Influenza (German Edition)

"abdominal influenza" in German
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weygouk.com/cache/2019-07-07/2163.php The results of epidemiological outbreak investigations did not provide any indications for direct connections between the holdings affected in Germany and the endemic regions in East or Southeast Asia. It must be mentioned that import bans on poultry and poultry products are in force for all countries affected from HPAI.

Since mid-December a further subtype, H5N5, has been circulating in wild birds, which now has first been introduced into a poultry holding. Mixed viruses, so-called reassortants, of avian influenza viruses are generated, if several virus subtypes are present in one infected animal and exchange genetic material during replication. Thus, a further diversification of the viruses is to be expected given the multitude of currently circulating high and low pathogenic influenza strains.

It remains to be seen whether the number of HPAI cases in wild birds will continue to decrease over the next weeks. At present, single cases still are reported sporadically from different federal states mainly inland states. Therefore, the risk of introduction by wild birds into domestic poultry holdings and birds kept in zoological gardens in Germany by direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry in areas where HPAI H5 infected wild birds are found is considered to be high.

In Lower Saxony, particularly in the district Cloppenburg, the risk of introduction due to a spread of the virus between poultry holdings is considered to be high. For waterfowl kept in captivity the risk of an unrecognized circulation of HPAI H5 viruses and of a spread between poultry holdings is considered to be high. The number of cases reported from various parts of Europe increases daily; often also birds kept in zoological gardens and animal parks are affected.

In Germany, the case numbers in wild birds and the number of outbreaks in bird holdings 69 have reached an unprecedented level. So far, the virus has been detected in 47 different bird species including species belonging to the categories diving ducks, grebes, sea gulls, swans, in isolated cases dabbling ducks mallard duck , geese, birds of prey and also carrion-eating songbirds e. It must be concluded that there is an ongoing HPAI H5N8 epidemics among wild water bird species and that the dead birds found possibly represent no more than the tip of the iceberg.

Many water bird species e. They can excrete the virus with the feces and contaminate the respective surfaces and waterbodies. If the frosty weather continues, further dynamic migratory movements of birds must be expected. Most water bird species flee from the cold, i. Such weather conditions can lead to a spread of the infection among wild birds in inland areas and in Southern Europe.

In the affected animal parks, mostly water birds with possible contact to wild waterfowl were affected. Most outbreaks in affected holdings were primary outbreaks which did not spread any further; three cases however are highly likely to be secondary outbreaks. In all locations where contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry are possible infections can be introduced and distributed and new sources of infection can develop. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in 26 European countries and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high , particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural cropland where wild birds gather.

Emphasis is put on the creation of a physical and functional barrier between wild bird habitats and domestic poultry holdings. Mandatory indoor housing of poultry and other biosafety measures minimize the risk of direct and indirect contact with infected wild birds. A spread of infections between poultry holdings must be prevented.

In Germany, the case numbers in wild birds and the number of outbreaks in poultry holdings and zoological gardens have reached an unprecedented level. So far, the virus has been detected in 46 different bird species including species belonging to the categories diving ducks, grebes, sea gulls, swans, in isolated cases dabbling ducks mallard duck , geese, birds of prey and also carrion-eating songbirds e.

As at present mainly wild birds which have been found dead are investigated, it is unknown which other bird species may possibly carry the virus and do not develop symptoms of disease or die. Furthermore, predators mammals such as foxes and martens, but also birds of prey and crows may break up carcasses of dead waterfowl and carry away parts of the carcasses or inner organs, thus causing a considerable contamination of the environment. Almost all of these holdings are located in areas where increased numbers of dead water birds, in many cases infected with HPAI H5N8, have been found. In most cases, direct or indirect introduction via contaminated material shoes, vehicles, objects is the most likely route of infection.

Most outbreaks in affected holdings were primary outbreaks which did not spread any further, one case however is highly likely to be a secondary outbreak. First genetic analyses show a similarity to H5N8 viruses which were first detected in Southern Russia in the summer of Phylogenetic analyses lead to the assumption that on the way from Central Asia to Central Europe reassortment events with at least one other avian influenza virus have taken place, which suggests that introduction via direct transport of poultry or poultry products from Asia is unlikely.

This virus is is likely to be a reassortant based on the original H5N8. Generation of reassortants must be expected when different high and low pathogenic influenza viruses are circulating in one population. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in 23 European countries and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Full-length risk estimation dated January 24, in German language only. So far, the virus has been detected in 35 different bird species including species belonging to the categories diving ducks, grebes, sea gulls, swans, in isolated cases dabbling ducks mallard duck , geese, birds of prey and also carrion-eating songbirds e. In all these cases, direct or indirect introduction via contaminated material shoes, vehicles, objects is the most likely route of infection.

Due to the genetic variability no reliable conclusions with regard to the virulence of the currently circulating pathogen are possible at present. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Europe and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Full-length risk estimation dated 22 December in German language only. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Europe and in currently 13 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Full-length risk estimation dated 2 December in German language only. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Europe and in currently 13 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Full-length risk estimation dated 25 November in German language only. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Europe and in currently eight affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Full-length risk estimation dated 18 November in German language only. Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Poland, Hungary, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany the risk of introduction through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is assessed as high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl. Currently, there is no evidence of virus mutations. To date, no reliable data are available with regard to the virulence of the pathogen for humans, as virus mutations cannot be excluded.

The worldwide avian influenza situation, triggered by different influenza A virus subtypes has calmed down after peaking in the first half of In Europe, the last detection of lineage clade 2. In summary, the risk for the introduction and spread of HPAIV into poultry holdings in Germany is assessed as low for legal trade from third countries and introduction through passenger and vehicle traffic. A moderate risk applies for illegal trade from third countries as well as trade between member states. Introduction and spread of HPAIV through wild birds presents a low-moderate risk, which will increase from August onwards due to migratory activity of the birds.

November 08, Risk Assessment, May 17, May 02, Risk Estimation, Conclusions and recommendations It remains to be seen whether the epidemic will cease throughout Europe over the next weeks. Observance of strict biosafety measures in all poultry holdings, also small-scale holdings, zoological gardens, animal parks and shelters, if necessary by means of check lists Joint use of equipment, carcass containers and vehicles by poultry holdings should be avoided Access of vehicles and persons to poultry holdings should be limited as far as possible.

After entering a poultry holding persons who regularly take care of the animals in one holding should refrain from visiting other poultry holdings for the following 72 hours. Veterinarians and other professionals who visit poultry holdings should interrupt their tour and observe the recommended quarantine period after accessing a holding where clinical signs or losses indicate an outbreak of HPAI.

March 31, Conclusions and recommendations It remains to be seen whether the number of HPAI cases in wild birds will continue to decrease over the next weeks. February 13, Conclusions and recommendations Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in 26 European countries and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high , particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural cropland where wild birds gather.

January 24, Conclusions and recommendations Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in 23 European countries and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather.

Dezember 22, Conclusions and recommendations Due to the current spread of HPAIV H5N8 in wild birds in Europe and in currently 15 affected German States the risk of introduction into domestic poultry holdings and captive bird holdings in zoological gardens through direct and indirect contacts between wild birds and domestic poultry is estimated to be high, particularly for holdings in the vicinity of resting and gathering areas of waterfowl, including agricultural crop land where wild birds gather. Dezember 02, November 25, November 18, November 09, March 18, Juni 03, LPAI , May 27, Heinrich Neubauer PD Dr.

Tomaso Dr. Elschner Dr. Henning Dr. Hotzel Dr. Klaus Dr. Linde Dr. Melzer PD Dr. Methner Dr. Schmoock Dr. Seyboldt Dr.

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Few countries reported influenza virus detections in non-sentinel specimens. Of 81 sentinel Influenza intensity, spread and dominant virus type/subtype. Weekly reports on influenza activity in Europe throughout the flu season are available as Flu News Europe reports and weekly infographic. Flu News Europe - Joint ECDC and WHO/Europe weekly influenza update. During the Publication.

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Balkema-Buschmann Dr. Diederich Dr. Eiden Dr. History shows that the danger of the illness should not be underestimated. Each evening at UTC DW's editors send out a selection of the day's hard news and quality feature journalism. You can sign up to receive it directly here. Public health experts have urged "everyone older than six months" to receive a vaccine. Australia has witnessed a severe flu season and one particularly virulent strain, prompting fears in Europe and the US. It's not always easy for people to tell the difference between a cold and a flu right away. What distinguishes influenza from a common cold?

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Audiotrainer Deutschtrainer Die Bienenretter. News Flu season wreaks havoc on German workforce Influenza is taking its toll on productivity, affecting schools, offices, public transportation and even professional soccer. Share Interview: Common cold or influenza? Interview: Common cold or influenza?

Severe flu season anticipated for Europe, US Public health experts have urged "everyone older than six months" to receive a vaccine. Do I have the flu or the common cold?