschetti, whose nativity has been traced to the Caribbean island of Saint Lucia but who has also been described as Italian by ethnicity.
While Argentine leaders hoped to court immigrants from northern European nations, these countries contributed little to the demographic growth of the Argentine population through immigration. The British community may have been influential both in providing the capital and skill for early infrastructural development as well as in introducing soccer to the society, but the number of immigrants from the United Kingdom totaled just under 43, over the four-decade period between and when immigration had the largest effect on the formation of a demographically diverse Argentine populace.
Ulyses Balderas and Michael J. When the first tentative inflow of British capital entered Argentina in the s and s, emigrants from the United Kingdom accounted for four percent of the total number of immigrants entering Argentina. But from this point, 24 J. The decade of the s set the precedent of Italian predominance in immigration patterns that continued throughout the rest of the century and into the s. Three out of every five people to disembark in Buenos Aires to start a new life hailed from the Apennine Peninsula, which had been experiencing its own conflicts revolving around political consolidation during the same span that Argentina went through the growing pains of early independence.
The quantity of immigrants arriving from Italy more than tripled in the s. A threefold increase in Spanish emigrants cemented their position as the second-largest group of immigrants coming into Argentina. By the point of the census, nearly ninety percent of the immigrants that had arrived in Argentina over the preceding four decades were of either Italian or Spanish origin. The forty years between and that mark the most intense period of migration from Europe to Argentina rendered an Italian diaspora that comprised nearly one quarter of the 7. In 25 At the time of writing, there is no digitized copy of the census records available to researchers.
An Italian immigrant arriving in Argentina between and could expect to earn on average to percent more than they would be able to earn working in comparable fields of labor back in Italy. For a Spanish immigrant during the same period, Argentina offered the opportunity to at least double his or her earnings relative to wage scales in Spain. Even as these numbers fell in the early twentieth century both prior to and during World War I, immigrants still earned higher wages in Argentina relative to their points of embarkation into the s and s. Once the economic bubble that had built up during the s finally burst, overall European immigration fell by , during the last decade of the nineteenth century.
The two groups whose numbers dropped by the lowest ratios were emigrants from Italy and Spain. The decision of men like Juan Yturriaga and Lorenzo Orsi to take advantage of economic opportunities in a liberal environment for immigrants, and to forge permanent roots in the country regardless of whether they ever attained citizen status, is critical to 26 Alan M.
Marriage Dynamics and the Italian Diaspora The marriages of both Yturriaga and Orsi also help reveal that frustrations with the predominance of Italians and Spaniards among the immigrants flowing into Argentina were hardly universal among the native-born population. The extent to which biases against Spanish and Italian immigrants were confined to the elite factions of Argentine society bears out in the fact that marriages between Argentine citizens and immigrants, and between immigrants of different ethnic backgrounds, were becoming a more regular occurrence by the early twentieth century.
Within this liberal environment, Italian homogamy rates were already in decline by the last decade of the nineteenth century, dropping by more than six percent from to the period between and when the couple married. A deeper look at homogamy rates provides further context for understanding the real level of integration of the Italian diaspora into Argentine society. Among Argentine- born males, rates of intra-group marriage remained steady around 75 to 80 percent between and For Argentine-born women, rates of homogamy increased in the twentieth century.
Italians, by and large, do not fit into this same picture of increased homogamy. Instead, rates of exogamous marriage increased at a regular clip among both Italian men and women over this four-decade sample of data. Lorenzo Orsi was thus part of a broader process by which Italians were intermarrying with other communities in Argentina. By the s, also, these immigrant distinctions would have been less significant as more first-generation Argentine citizens married. When Raimundo Orsi married Estela Montes de Oca on March 6, , for instance, it would have registered as a homogamous marriage between two Argentine individuals.
While Orsi is joined by Enrique Guaita as an oriundi star whose Italian ancestry only extended along one side of his family tree, the other two Argentine-born players who represented Italy in fall on the other side of the demographic divide. For further context on the information visualized within the chart, see Samuel L. In the case of the four soccer stars who shifted their allegiances from the albiceleste to the azzurri, Italian lineage was hardly absolute.
What the individual cases of the four players reveal anecdotally is that homogamous marriage seems to have been more common within the urban core of Buenos Aires than in other areas of the country. This also furthers the argument presented by Samuel Baily that reveals a more complicated picture of heterogamous marriage patterns that break along gender lines.
The racial discourses of Alberdi and other influential Argentine political theorists positioned Italians as less civilized than other immigrant ethnicities from northern Europe, and a subsequent lack of assimilation among these groups further increased the antagonism. But those prejudices were not pronounced enough to prevent the framers of the Constitution from more tightly restricting the scope of immigration to specific European countries, nor did it eliminate the economic incentives that made Argentina particularly attractive as a destination for Italian and Spanish emigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Those prejudices also did not necessarily extend beyond the elite classes, considering the increased prevalence of heterogamous marriage between Italian and Spanish immigrants and the criollo population. The increasing number of children who, like Raimundo Orsi, were the product of heterogamous marriages led to the creation of a new generation of Argentine citizens.
What, then, would lead a child such as Orsi to grow 30 Samuel L. Once Italian immigrants began to form a significant demographic presence in Argentina, and began to marry both other Italian immigrants as well as locals and other immigrant nationalities, it was inevitable that this process would help shape the local culture while at the same time retaining connections to their native lands.
The next chapter delves into how the nineteenth-century demographic shift in Argentina resulted in twentieth-century processes not only of contestation between immigrants and the extant populations but also of congregation and collaboration. But immigrants also had an important role to play in terms of helping in determining the course of modern Argentine national identity.
While institutional and unofficial prejudices played a part in the formation of Italian enclaves that conflicted with official Argentine goals for an assimilated society, Italians in Argentina did not remain fully insular or entirely endogamous in nature. Their affinity for natal lands was not static, but like other ethnicities with Argentina they coopted and adapted cultural forms from other groups and in turn contributed elements of their own culture to the emerging nationalist discourse. As such, the cultural influences that helped shape the early lives of Italo-Argentine individuals like Raimundo Orsi were not exclusively Italian, but also included influences from non-Italian immigrants like his grandfather Juan Yturriaga and native-born Argentine individuals such as his mother Gregoria Yturriaga.
Photo of Luis Monti Argentina who represented Italy in , Luis Monti is the most elusive and the most enigmatic of the group. After searching through two years of records for each of the eighteen parishes within Buenos Aires at the time of his birth, there was no child by that name recorded as being born on May 15, —the date commonly cited as his birthdate. The only person of this name listed within the records for this general period is listed as being born on March 16, Located just off the map to the lower left is the present-day location of Estadio Alberto J.
Armando, the home of Boca Juniors commonly known as La Bombonera. Note as well the railroads along both sides of the Riachuelo. Monti and Buono became members of the parish of San Juan Evangelista, and they began to create a life together within the community. By the time Monti was born, railroads cut into the city from the countryside right up to the docks, with lines running along both sides of the Riachuelo to economize the movement of cattle, wheat, and other agricultural commodities to the docks for export. Amid all this economic transformation, La Boca remained one of the main points where immigrants disembarked from their transatlantic voyages.
As a result, the area remained a center of heavy immigrant concentration through the first decades of the twentieth century. It was in this environment that Luis Monti was born in the spring of He grew up at a time when soccer was gaining a lasting foothold among the various ethnic communities represented among both immigrant and native-born groups.
The sport was taking root throughout the city, as groups of young men came together to form teams in neighborhoods both within Buenos Aires and in urban areas throughout the country. Within a few years of his birth, both River Plate and Boca Juniors had been formed within the barrio. The experiment lasted two years before the club returned to La Boca in , though the club remained nomadic before finally leaving La Boca permanently after completing construction of its current stadium in Belgrano.
That is because Boca Juniors emerged from origins that were more solidly anchored in ethnically rooted beginnings. Two-thirds of those immigrants were born in Italy, and subsequently two-thirds of the native-born population in La Boca was Italo-Argentine by ethnicity. There, the group hammered out the details that led to the mythic foundation of Boca Juniors on a park bench. At the time when Monti started his playing career in , River Plate was playing its final years in La Boca and Boca Juniors had already become a local institution.
Monti signed a contract with Boca Juniors the following year, but left to join San Lorenzo before playing a game representing the local club of his childhood community. It was in Almagro that he became a star, and from there where he eventually made his way to play alongside Orsi at Juventus after the World Cup in Uruguay. But this rationale also depended on the development of an Argentine society that had been irreversibly shaped by Italian immigrant culture and which provided the space for Italians and their offspring to continue identifying as Italian.
The previous chapter demonstrated some of the lingering racially-charged rhetoric and the shifting attitudes toward Italian immigrants that marked late-nineteenth century Argentina. Because the legalistic frameworks that made Argentina a desirable destination for immigrants did not always mesh with social and political attitudes toward certain immigrant groups, hundreds of thousands of Italian immigrants like Monti and Buono came together to form a strong diasporic Italo-Argentine identity in their new homeland.
Italian identity transmitted from immigrants through their progeny, and in turn also helped reshape Argentine national identity on a broader level. To better understand how players might have perceived their own identity as Italians and Argentinians in the s and s, it is critical to first gain a better understanding of how Italian identity formed among the Argentine diaspora over the first century of immigration. In considering this subject, we must look not only at Italian immigrant couples such as Monti and Buono but also at those immigrants who, like Lorenzo Orsi, married outside of the Italian diaspora.
But at the same time the limits to endogamy discussed in the previous chapter help explain how Italians became interwoven into broader Argentine society through familial as well as professional links and helped shape the direction of modern Argentine national identity. Forming Italian Identity and Institutions Abroad Despite the wishes of Alberdi and other Argentine leaders, the bulk of immigrants that came to Argentina in the late nineteenth century were not from northern Europe.
Instead, Italy and Spain accounted for nearly ninety percent of the transatlantic immigration to Argentina from through The first were the northwestern regions of Lombardy, Liguria, and Piedmont. The latter was the province of Chieti, situated in the Abruzzo region along the Adriatic coastline. For many lower-class individuals that made the transatlantic voyage from the Apennine Peninsula and its surrounding islands, Argentina presented a chance to shed their regional pasts and form a collective diasporic national identity in a way that had not been accessible in their homeland.
As early as the s, immigrants in Argentina and elsewhere in the Americas were beginning to identify themselves as Italian rather than by their regions 10 J. The first Italian mutual aid society, Unione e Benevolenza, was established in Buenos Aires in —four years before the full geopolitical consolidation of Argentina into its present configuration. Each catered to Italians who maintained differing ideological hopes for the future course of governance back in Italy. There, Italian immigrant labor constituted more than half of the working population on the farmlands of the two provinces as both tenant farmers, sharecroppers, hired labor, and independent landholders.
They were also one of the populations most prone to 12 Donna R. Links to Italy were also reinforced through the Italian-language press that began to develop in Argentina by the s. The largest newspaper, La Patria degli Italiani, had a regular circulation of 11, by and an estimated 40, regular readers by This and other newspapers championed Italian language and culture and reinforced already strong links with the burgeoning European republic. The commandments insisted not only upon maintaining trade links and patriotic fervor for the homeland but also passing these sentiments along to successive generations of foreign-born Italo-Argentine children.
Though he continued to grow up much like any other Argentine boy, we will see that Raimundo readily championed his links to Italy later in life. It was this lingering maintenance of Italian identity on Argentine soil that sparked the greatest backlash against the Italian diaspora. French and English populations also 15 Samuel L. But it must be noted that, whether born to two Italian immigrant parents like Monti or a heterogamous couple like Orsi, Italo-Argentine citizens did not remain wholly Italian. Successive waves of immigrants and their native-born progeny helped to shape Argentine identity.
They were also transformed by the rapidly urbanizing society as they interacted with extant Argentine populations and other immigrants from throughout Europe. While populations retained their own languages upon arriving in the Spanish- speaking country, recognizing one another as compatriots through these linguistics, they eventually came to learn Spanish.
This was usually the case even when immigrants did make efforts to learn Spanish prior to emigrating from Italy, as there was rarely any reference to the linguistic idiosyncrasies of Argentine Spanish in dictionaries, instruction manuals, and other educational materials on Spanish-language instruction in Italy in the decades leading up to World War I. Cocoliche, a nineteenth-century pidgin language merging Italian and Spanish forms that evolved into lunfardo, another linguistic form that disseminated popularly as the language of tango music. Like other Italian diasporas throughout South America as well as the United States, the growing Italian communities of Argentina operated in a liminal space where they were geographically of the Americas while remaining culturally and patriotically Italian.
The Italian community in Buenos Aires and elsewhere was simultaneously shaping Argentine society while remaining tied culturally to Italy. Patriotic links to the old country remained firmly in place as generations of agricultural laborers continued the seasonal migrations back and forth across the Atlantic and permanent expatriates passed on Italian identities to their children. As the next section details, this was but one of several economic links between Italy to Argentina.
The pattern of remittances and return migration that marked the lived experience for many Italians living abroad, both in Argentina and elsewhere, effectively positioned the Atlantic as an aquatic borderland. For decades, Italians living in Argentina had limited options to protect the wages and capital they acquired working abroad. The bank opened branch offices in La Plata and Rosario by , and soon other Italian banks began to form and service other communities in the interior such as Santa Fe and Chivilcoy.
Instead, much like Italian emigrants living in the United States and throughout Europe, Italo-Argentine populations availed themselves of various means of remitting money across the Atlantic both official and clandestine. Through these various channels, immigrants living in Argentina forward between ten and forty million lire annually back to Italy throughout the second half of the nineteenth century and into the early s.
So far, no correspondence between Argentina and Italy has been found from any of the World Cup players or their parents, but a look at one representative family can help us better understand the dynamics that linked diaspora to native land economically during the same period when Antonio Monti and Maria Buono were starting their family in a new homeland. A cache of correspondence from a pair of Italian brothers who emigrated permanently from Italy to Argentina in the first decade of the twentieth century provide a lens into at least the world of literate Italian immigrants which included Orsi.
The Sola brothers, Oreste and Abele, arrived in Buenos Aires in and respectively from Biella, a town located in the far northwestern corner of Italy. Baily and Franco Ramella, trans. We have no way of knowing whether Antonio Monti or Maria Buono ever sent money back to family in Romagna, but even Italian mechanics could make far better money in South America than a comparable position would provide in wages back home. Though perhaps not as fastidious in maintaining correspondence as the Sola family, it is not inconceivable that Monti and Buono would have maintained regular contact with family back in Romagna.
And, like so many other Italians who migrated to the Americas during the period, this correspondence would have potentially included the occasional remittance. While the Sola brothers present a representative picture of the individual workings of sending money back to family overseas from Argentina, they also offer an idealized picture of marriage. Not only did Oreste marry a fellow Italian immigrant but, like Monti and Buono, he wed a woman who emigrated from a community near his own Italian hometown.
The homogamy patterns among the Italian community in Buenos Aires, discussed in the previous chapter in the context of the Orsi family, indicate the likelihood of a far greater demographic variegation among subsequent generations who identified as Italo-Argentine than one might expect from a community that retained strong diasporic links to families that remained across the Atlantic. When men like Monti or Sola married a fellow Italian, they not only sought someone else from Italy but someone who emigrated more specifically from the same 26 Explcit references to remittances occur at seven points during the period from August to February See letters , , , , , , and in One Family, Two Worlds, , , , , , , Yet we know from the work of Baily and Ramella that the Sola brothers remained in Argentina, despite the frequent discourse throughout their letters talking about a return to Biella.
There is also no indication that either Antonio Monti or Maria Buono returned to their homeland at any point before, during, or after the period when their son played for Juventus and the azzurri. The formation of diasporic connections maintained links to the homeland, but it also created new geospatial connections within Argentina that proved lasting. In this way, even the most ardently patriotic Italian immigrants helped shape the direction of Argentine national identity in the twentieth century.
The shifting and multidimensional sociocultural landscape in which their children grew up helps explain why oriundi players such as Monti felt comfortable shifting identifying with multiple nationalities over the course of their careers. As the next section demonstrates, the intellectual shifts in Argentine public discourse regarding immigration also helped to shape this environment in which Italo-Argentine individuals were raised.
Italians received the heaviest scrutiny for what was perceived as an unwillingness to assimilate into broader Argentine society, but there was also no clear consensus as to how Italian culture might fit into Argentine society. In an ironic twist that will be highlighted further in the next chapter, native elites turned toward the same social structures that fostered ethnic integration of immigrants in hopes of promoting and preserving perceived Argentine traditions.
As the twentieth century dawned, this retention of diasporic Italian identity proved contentious as a new generation of Argentine intellectuals sought to more clearly define an ethnic basis for national identity. Having built a solidly European demographic base within Argentina, the goal of this generation was to turn those foreign elements into citizens.
Popular culture depicted immigrants as the source of criminality in urban spaces, which helped to inspire the passage of laws restricting immigration in and Reliance on foreign capital had created boom and bust cycles within the Argentine economy. Yet the blame for this cultural shift was placed mostly on immigrants. Italians and Spaniards alike came under heat from influential Argentine politicians such as Sarmiento for their unwillingness to assimilate, similarly to the smaller French and English communities.
Cricket, along with rugby and other British sports, remained niche pastimes confined to pockets of the British diaspora in Argentina.
The criollo elite of Argentine society turned toward polo as a way of mimicking and mythologizing the significance of gaucho equestrian traditions in a rapidly modernizing society. Instead, soccer proved most resilient in terms of accessibility and adaptability to the range of urban spaces available. Like other efforts, however, this was predicated in forming a singular identity out of this diverse pool of communities coexisting in the country.
Various individuals privileged ethnicity and language, specifically Spanish, in defining this identity. Others espoused religion, especially Catholicism, as the common denominator that underpinned Argentine identity. In that regard, soccer—originally introduced and popularized among the British expatriate community in the mids—was already positioned as one of the few cultural forms that transcended ethnicity among the agglomerated European populations in Argentina.
By the first decade of the s, soccer had expanded beyond Buenos Aires and was gaining popularity in urban centers throughout the country. As such, it provided a formative space for interactions between groups that helped construct this national identity. Each of their formative stories reveal the influence of Italians at this point of early development. These are the clubs that gained prominence as youngsters like Orsi and Monti grew up, and by the time the two sons of immigrants began their careers in Argentina these five clubs had firmly established their preeminent position thanks to the contributions of Italo-Argentine stars.
San Lorenzo, the third of the five clubs based in Buenos Aires and the team for which Luis Monti became an international sensation, was formed in January The location was less than ideal for the young athletes, as neighbors frequently complained until police arrived to scatter the assembled teams. This same period also saw the rise of clubs outside Buenos Aires. By , Racing Club from nearby Avellaneda became the first non-British club to win a league title. It is at Racing Club where Luis Monti, the only player to take the field in World Cup finals for two different teams, spent eight years of his career before migrating to Italy.
Independiente was first conceived in August when employees of a local department store who were prevented from playing for the company team gathered and formed their own club. Until soccer garnered enough interest to attract club development among a wider range of immigrants beyond the British diaspora, it could not develop solidly as an Argentine cultural form. This socialization process further indicates that insularity within the Italian diaspora only went so far in Argentina, and that this large pool of immigrants and their Italo-Argentine families readily contributed to the rise of this popular pastime much as they helped influence the linguistic and culinary developments discussed earlier in this chapter.
At the same time, the Italian diaspora retained strong links with its mother country that continued to grow over time even when families formed and stayed in Argentina. Italians living in Argentina thus maintained strong links between both the mother country and with their new communities outside the diaspora. In this way, the Atlantic Ocean remained a space of economic, cultural, and political exchange between the two coalescing nation-states.
Much of this exchange remained rooted in transatlantic migrations. Forty percent of Italian emigrants that disembarked in Argentina eventually made their way back to Italy during the first decade of the twentieth century. By the s, one-third of Argentine immigrants from Italy returned to their homelands. This continued exchange, coupled with the demographic shifts in the populace, meant that Argentine politicians were increasingly looking toward Italy as a cultural reference point.
As much as their paternal links helped Italo-Argentine soccer players identify with the country of their fathers, so too did the shift toward a country that increasingly allowed itself to absorb and adapt Italian culture as its own. In the next chapter, these bonds will be examined in greater detail. Even before Fascist Italy turned toward Argentina as a source of talent to stock its soccer league and its national team, Argentina increasingly embraced its links to Italy as it was demographically changed by Italian immigrants.
Italian cultural forms were gradually incorporated into this concept of la raza argentina as a means of expressing this link. Photo of Atilio Demaria Demaria was the son of two Italian immigrants. Seventeen years before Demaria was born, the area between Villa Alvear and Chacarita was on the urban fringes. Just as the urban space was expanding, Demaria grew up at a time when soccer was expanding in popularity, yet the fact that he was nearly a decade younger than Orsi and Monti also meant that he reached maturity at a time when the Argentine league was in drastically different shape than it had been at the beginning of the s.
Through the amateur era, three different schisms led to the formation of dissident leagues. Power struggles over institutional control of the sport had led to the increase in opportunities for new clubs to form, as clubs affiliated and disaffiliated over arguments that centered in one form or another over questions about money.
When the first tentative inflow of British capital entered Argentina in the s and s, emigrants from the United Kingdom accounted for four percent of the total number of immigrants entering Argentina. With these connections he developed strategies to insure the protection of the monuments and the procurement of archaeological material for the Museo Nacional. He then joined the staff of the New York Ophthalmic and Aural Institute, serving as Clinical Assistant and Interne until i when he returned to Havana and began the practice of his profession as eye and ear specialist. Furia Max 2. Golowich, Phys.
The fractious nature of this period for Argentine soccer simultaneously facilitated irruptions in club development and participation but which also diluted the competition level for all parties concerned. I have chosen to use the spelling of Demaria, without an accent, as this is how it appears on the baptismal record and the census records.
The issues that were beginning to come to a head when the Demaria brothers were in their youth would have a lasting impact that steered the course of their careers overseas. After the relationship between the two leagues was mended in , soccer operated in an uneasy holding pattern through World War I. Feuding between rival Olympic federations and rival national soccer federations caused Argentina to miss the April deadline for registering a team, preventing them from competing against the world in France.
Raimundo Orsi is crouching at the right end of the front row. Domingo Tarasconi, top scorer of the Amsterdam Olympic soccer tournament, is crouched second from the left in the front row. On its way to playing rival Uruguay for the gold medal, Argentina ran rampant over their competition, outscoring the United States, Belgium, and Egypt by a combined score to set up the South American 7 For more details on the schism within the Olympic committee and within Argentine soccer as it pertains to the Olympics see Cesar R.
The team was heavily dependent on the firepower of Italo-Argentine stars such as Domingo Tarasconi, a forward for Boca Juniors who scored eleven goals in Amsterdam and finished the tournament as the top scorer. Uruguay successfully defended its Olympic title with a replay victory after the teams tied in their first attempt to settle the championship.
Una classe di fronte alla quale occorre inchinarsi. Freshness of movement, spontaneous behavior, variety of playing, practical attitudes. A class in the face of which we must bow down. Components A, B??? The fourth component C , isolated between ?? C, shows a magnetic polarity stratigraphy and is interpreted as a primary magnetization acquired by the chert during, or soon after, deposition.
Both sequences are late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian in age, and an average paleolatitude calculated from all tilt-corrected C components is 1?? This result is consistent with deposition of the cherts beneath the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity and is similar to initial paleolatitudes determined for chert blocks in northern California and Mexico. This result supports our model in which deep-water Franciscan-type cherts were deposited on the Farallon plate as it moved eastward beneath the equatorial productivity high, were accreted to the continental margin at low paleolatitudes, and were subsequently distributed northward by strike-slip faulting associated with movements of the Kula, Farallon, and Pacific plates.
Upper Cretaceous turbidites of the Cachuma Formation were sampled at Agua Caliente Canyon to determine a constraining paleolatitude for accretion of the Jurassic chert sequences. These apparently unaltered rocks, however, were found to be completely overprinted by the A component of magnetization. Similar in situ directions and demagnetization behaviors observed in samples of other Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequences in southern and Baja California imply that these rocks might also give unreliable results.
En uno de. Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas. Full Text Available Rafael Donoso Anes, recientemente fallecido, ha dejado un gran legado como historiador de la Contabilidad. This contemporary black novel deals with the destruction of social order due to violence from drug trafficking.
As the novel unfolds, the prevailing perspective is determined by the presence of images corresponding to the myth, in particular, of an apocalyptic view of Mexican society. That use of the myth is part of a common tendency in new Latin American crime fiction. Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants and the island.
In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…. Elaboration of protocols as a guide in musculoskeletal ultrasound for radiology service of the Hospital Doctor Rafael A. Calderon Guardia. A protocol to guide residents and attending physicians at the Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia has been provided for regulating the work in the field the ultrasound of muscles, tendons and sonography. The staff has handled the ultrasound devices must understand the basis of the interaction of acoustic energy to the tissues and to know the methods and instruments have been used to produce and improve the quality of the image obtained.
The guide ultrasound normal locomotor allowed to have a model for service members and medical imaging radiology hospital; it has been prepared through a comprehensive literature review based on textbooks and current articles concerning the most important theoretical bases of the Doppler study, which covers the assessment of shoulder, elbow, wrist, knee and ankle. The data obtained in the study process, facilitated access to printed and digital information, which has led to diagnostic certainty and reliability of results.
Based on gravimetric and magnetic data, together with isostatic and elastic thickness analyses, we modeled the crustal structure of the area.
Information obtained has allowed us to understand the crust where the SRB and the Payenia volcanic province are located. However, in the Payenia region, elastic thickness values are close to zero due to the regional temperature increase. Heroes of Civilization. Risks of the ionizing radiations for the anesthesia personnel in operating room in Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia. The extent of the problem on the radiological exposure of anesthesiologists in the operating rooms was identified in the Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, San Jose, Costa Rica.
It was necessary to establish the risks in the professional disciplines more exposed to ionizing radiations, including Anesthesiology. Provides information on the radiations received by the anesthesia personnel as a risk factor of labor during professional practice. Within the findings were met dose ionizing radiation received by the participating subjects.
It was determined that the monthly doses do not reach the limits of permissible dose average. Besides, no relationship was found between the number of procedures that were used ionizing radiations and the values of dosimetric measurements personal; but, if the type of procedure. In this way was showed that in some radiointerventional procedures there is a higher risk of irradiation [es.
Malnutrition and body composition in urban and rural schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study in San Rafael , Mendoza Argentina. The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional status and body composition of children from San Rafael , Mendoza, avoiding urban and rural categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socio-environmental characteristics.
A cross-sectional study was performed in 3, schoolchildren from 4. Body weight, height, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured. Body mass index, total muscle, and fat areas of the arm were calculated. The socio-environmental variables were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. These variables were processed by categorical principal-component analysis catPCA. The catPCA allowed the differentiation of four groups, three with urban characteristics high urban, medium urban, impoverished urban , and a rural group.
Stunting occurred at a higher rate in the impoverished urban group, and the occurrence of underweight children was higher in the rural group. The latter value corresponded to children of the high urban group, who also did not show reduced muscle mass. Children from San Rafael presented differences in nutritional condition and body composition associated with pronounced socio-environmental heterogeneity.
Thus, we could observe a gradient from the "high urban" group, with better social, economic, and sanitation conditions and at the same time a more obesogenic environment to the "impoverished urban" and "rural" groups, whose vulnerability reflected a higher prevalence of child undernutrition and the association with excess weight and reduced muscle mass.
In turn, it presents a specific proposal of strategy to improve this aspect. Classy Rose Crop. Fertilizer application is one of the main technical activities made in rose crop, but it may cause an important environmental impact. The use of organic fertilizers has been low in this crop. An organic fertilizer as vermicompost contributes with some elements in better available forms, and improves some soil physical characteristics. El discurso gira entorno a la pobreza, la esperanza y el deseo del Presidente de continuar en el poder. The discourse talks of poverty, hope and the desire of the President to remain in power.
The audiovisual content contains elements designed to strike a chord in Ecuadorians, and the strategy is clearly one of persuasion. The superficial mycoses are very common infectious diseases and therefore are a frequent reason for medical consultation. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic frequency of superficial mycoses in the Mycology Department of the Instituto Nacional de Higiene " Rafael Rangel" during 14 years A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed to review the mycological records of patients with presumptive diagnosis of superficial mycosis.
Nails, hairs and epidermal scales were the processed samples. The identification of fungi was performed by macro and microscopic observation of colonies and biochemical and physiological tests, as required of the isolated agent. For the investigation of Malassezia spp. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum Complex The most frequent ringworms Were: Tinea unguium Candida parapsilosis complex The identification of the etiological agent is essential to guide appropriate treatment.
This study constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in our country. Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. Estas partituras se presentan en este texto. The ethical formation process of the learners who study Marxism-leninism and History. Particularities o f this process in Rafael Maria de Mendive teachers training university. This work takes as a starting point the materialistic and dialectical method, in the relation man-society, in the Pedagogy and General Didactics and in the current situation of this process.
Description of preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications of radical hysterectomy in patients of Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia: period Preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications were determined in patients with radical hysterectomy in gynecologic oncology service of Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia in The information derived from the qualitative variables were analyzed using frequency distributions and percentages.
The most common preoperative comorbidity has been hypertension, the most frequently encountered complication has been urinary incontinence. Postoperative complications have been located in a period less than three months. Fue presidente de Description of patients with bony tumors treated with prosthesis in reconstruction in the Servicio de Ortopedia at the Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia The use of prosthesis in reconstruction for the management of extensive tumor bone lesions.
The study of six patients treated is performed at the Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, who were treated for aggressive tumors in the period Bony tumors are conceptualized, as well as fundamental aspects of cell biology in its development and the classification of the same. Also, relevant information is included with relation to the most frequent indications and possible treatments.
In all six cases was placed the rescue prosthesis, four of them has been obtained excellent results. The study has made it possible to simultaneously to analyze some aspects of care to these patients; such as: time of biopsy, time of diagnosis, time of initiation of chemotherapy and surgical intervention time. Through this study has concluded that when referring to a malignant tumor of bone is absolutely essential that the process of diagnosis and initiation of treatment of limb salvage surgery are addressed as soon as possible.
Finally, some recommendations are raised to strengthen the treatment of malignant tumors in the Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia. Full Text Available Roxana E. Profundization of acetabular cup uncemented in total substitution of hip in-patient with acetabular dysplasia - Experience university hospital - Clinica San Rafael.
According to Crowe classification, one was type 1, eight were type 2 and five were type 3. The average follow up was twenty-four months. The Harris hip score was used for the clinical evaluation with a pre operative average of 35 points and 37 points post operative. The average internization of the femoral head's center was 26mm. We did not have complications nor implant revision at the time of follow up.
Design the organizational model for the creation of a radiation protection service in hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. The search for new ways to protect occupationally exposed population, external users and the environment has been the need to optimize all aspects of radiation protection, to prevent incidents or accidents, by the use of ionizing radiation. Proposal consists in carrying out field work to be involving staff who work with ionizing radiation in the areas of diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine in hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, Hospital Mexico and Hospital San Juan de Dios.
The collected data were coded and analyzed for a situational diagnosis of radiation protection. The results have led to the proposal of the Design of an Organizational Model for Radiological Protection Service to the hospitals included in the investigation. Theoretical basis. Full Text Available The working training needs of the general workers not teaching staff from the universities of pedagogical sciencies are not common issues in pedagogical research.
Such grounds are identified in the philosophy and the sociology of education, the historical-cultural approach by L. Vigotski and his followers, the Theory of Advanced Education, and the contents of the environmental education, along with the parameters to qualify an environmentalist educator. Nuevas evaluaciones deben inferir las causas que influyen en el incremento en la presencia de LIE a edades tempranas.
MedUNAB ; ]. The original Portuguese text is an anti-Christian work which was well known in a number of Protestant, anti-Trinitarian and atheistic circles during the eighteenth century. Its diffusion has been studied by Martin Mulsow; however, the text itself still lacks an edition. Rafael Correa y las elecciones The statistics of the Servicio de Otorrinolaringologia y Cirugia de Cabeza y Cuello de Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia were described, in terms of thyroid surgery; in the period from January 1, to December 31, , compiling cases of operated patients.
Due to the increase in the diagnosis of these diseases in the Costa Rican hospital environment and the lack of an instrument to evaluate the therapeutic action, the need to perform an evaluation of the surgical management given to thyroid pathology is born. Through a table of data complications and the systematic review of the records of the population, the presentation of the results obtained was made using the inclusion criteria such as: patients older than 12 years, diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid pathology with need of surgical resolution, presence of BAAF reported in medical record, case report of patient in interdisciplinary thyroid session, with surgery or surgeries performed in the period between January and December , with a written report of surgery and biopsy defined with medical record.
Full Text Available In the Spanish situation of major transformations that occurred between the eighteenth and nineteenth century, citizens of all social classes and professional occupations were the true architects of all cultural, ideological and political changes that took place. In an attempt to better understand the essence of some of these popular and religious social components, this paper aims to briefly present the most relevant biographical notes about Rafael D. A man of the Church, well educated, who enjoyed a comfortable economic status that gave him a good education and high social consideration from his neighbors.
These pages seek to define this religious figure who, from a local level and a humble exercise of his religious ministry, helped to spread the message of the Catholic faith at a time of great stress and generalized crisis in Spain. Gasset's political protagonism in the crucial times of 98 would be inexplicable without taking into account the authority conferred by his newspaper, the. The glaciers are a natural global resource and one of the principal climate change indicator at global and local scale, being influenced by temperature and snow precipitation changes.
Among the parameters used for glacier monitoring, the surface velocity is a key element, since it is connected to glaciers changes mass balance, hydro balance, glaciers stability, landscape erosion. GEE has been recently released by Google as a platform for petabyte-scale scientific analysis and visualization of geospatial datasets.
The algorithm of SAR off-set tracking developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of the University of Rome La Sapienza has been integrated in a cloud based platform that automatically processes large stacks of Sentinel-1 data to retrieve glacier surface velocity field time series. We processed about Sentinel-1 image pairs to obtain a continuous time series of velocity field measurements over 3 years from January to January for two wide glaciers located in the Northern Patagonian Ice Field NPIF , the San Rafael and the San Quintin glaciers.
Several results related to these relevant glaciers also validated with respect already available and renown software i. Destes, 64 continham Amblyomma auricularium, 7 Amblyomma parvum e 12 Amblyomma sp. Exemplares de A. Oito exemplares de A. Entreseptiembre de y agosto Entre septiembre de y agosto de Entre septiembre de y agosto de Entreseptiembre de y ago Rafael A.
To determine the epidemiological profile of the patients who suffered traumatic brain injury TBI and were treated at the Dr. An observational, descriptive, retrospective and cross section study was performed on all the patients with TBI and who were admitted to the emergency room of the HCG during the period to There were a total of cases, of which records were obtained of patients who had the variables established in this study, excluding those with incomplete or inconsistent information. The present study established the epidemiological profile of the TBI in the population seen during the period to at the HCG.
It was determined that the male sex made up the majority of the cases were male, with mean age of 46 years. The mortality rate was It was observed that the majority were farmers, followed by students, and then construction workers. No chronic illnesses were recorded in No alcohol or other drugs were reported in The clinical and laboratory parameters that had statistical significance Paccidents being the main cause of these lesions Also, the consequences of such are aggravated when the victims present with chronic diseases such as, systemic arterial hypertension and mellitus diabetes.
As regards the post-traumatic indicators directly related to a poor outcome, it was determined that a GCS score equal to or less than 8, a mean blood pressure less than 60, the prolongation of the coagulation times, the presence of mydriasis, and skull fractures, have a direct association with the negative or fatal outcome for the. El sobrepeso y la obesidad fueron determinados utilizando los criterios del International Obesity Task Force.
La obesidad en cambio, se concentra principalmente en la zona rural. Rafael Tasis i el teatre. Alberti, Rafael : Cal Y canto. Full Text Available Without doubt, the most outstanding professional and intellectual side in the different activities carried out by Bachiller professor Rafael Ballester in the first three decades in the 20th century is that of being author of school handbooks, being some worldwide successful. His other facets, as a historian of education, as a researcher of scientific methodology and didactics of teaching and as a pioneer in studies of historic historiography, pale beside the strength of his contributions as successful author of school handbooks of history and geography.
An estimate of the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the myocardial perfusion study was performed for the detection of the disease. Then, these values were related to socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients submitted to the diagnosis.
Risk of developing acute kidney injury associated to contrast media in patients with severe acute pancreatitis, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, September to December The risk of acute kidney injury associated to contrast media is described in patients with severe acute pancreatitis in the Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos of the Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia of September to December The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the population studied are identified by data collecting, obtained from clinical records and statistical database of the Intensive Care Unit.
The magnitude of the problem is determined by calculating the prevalence of acute kidney injury and possible complications in the study group. Radiologic studies realized by intravascular contrast media were used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The incidence of acute renal injury induced by contrast media has been of the Acute kidney injury induced by contrast media is associated with an increase use of health resources, prolonged hospital stay and increased of the hospital mortality. The diagnostic process is described from admission of the patient to hospital [es.
We exemplify its work in promoting geographical research glossing three theses, which fall within the studies related to the urban geography of Madrid, one of the priority research lines of the teacher. Then, the historical evolution of residential landscape of Madrid and typical examples until the early seventies by Dolores Brandis.
Aviadores en el desierto. Patterns recurrence of gastric cancer in patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiation in the Servicio de Oncologia Medica of Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia in the period and The pattern of relapse is described in patients with gastric cancer who received adjuvant chemoradiation at the Servicio de Oncologia Medica of Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia in the period The evolution of the disease is described.
Types of relapse are explained in gastric cancer patients who received chemotherapy-adjuvant radiotherapy. The magnitude of the problem is identified by the calculation of incidence, survival and mortality. The variables of age, sex, functional status according to ECOG , tumor characteristics, staging TNM , type of surgery, type of nodal dissection, period between surgery and postoperative therapy were used for a descriptive analysis.
Survival analysis is performed using Kaplan - Meier curves from the date of surgery until the date of death or the last control. The online biostat and biomates programs are used to process information. Lymph node dissection has a significant impact on patient survival, as well as the duration of chemotherapy treatment, the presence of positive lymph nodes and other features such as the presence of seal ring cells and lymphovascular invasion.
More radical ganglionic dissections and more effective treatments can achieve better results in patient survival [es. As a result of the expedition the artist produced around twenty photographs, drawings, and several letters that were ultimately published by the Spanish pictorial magazine El Museo Universal. This paper analyzes both this discourse and its expression in relation to California, a then recently incorporated US territory. This work begins by the characterization of the workshops, the principles that guide its functioning, its characteristics and ultimat ely, a sample of them.
This way, motivation is a leading aspect since it sets in constant reciprocal determination and transformation: the need of the personality, the reflection of the real world, and the fundamental way to achieve the preparation of the teacher to be in the school practice. The putting into practice of this system in the subject Language and Communication strengthens the language and the literature, as well as the development of motivation toward the profession in those students lacking of reasons to take over with authentic values, the quality of the teaching staff required in the new educational contexts.
Full Text Available When a family member assumes the role of caregiver, it is the family cohesion one of the key elements in the development of caregiver burden syndrome, being in turn the adaptive response of the family a factor that positively affects the course of the disease. The study was performed between February and April , through a transversal and descriptive research. From the 23 cases evaluated, the female gender predominated among caregivers of cancer patients, the age group years and caring times between months.
Regarding the level of caregiver burden syndrome in caregivers, 14 cases It was concluded that a greater degree of family functioning promoted a lower prevalence of caregiver burden syndrome. In addition, a direct relationship was shown between the time spent on patient care and the level of caregiver burden syndrome present in the caregiver. During the same century, writer Juan Rafael Allende managed to create a parallel, if not alternative world which demolished such suspect sublimity. Projecting this mode into the 19th century, Allende turned it into a weapon to be used against the gravitas of the formal Market and State.
In particular, his attacks were leveled against renowned. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture physical appearance or characteristics of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum.
On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology.
In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral.
Cartas de Amor en tiempos de guerra. Rafael Uribe Uribe. Clave de una figura clave. Macroinvertebrate and organic matter export from headwater tributaries of a Central Appalachian stream. This dataset is associated with the Proceedings of the seventh scientific meeting at San Rafael , november Compilation of 68 papers on a variety of aspects and problems arising from the maintenace, commissioning and operation of Argentina's nuclear power plants and reactors.
The subjects are referred, in particular, to reactor components and accesories,including fuel elements and chemical treatment of water, as well as the respective control systems and radiochemistry. Depositional environments as a guide to uranium mineralization in the Chinle formation, San Rafael Swell, Utah. The sedimentary textures resulting from depositional processes operating in low-energy environments appear to have influenced uranium mineralization.
The Chinle consists of three fining-upward, fluvial-lacustrine sequences. Uranium minerals are concentrated in the lower part of the lowest sequence in areas where sediments of low-energy environment are complexly interbedded with sediments of other environments. Areas favorable for uranium exploration exist in the subsurface to the north, west, and south of the Chinle outcrop in the Swell.
This determination is based on the spatial distribution of depositional environments and the pattern of Chinle deposition through time. The covered area Como resultados de este proyecto se tiene como evidencia archivos digitales dentro de los cuales se encuentra una cartilla digital, situada en la plataforma de la ESREY, videos y entrevistas de los participantes con los que se llevaron a cabo el proyecto.
Dalle matrici formali dell'opera di Oteiza e Chillida. The experience of void, essential to the production of forms and to make use them, can be considered as the base of the activities that attend to the formative processes. If void and matter constitutes the basic substances of architecture.
Their role in the definition of form, the symbolic value and the constructive methods of it defines the quality of the space. This job inquires the character of space in the architecture of Moneo interpreting the meaning of the void in the Basque culture th Characterization of mammographic findings radiological studies, in radiology service Hospital Doctor Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia during the year The radiological findings are determined in reading mammography studies between the months of May and June in the radiology service of Hospital Calderon Guardia.
The association of pathologies is determined between breast pathology, age group and sex. A control allowing identification of geographic areas with higher reference is established for realization of mammograms. The pathologies resulting from the reading of mammographic studies are quantified and classified. The lower Mesozoic succession of central and northeastern Mexico was deposited in a late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic remnant basin, formed at the westernmost culmination of the Ouachita-Marathon geosuture, after closure of the Rheic Ocean.
Petrographic, geochemical, and detrital zircon geochronology studies indicate that both, marine and continental Triassic successions, come from a continental block and partially from a recycled orogen, showing grenvillian Ma and Pan-African Ma zircon age populations, typical for peri-gondwanan blocks, in addition to zircons from the Permo-Triassic East Mexico arc Ma.
The absence of detrital zircons from the southwestern North American craton, represent a strong argument against left lateral displacement of Mexico to the southwest during the Jurassic up to their actual position, as proposed by the Mojave-Sonora megashear hypothesis. Towards the end of the Triassic or in earliest Jurassic time, began the subduction along the western margin of Pangea, which causes deformation of the Late Triassic Zacatecas Formation and subsequent magmatism in the continental Jurassic arc known as "Nazas Arc ", whose remnants are now exposed in central- to northeastern Mexico.
Wide distributed in northern Mexico occurred also deposition of a red bed succession, overlying or partially interstratified with the Early to Middle Jurassic volcanic rocks of the Nazas Formation. To the west and southwest, such redbeds change transitionally to marine and marginal sedimentary facies which record sedimentation at the ancient paleo-pacific margin of Mexico La Boca and Huayacocotla formations. The Middle to Upper Jurassic La Joya Formation overlies unconformable all continental and marine-marginal successions and older rocks, and records the transgressive basal deposits of the Gulf series, changing upsection to the evaporites and limestone of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Group.
Successive intraoceanic subduction zones to the West sparked magmatic arcs whose accretion in the continental margin produced the consolidation of much of the Mexican territory up to the current Pacific margin. Scattered isolated outcrops from the Early Mesozoic succession in central- and northeastern Mexico allow interpretation of tectonic setting and paleogeography associated to each stratigraphic unit, revealing a strongly different geologic evolution than the previously established models, opening a range of new possibilities and areas of opportunity for mining and fossil fuels exploration.
However, most of the Triassic-Jurassic rocks or stratigraphic units in northern Mexico lie under many hundreds of meters of a Cretaceous-Cenozoic cover. Their recognition and preliminary evaluation implies the use of indirect techniques like geophysical methods, before drilling or subsurface mining. From to , their fieldwork affected large areas of the city and important remains were uncovered.
In this article, the results of the revision of old documents from these excavations are presented. In short, this work has allowed the reconstruction of the fieldwork campaigns, particularly those carried out between and , and also their location in the general plan of the site. All together this represents a remarkable advance in the knowledge of the topography in this provincial Roman city. Isasi en Sus trabajos se prolongaron con cierta regularidad hasta y afectaron a amplias zonas realizando hallazgos destacables.
Security in transport, storage and disposal of radioactive materials, providing to the department of nuclear medicine in hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. The security is analysed for the transport and storage of radioactive sources and the management of radioactive waste product of practices and interventions in nuclear medicine services in hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico.
The objective is to assess the compliance with current regulations, the effectiveness and efficiency of the same. The security and compliance with current regulations were considered related to the transport of radioactive sources by the two private companies that provide this service, from the Juan Santamaria airport customs to three hospitals evaluated.
Compliance with national and international rules on storage of radioactive sources and waste materials were analyzed. For this has been studied Costa Rican law and the recommendations of international organizations related to the subject matter, in the three nuclear medicine services valued. The national and international background related to radiological accidents occurred with radioactive sources during transport, storage and waste were revised, where highlights that in most cases, these accidents occurred for breach of the regulations established.
Studies in Costa Rica on radioactive waste management were analysed, and the current status of nuclear medicine services in terms of radiation safety, which helped with the investigation. The compliance and regulations were analyzed by the result of observation and interviews during development, to finally make a series of findings and provide recommendations that are considered relevant.
Various variants and indicators that are defined in the theoretical framework were used; also, the strategy of methodology is described. The purpose of the work has been to provide a scientific nature, and that methodology met the objectives, offering an approach from different angles and the actors involved, and a critical and objective analysis strictly in order to contribute to public health. The research is a valuable tool that provides a guide for the improvement and enforcement the law in the use and transport of ionizing radiation. Rafael Rojas. Para el estudio de este momento especifico del pensamiento hispanoamericano, el autor del libro Las republicas de aire.
Este proyecto se ha reali National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected under a cooperative mapping program between the U. We can find: the idealization and glorification of Don Quixote, the disappearance of scatological elements, the disappearance or modification of subversive elements for example the ones related to the Muslim universe, and the simple and plain ideological manipulation. Amazunculus is an exclusively Neotropical genus which occurs mostly in the Amazon biome. They are large bodied Pipunculidae, easily identified by their flattened hind tarsus and curved dm-cu wing vein.
Described here are Amazunculus cordigaster n. An identification key to the six species of Amazunculus is provided. Design is an Attitude. Arttiklen beskriver den mexicanske designer Rafael Davidsons arbejder gennem en menneskealder, samt hans visioner for mexicansk design i fremtiden I am glad we managed to catch the bugs and make many The importance of the use of aspiration biopsy with ultrasonic-guided fine needle is recognized as screening method for diagnosis of thyroid nodules. The use set of advanced imaging techniques and modified techniques of biopsy is implemented in order to increase the diagnostic security of thyroid lesions.
The incidental finding of thyroid nodules or incidentalomas has soared dizzily, since the advent of ultrasound as an element in the valuation of thyroid disease and thyroid in the neck. A growing number of endocrinologists are using aspiration biopsy with ultrasound guided fine needle of thyroid nodules as initial diagnostic procedure to identify discrete nodules with a direct location. The percentage of malignant nodules or that require surgery by size or symptomatology, generally, is very low, had to be established a systematic approach to reducing morbidity and mortality associated with major surgery of the neck and reduce costs.
This biopsy has been a specific method, sensitive and inexpensive. Among the complications that can occur is the formation of hematoma and pain, which are rare. On the other hand, the sonographic guidance is essential for biopsy nonpalpable nodules helping to ensure proper placement of the needle for a more accurate sampling. The nodule with the most striking characteristics or suggestive of malignancy can be biopsied, in patients with multiple nodules, instead of taking the largest size, namely irregular or microlobulated, marked hypoechogenicity, presence of microcalcifications and shape taller high than wide.
Performance evaluation of the activity meters of nuclear medicine services of the hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon, San Juan de Dios and Mexico during the period from July 1, to December 31, Nuclear medicine has used radioisotopes associated to drugs in order to get them to an organ of interest. The radioisotope has the quality to emit radiation, which passes through the body, after being admitted to it, and this is perceived by equipment such as a gamma camera to study the behavior of the organ under study.
The radiation is a energy emission able to boot electrons from atoms and produce ions, thus the chemical composition may be altered, resulting in alterations in the cells. Conditions such as: a onreproductive of the cells, causing a tumor; or alterations in geminal cells, causing genetic alterations, which may occur in the offspring of an individual.
For the above reason is that the use of radiopharmaceuticals should be as careful as possible, doing as little radiation exposure, without compromising the quality of the study, these should be applied with more important in more radiosensitive population such as children and older adults. The doses used in nuclear medicine are quantified using a device called activity meters and the proper functioning of the overexposures shall impose or low-quality studies doses outside the range of usefulness. The operation of these machines based on the quality control logs have been studied to discover if there are alterations in dosages of nuclear medicine departments of hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico.
Tests of zero settings, display, physical monitoring, high voltage, linearity test, stability, background radiation, precision, accuracy and consistency have been performed as quality control. This research is classified as non-experimental longitudinal quantitative. The study population was the record set and the realization of quality control tests made to the hospital activity meters above. The collection of data was performed by two steps, the first taking records concerning quality control of the different hospitals, completed tabulation, gratification and analysis of the same.
The second step of this study was the preparation of quality control testing and evaluation guide by the students. Some of the conclusions and recommendations that have been found are: a implementation of a quality control program standardization of quality control program at national level , b purchase of equipment according to needs and service capabilities, c proper training and commitment of staff, d properly calibrated instruments and within their lifetime, e log analysis and graphics, f implementation of a corrective plan, g interdisciplinary collaboration, h clarification of responsibilities, i establishment of relations between the service-provider-vendor, j periodic review of instruments and sources of quality control, k acceptance testing, and calculation of geometric dependence of calibration factors, l in case of any anomaly suspend the use of activity meters to investigate the cause of the alteration.
The objective of this work is to show that the conflict between political power and media power have always existed, since the earliest ways of journalism in Greece and Rome, during the Middle Age, with the invention of printing press, during the French Revolution, with the Industrial Revolution until our times. Conflicts between political power and media power have place all over the world in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America where even neoliberal governments like Barack Obama have p Skulptori, graafiku ja maalikunstniku Rafael Arutjunjani loomingut kajastavast raamatust " Rafael Arutjunjan.