mestralonline.org/sites/56-generisch-azithromycin.php Harold Kent bulletin 30 to Principals discussing "Ship's Monkey" story and radio program. Cassell bulletin 32 to Principals telling of city-wide high school music activities. Superintendent's bulletin 60 to Principals gives plans for "Eastward Sweeps the Current," story. Cassell bulletin 43 informs Principals of a college prep.
Superintendent's announcement 80 to Principals listing chairmen and speakers at conference meetings. Central Standard Time Programs' Shown; listeners' aids and sources of information about programs; listeners' aids; general guides and publications; Chicago radio stations, bibliography. Science Story Teller, lecture series at public service institutions, Sept. Science Reporter, lecture series at public service institutions, Sept.
List of Radio Workshop plays, directed by George Jennings, with cast members names. Johnson bulletins , Robinson offers a dramatic indictment of reckless driving. This is based on a true story. Cassell bulletin informs high school principals of radio programs featuring fields of work. Harold B. Clarence M. A Comprehensive Workshop in Radio Summer, , registration blank. Letter from Captain Harold W. Association for Education by Radio copy of brochure includes membership blank.
Superintendent's bulletin to school principals re: handbook and materials availability. Jennings' news release announcing the start of the 8th year of school broadcasts. Eighth annul meeting of the School Broadcast Conference, will be held Oct. Superintendent invites principals to send 15 or 20 students to the Central Radio Workshop.
Advisory Committee of School Broadcast Conference to vote for 6 people who have done an outstanding job in educational radio in the past year. In-school radio utilization procedure, upper grade social studies Hookway School. Plan for newscast demonstration lesson, by Florence C. Ruth, 6th grade teacher, Dixon Elementary School. Jennings' bulletin tells of special broadcasts celebrating the years of the first public school building in Chicago. Speech by Anne O. Greetings from frequency modulation, held in Columbus!
Special Programs, Nov. John A. Bartky, President. Special Scripts, Sept. Program no. Special Scripts, Johnson's Talk to Graduates. Johnson, Supt. Script is for study or performance in the classroom, not for performance over the air. Johnson's Address. Daniel F. Letter from Harry L. Edward J. Kelly; Hon. James B. McCahey; Dr. Johnson; Right Rev. Staff Meeting Minutes, Kent will ask teachers to ask one teacher to attend the radio workshop; Miss Tynan suggested to be the Story Lady for the rest of the semester.
Kent pointed out the importance of supervision; outlines of each script would be submitted and constructive criticism encouraged. Kent to appear on Ohio Institute of the Air. Schloerb and Medsgar; water cooler; visits to Bollings during the day; evaluation sheet; parent-teacher course of study; Teachers' Day at Teachers' College, May 27th.
Jimmy Whipple, Paul Dowty, guests. Summer workshops, II. Luncheon for Cecele, III. High school workshop group, trip to Urbana, IV. Graduation program. Wilt, guest. Science programs, and the various angles of them, II. Assistance of staff is requested in connection with scripts for Jimmy Whipple for summer workshop. Suggestions for speakers at morning assembly for workshop will be welcome. Cecele's luncheon.
Elementary graduation broadcast. Criticisms of Ohio State Conference. Workshops for next summer. Third school broadcast conference. WBN oratorical contest Myrtle Stahl's suggestion. WBBM musical program. High school problems-broadcast Ruby Yetter's suggestion. Suggestions on trips out to schools.
Radio workshop handbook.
Open Sesame handbook. Let's Tell a Story handbook. December conference speakers. Scripts and handbooks must definitely be completed by September 1. Class in audio-visual education from Northwestern University is coming. Possibility of in-service workshops. Workshops for summer Out-of-school programs. December conference? Summer testing and evaluation program worthwhile. Clipping file. George will contact radio people on trip out west. Office of Education Project has been approved for 6 people only. Program bulletin.
In-service classes approved. Executive committee meeting of School Broadcast Conference this afternoon. Studio schedule will be posted. Discussion groups will have a private conference. Music department. Visiting-one per week. Library communication. What about a preview program? Radio dinner group. Demonstration of use of Zenith radio. Advisory committee of school broadcast conference. Tentative conference plans. Studio rules. Radio dinner club. Citizenship broadcast.
Visiting schedule. Prepare and send out listing of Radio Council programs. Founders Day luncheon. Chicagoland Radio Dinner Club meeting. Radio circuit. Revision of H. Dates of foreign language broadcasts. Science broadcasts. Program suggestion. Number of broadcasting weeks for next semester. School Broadcast Conference Programs-further plans for hosting the conference. Convention; Chicagoland Radio Dinner Club. Kent, Director, Radio Council. Person who is interested in drama and music visits a music class. A history of the school's evening program follows. The evening school's song is titled "Forward.
Since , the Chicago Board of Education has been planning evening school programs to meet the needs of students who could not attend school during the day. The policy of Schurz Evening School is explained. Student Bill Jones conducts a tour of the school. William O'Keefe, a Chicago lawyer and instructor in commercial law at Crane Evening High School, tells about the opportunities the program affords. Several students tell about the courses they are taking and how they benefit from them. Roving reporter, WBBM's Ken Ellington, conducts a mythical tour of a large department story, asking questions about the problems to be found there and learning about the requirements for finding jobs in retail merchandising.
A teacher provides a short history of air conditioning, then explains the changes and improvements of recent years. Illinois is the largest center for making air conditioning equipment. The story of banking-what goes on behind the scenes of a real bank. What sort of person works in a bank, what he does and how important his job is to his community. The aim is to provide a keener appreciation of banking and its place in the economic system and to provide students with data relative to types of work, qualifications and promotional possibilities in a bank.
The National Resources Committee report states that metallurgy is one of the fields which is going to become more economically and socially significant in the years to come. We will learn how it is possible to produce important advantages to modern civilization through this science of the treatment of metals. A history of the telephone industry.
On March 10, , Alexander Graham Bell sent the first sentence over a wire. They discuss the jobs available in the industry. All work is voluntary. No maximum or minimum amounts of work are set. There is competition in the clean-up campaign. Students benefit from these competitions. The law requires them to attend school eight hours each week until they are Students, armed with letters from Principal H.
Frank J. This is a program dedicated to the idea of Youth. Participants in the program are Royal D. Goldie Robbins; and the a cappella choir, under the direction of Mrs. Lydia Cleaver. Campbell, State Director.
Conversation between a girl, office of the Student Council, and a boy, chairman of the clean-up committee. The drama class of Hirsch High School presents as its last project of the semester an original skit based on its study in the appreciation of Shakespeare. A brief study of how the Radio Council came into existence and what its major activities have been. The Student Chorus, Oct.
Student Chorus, Sept. Nathaniel Dett; "Steal Away," Arr. The Teacher and the Radio Program, [Feb.
The radio chairman. The Teacher and the Radio Program, School organization for effective use of radio programs. Ann O. They turned what might have been dull middle age into "Those Adventurous Years. He probably contributed more to engineering progress in America than any other man. Ignatius, or Don Inigo, as he was called before he turned to religion, was over thirty when he decided to study at the university.
She earned a law degree and after that completed a degree of Master of Law, while she continued with creating costume art. In her fiftieth year as a professional costumer, she became a member of the Northwestern University faculty. She was.
Serving a life sentence in an Ohio penitentiary, Dan Boggs was faced with the necessity of supporting his mother and sisters. He studied, learned and earned a great deal of money writing advertising. The governor pardoned him, and he became a successful advertising executive. Lawrence was already an accomplished archaeologist when he started to learn the science of military tactics. He became Colonel Lawrence, leader of the Arab revolt, and some say, savior of the empire.
Edmund Cartwright, an obscure parson with a classical education was inspired to learn new things to alleviate the poverty and misery of the time. He invented the power loom. Past middle age, he had built a new career for himself, and before his death was hailed as one of the greatest humanitarians of his time. At the age of 48, Mary Schroeder entered and became prominent in a field that was reserved almost wholly for men--the medical field as a psychiatrist.
She was admitted to Rush Medical College, and after graduation studied abroad with Dr. Carl Jung of Zurich, Switzerland. Today her name stands for medical ability and for courageous achievement. He learned to read and write as a grown men. He made such progress that within a few years he was internationally known for his scientific inventions.
One of his inventions was the miner's lamp. He had a long wait for recognition. The first volume came out in He invented the telegraph. He learned English as an adult, turned from the physical adventure of the sea to the spiritual adventure of artistic creation. He produced the best English fiction of his generation. He was 53 years old. Instead of returning when his task was completed, he stayed in Japan and made a complete study of its people, eventually becoming a world-wide authority on the Land of the Nipponese. In middle age, after emigrating to America, he studied and entered a new field.
Henry, short story writer. While incarcerated in prison, he started writing stories that were published. He dedicated himself to the job of building a new life on the ruins of the old. He attended Yale College for two years before he signed up for service in the Navy at seventeen. His first novel was published in when he was thirty-one. The success of the book led him to write others. He used his knowledge of boats and the sea in some of his novels. He died at age sixty-two.
She went to the battlefields to help the wounded for the first time in August She demonstrated the possibility of getting to the front early and operating right at the scene of conflict. She thus laid the foundation for her great contribution to humanity, the American Red Cross. Influenced perhaps by the piety of his wife, he became imbued with a deep sense of religion. He was arrested for preaching in a nonconformist group to the Church of England. While imprisoned, he wrote religious books to support his family. In , at the age of 35, she established a hospital in New York City.
After performing manual labor most of his life to support his family, John Kane became a famous self-educated artist. He is buried in Pittsburgh, where he did much of his work. At the age of 25 he established a hardware store. Soon he found himself in debt and in jail for debt, where he discovered a substance called "gum elastic. Coolidge, who gave him money to continue his experiments with vulcanization. Through the struggles and defeats of years he remained true to his vision of perfected rubber. Success and world recognition resulted. War aim.
The Thousand Million, First Semester, The Thousand Million, Second Semester, Travel Time, One page of visuals in color , depicting native costumes, accompany each story. Letter, dated March 29, , from J. Studebaker, Commissioner of Education, to Harold W. He encourages the use of radio for educational purposes. Studebaker prepares to answer questions created by having school-owned radio stations, especially how these can by useful in their communities.
Why an ultra-high frequency broadcasting station for a school system? The nature of ultra-high frequency broadcasting. Procedure in applying for permission to operate a station. Certain technical essentials in equipment and the reasons for them. Receivers for ultra-high frequency radio. Rules governing operation of "non-commercial educational" broadcast stations. Standards of good engineering practice applicable to non-commercial educational broadcast stations.
Union Affiliations and Educational Radio Survey, Must not be used for publicity or hearing purposes. Not for general release. A questionnaire that was sent to 80 school systems and educational stations throughout the United States was returned by 41 of them. The results of the survey were, among other purposes, to assess the relationships between those creating educational radio broadcasting with those members of local unions who might object to their actions.
The situation in Detroit "is comparable to that of the Radio Council, and the remarks of W. Whittinghill, Director, are Whittinghill, Director, Dept. Wheeler, Tufts College, Mass. Station WSUI. State U. Griffith, Director. Levenson, Directing Supervisor. Station WBPE. Cleveland Board of Education; W. Raley, President, Oklahoma Baptist U. Library and Visual Aids, Newark, N. Taylor, Supt. Brayeau, Pautucket, R. Carlile, Director of Radio Education, U.
Lawton, Radio and Visual Education, St. Dakota; Kenneth G. Sulzer, Lexington, Ky. Whan, Chairman, Comm. Evelyn Davis, Long Beach, Calif. Adams, Head of Speech Arts Dept. Gilmore, Program Mgr. Crabbe, Dir. Grace Howell and Miss Elsa Henzel. William E. Memo from George F. He sends lists of suggestions for the teachers. An outline and bibliography for the study of Latin America incidental to the teaching of biology.
Utilization Practices, Kindergarten-primary grades; grades three and four; grades five to nine art, English literature, music, science, social studies ; senior high school French. War Department Scripts Radio address, September 11, , by John W. Studebaker, U. A high school girl buys a War Bond, instead of a dress for the prom, to help in the war effort.
Colonel, A. Chief, Radio Branch. The Association is planning to select and publish the best scripts of the war effort.. Each member. Kirby, Lt. A wartime newsletter issued periodically by the Radio Bureau of the Office of War Information at the request of the broadcasting industry. War Names in the News. Meredith F. Ickes the authoritative governmental spelling and pronunciation of place names. We Visit Storyland Western Arts, Convention Record Westward Ho!
First Semester, What We Defend, First Semester World Builders, First Semester World Builders, Second Semester First Semester III, We're Off-Where To? You and Your Hobby, Oct. Young America Answers, Maine Township High School. Senn High School. Tuley High School of Chicago. Argo Community High School. Steinmetz High School. Lane Technical High School. Argo Community. Tuley contested run-off. Taft High School. Englewood High School. Arlington Heights High School. Arlington Heights.
Riverside-Brookfield High School. New School, Evanston T. The New School, E. New School E. Farragut High School. Leyden Community High School. New Trier High School finals, series C. New Trier run-off tie in series C, April Morgan Park 1st semi-finals of series D. Oak Park grand championship semi-finals.
Leyden Community. Morgan Park champ, series D grand finals, Tournament of Champions. Highland Park play-off. Highland Park finals, series A. Tuley play-off of tie. Thornton Fractional. Schurz 1st semi-finals, series D. Evanston second semi-finals, series D. Evanston Township finals of series D. Highland Park finals of the Grand Championship. Von Steuben High School. Amundsen High School. Hyde Park High School. Waller high School.
Parker High School. Gage Park High School. Kelvyn Park High School. Phillips High School. Lake View High School. South Shore High School. Fenger High School. Spalding High School. Crane Technical High School. Sterling J. Morton High School. Hyde Park High of Chicago. Austin High School of Chicago. Flower Technical High School. Barware 9. Animals 5. Lamps, Lighting 4.
Clocks 2. Radio, Phonograph, TV, Phone 2. Vintage, Retro, Mid-Century 1. Men's Clothing 2, Women's Clothing Men's Accessories Men's Shoes Women's Shoes Costumes, Reenactment, Theater Women's Accessories 4. Vintage 3. Sporting Goods 1, Music Consumer Electronics Art Crafts Entertainment Memorabilia Baby Pet Supplies Stamps Travel 5. Antiques 1. Format see all Format. All Listings filter applied. Buy It Now. Condition see all Condition. New 30, Used 11, Not Specified 1, Please provide a valid price range. Waggon Mastr. The Dr. In Lovell's hand, though not signed.
Lambert Wickes, foundered and sank in a storm off the coast of Newfoundland on October 1, , while returning from France. Dear Sir 1 York Town 8th. Feby Your favor of the 12th of January has at length reached me, and gives double pleasure as it assures me of your health and at the same time mentions several things which in your good judgment would essentially benefit the public cause which things had actually received the approbation of Congress.
Establishing a fund in Europe for the purpose of sinking our quantity of paper more expeditiously than it can be effected by taxes, tho' not more prudently, unless we lay great stress upon the gain of time-making due distinction between internal friends and foes many of the latter now actually eating our bread, vile vermin as they are. The public officers being sifted, each State must look to its citizens. Virginia is going on vigorously in this work as well as in recruiting, clothing and feeding the Army.
Maryland besides excluding Nonjurors from office is laying a treble tax upon them. Retalliation is another thing you mention. You know where the main clog has been; 2 but he as well as Congress seems now determined. You are not the only one of my correspondents who give me information about our commercial matters in France. Adams who succeeds Deane, has sent me an extract of a letter from that little judicious man McCreary, who gave us a pretty account of what he had heard and seen in France last year. Congress had in October sent directions to the Commissioners to suspend Agents.
The Baron 4 whom you mention arrived here two days ago. Congress had sent a very complimentary Resolve to Boston which did not get to his hand before he set off from thence. We have divided the system into 4 parts. We have also taken the purchasing part from the hands of the Director General of Hospitals; the Deputy D. Genl conjointly, and the orders of the two last with such other vouchers as they shall direct and report to the Treasury from time to time are to be produced in proof of expenditures.
Rush has resigned, there being a mortal enmity between him and Shippen. Howe will rest quiet, but an incursion is making into Canada, in which many foreigners are employed with Stark. The Marquis de la Fayette may greatly influence the Canadian Noblesse. I rec'd your list of tickets and Mr Thos Smith has undertaken the check of the books.
I wrote to Mr. Adams to have the advertisement altered; I wonder you did not upon seeing the first publication. The Lottery is absolutely to be drawn the 1st of May. Whipple had long maintained a regular correspondence with Lovell and was the owner of the lottery tickets that are the subject of the last paragraph of this letter. Dear Sir Norriton, 1 Feb. I came over from the Committee last Evening. We shall therefore most probably spend more Time here than may be thought necessary by those unacquainted with the Nature of our Business.
I mean Dissention between the component Parts of our System. God forbid that this Country should furnish History with another Instance of the political Suicide. And the more so as Experience shews how difficult it is to heal such Breaches,. I observed early last Summer a growing Disgust among Characters. But however they may cross each other in Ambitions Road, I apprehend our Path is plain, to take Care the publick Interest does not suffer in the Justle.
In the Course of Events, the Enemy have become possessed of this Intelligence. I cannot think it wise to prosecute a foreign Expedition, when we find it so difficult [to] oppose the Enemy in the very Heart of our Country. I know in some Instances it has been found politick to transfer the Seat of War into your Enemy's Country, but that can only be, when you are able to carry it on there, which I fear in the present Instance will not be our Case.
A Want of hard Money alone will prove its Bane. I need not tell you what indifferent Prospects of Union there are between the Characters engaged in it. If it be possible, therefore, my dear Sir, let me beg you to use your utmost Influence to get this unadvised Measure recalled before it begins to operate on our. Reed P. Expecting to have attended Congress before this I desired some of my Boston Friends to direct to me there. Howe has confirm'd the old Cartel of Exchanges 5 -so that we now hourly expect Gen.
Nothing else new in Camp. During the period he served with the Committee at Camp, which met generally at either Valley Forge or at Moore Hall about two miles from Washington's headquarters, Reed was therefore within easy reach of home and managed occasional visits to his family. For information on Reed's activities during this period of his public career, see John F. See also Henry Laurens to Lafayette, January 22, , note 2. Gentlemen York in Penna. Feby 9th. Thomas Morris having been removed from the Commercial Agency, Congress have im-.
Inclosed is the Resolve of Congress to that purpose. Schweighauser at Nantes, who had been previously appointed by William Lee, were currently the only authorized American commercial agents in France. For William Lee's comments on several merchants seeking commercial appointments at French ports, as well as his indication that he had also appointed Andrew Limozin as agent at Havre de Grace, see his March 23, , letter to Richard Henry Lee in William Lee, Letters of William Lee, ed.
Worthington C. Ford, 3 vols. Brooklyn: Historical Printing Club, , Sir, York Town 9th Febry My last was on the 22d January by Messenger Dodd. Of the 3d Inst. You are requested Sir to cause this to be published in your State in the most effectual manner. Laurens also transmitted copies of these December 19, January 21, and February 3 resolves with brief letters that he wrote this day to the Massachusetts Council, Gen. Revolutionary Papers,. M-Ar; PCC, item 13, fol. He transmitted copies of the February 3 resolve along with brief letters that he wrote on February 8 to Gov.
PCC, item 13, fois. See also Laurens to Patrick Henry, February 10, York Town 9th Feby I had the honour of receiving by Mcloski the 5 Inst. Inclosed with this you will receive an Act of Congress of the 3d Inst. William Heath, the Continental commander in Boston, dealt with "some Riotous behaviour" by a few of Gen.
John Burgoyne's troops in that city as well as problems related to the maintenance of Burgoyne's captured army. Enclosed with it were letters of January 4 from Burgoyne to Heath and of January 10 from Heath to Burgoyne concerning the unruliness of the British prisoners mentioned above.
PCC, item 57, fols. Laurens obviously confused Heath's January 13 letter to him with the general's January 10 letter to Burgoyne. See also JCC, , Sir, 9th Febry I had the honour of writing to your Excellency on the 14th Ulto. My Duty is at present to convey the several Acts recited below Vizt.
When the paper abovementioned was sent to me I was in extreme pain confined in Bed. I therefore requested a sensible Member of Congress whose Sentiments I found to be consonant with my own, to present the piece to the House for a review. Laurens also wrote a brief letter this day to John Lawrence, the Continental. Furthermore, he wrote brief notes apprising Joseph Henderson and Eleazar Wales of their February 3 appointment as commissioners of accounts for the northern district and informing Moses Emerson of his February 3 appointment as commissioner of accounts at Hartford.
Although Trumbull did not mention his chagrin in his January 16, , reply to Laurens, his son Joseph complained about the putative slight in letters to Eliphalet Dyer and James Lovell, both of whom hastened to reassure the younger Trumbull that Laurens had not meant to give offense to the governor. Sir York Town Feby.
Clarkson has accepted his appointment in very polite terms and with thanks; "do thou likewise. I am, Dr. Sir, Yr. Is not your appointment of 4 dollars per day, and 3 rations for yourself and one for your horse, better than the pay of the Board of War as its members are allowed but Dollars per Annum?
Roberdeau's letter was obviously written in the belief that Clark's stance would redound to his disadvantage if he did not reconsider it, but the latter remained. Am Extreemly sorry for the unhappy jealousy that has arisen in the mind of the Govr. They have desired the President to excuse the matter to him.
I can give the strongest assurance that there is no Govr. He stands with them In the highest point of light as does the late Commissy. There is now no party in Congress. Trumbull had the Vote of every Individual in Congress in his Appointment to the board of War, they greatly regret his Non attendance. Nothing but his Indisposition excuses him in the opinion of his best Friends, hope he may yet come forward. They would there. It was the Natural effect of disapointed Malice but is this to be minded or regarded When the safety of our Country comes into question-by no means.
Trumbull will never again engage in that department. They have wrote you requesting your Attendance at this place on matters of Importance. Trumbull along with you. A long ride may be most beneficial to his health. Express waiting, excuse inacuraces. All your expences on this occasion will be reimbursed by Congress.
On March 30 Dyer was appointed to a committee to confer with Wadsworth and on April 9 Congress appointed Wadsworth the commissary general of purchases. JCC, , , Thompson, soon after receiving Your Excellencys favour to Mr. Congress are not yet determined to Call for the reinforcement Offerd by No. Carolina, should such an event take place, Your Excellency may be assured of receiving the earliest Notice possible. I have nothing particular to mention having written to you a few days ago.
Pay of a Major Genl. His Aid de Camp 50 Dol. His Secry. RC CSmH. It is not clear if Harnett is referring to the January letter, which is in N. State Records, , or the December letter, which has not been found. Jackey is not yet sent to me. The Weather has been very bad, the Snow now very thick upon the Ground, as soon as this weather Clears up, I expect to have him with me agreeable to Mr. Mitchels promise. What has been done about Fortifying Cape Fear River?
I fear nothing at all. Maclain are unpardonable in not writing to me. I have been laid up with the Gout for a week Past. I shall write you more at large in my next. I wish you would send on your Bills, not that I shall have Occasion to use them, since Our Assembly have made so generous an allowance to their Delegates. But remember I warn you that Delays are dangerous. Sir, 10th Febry [i. Lee the Bonds when executed to be transmitted to Congress. Furthermore, he transmitted copies of the February 9 resolve on Continental officers alone with brief letters that he wrote this day to the Massachusetts Council, the governors of Rhode Island and New Jersey, and the presidents of New Hampshire and Delaware, and also with a letter he wrote to Washington on February Sir, York Town 10th February I beg pardon for having so long detained the Inclosed Act of Congress of 30th January past, requiring immediately an Account of all public expenditures by the Quarter Master general.
For a detailed account of the extraordinarily complicated business of settling General Mifflin's accounts as quartermaster general, which was. Sir, 1 10th Febry I beg leave to refer you to the Inclosed Act of Congress of the 3d Inst. Abraham Livingston. Philip M. Hamer et al. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, , n.
Laurens notified Russell-who also lived in Charleston- of his appointment in a letter dated the 10th that is nearly identical to this letter to Smith. Sir, 10th Febry I wrote to your Excellency the 8th Inst. Laurens also transmitted copies of these February 9 resolves on Continental officers and debts with brief letters that he wrote on February 13 to Govs.
My dear Sir Feb 10th  The week after Mr. C was appointed secretary, I saw the P. Of a letter to Mr. I do not think it will do to make the Resolve hinted at by Dr. F to me "that the Commissrs. Avoid them. William Carmichael, who had bcen acting as an assistant to Silas Deane, left France in February without acting under his official appointment as secretary to the American commissionels in France. He later served in Congress during and Lee, Life of Arthur Lee, L.
For further information on Carmichaels activities in Europe before his return to America in , see Floyd B. My dear Sally, York Febry. I received your favor by Sam, and am obliged to you for your attention. The horses I shall want on Friday night the 27th instant, as I purpose. General to the King of Prussia, is now here, and will enter into our service. Gyles, Aid de camp to General Sinclair, are taken prisoners by the British light horse at Germantown. Doctor Franklin is said to be assassinated in his bed in a village called Pacy, abt.
Our affairs seem prosperous. By the King of G. Bs speech, which I have sent you in the last paper, he appears to be frightened. This letter to his wife is the only contemporary evidence that has been found to indicate that McKean may have made a brief trip to Delaware February March 3, Sir, Moor Hall 11th Feby. Altho it may be Presumption in your Committee to give their Sentiments upon a Subject of so great Magnitude, especially after it hath been stamped with your Concurrence, yet Sir the deep Concern which, in common with other Americans we cannot but feel upon every Occasion of public Importance, forbids us to be silent.
We feel and acknowlege that Caution may at Times wear the Appearance of Timidity; especially with the ignorant or the invidious Part of mankind. But Enterprize without the constant Eye of Prudence is at all Times hazardous, and even the most brilliant Successes frequently teem with Destruction. Let us then be permitted to examine the. Canada Expedition in two distinct Points of View; first in itself, secondly in its Connection with other Transactions.
As to the first. It cannot be disputed that it is of Importance to give an Alarm to the Enemy in that Quarter, since it may tend to repress the hostile Intentions of the Savages. If an Incursion should be attended with the happy Consequence of destroying those Vessels which it hath cost them so much to build, and of seizing and destroying the Post of St John's, it would cast a Lustre upon our arms in the Eyes of Europe, and perhaps distract the Attention and divide the Force of our Enemies during the Course of the ensuing Campaign.
And on the other Hand if a slight Incursion should fail of Success, our intestine Enemies would have little Cause of Exultation. But to carry on this Enterprize upon a large Scale demands a very serious Attention; for then it is no longer one of those Minutia wherein a false Step may be easily remedied, it may involve the most serious Consequences. If successful, so far as to gain Montreal and rouse the Canadians, have we Money to prosecute the War in that Country?
A Country already drained during three Campaigns, and where the Abundance of Specie hath considerably reduced it's Value. Canada never produced Flesh sufficient to feed an Army at any Time, much less at present; so that of Necessity it would require an increased Number of Men, and a vast Increase of Expence, to send thither that single Article even if we had it in the utmost Abundance.
If after our Success the Enemy should send thither a greater Force than they have at present, would it be consistent with the Ties of Honor a second Time to abandon those unhappy People whose zeal may have prompted them to enlist under our Banners or whose Credulity may have tempted them to entrust their Property to our Promises. If we have too much Regard to the Sanctity of public Faith to desert them, where are the Resources by which we are to maintain a large Army for their Protection? And if we could draw those Resources from the very Lap of Abundance, where are the Men to compose such an Army?
This Sir would be our Situation should Success attend the Expedition. Let us then turn our Eyes to the other Side of the Question, and see what would be the Result, if a considerable Expedition should fail. It would produce Desertion among the Troops particularly the Canadians many of which taken at Bennington have since enlisted, perhaps with a remote View of returning to their Families.
It would produce Disgrace to our Arms, and all its Consequences upon our Money, upon our People, upon our Friends in Europe, and upon the Enemies we have in our own Bowels. But above all, our Weakness fairly manifested would draw on an Indian War in all its Horrors, dissipating the Force of our frontier Settlements and whelming them in Blood. These are the certain Consequences of a Defeat. And on what do we build our Hopes of Victory? Have not Montgomery and.
Burgoyne demonstrated the Imprudence of distant Expeditions across an inhospitable Wilderness where there is but one Road by which to advance or retire? Is not the very Season against us? Our Troops are unprovided against it's Rigors and when it abates which will probably happen by the Time they have crossed the Lake, then they will be deprived of the Means of accomplishing a Retreat.
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To these Considerations let us add that those Troops cannot be fed. The Provisions are it is said at Albany, and this may be true, but they cannot be transported in any great Quantity. The Country from Albany to Montreal is already drained of Forage, very small Quantities of which were ever produced in it.
Forty times this Quantity must be transported two hundred Miles. That alone will employ about four hundred Horses during Forty Days and the Forage for them must be carried above fifty Miles and that across Mountains being only to be had upon the Grants, if there. We will not pursue this Consideration but cast one View upon the Business as connected with other Affairs. And first the want of Arms for our Soldiers next Campaign deserves a serious Notice, for Neglect in those whose Business it was to take Care of such as have been from Time to Time put in the Hands of the Militia, or the Impracticability of preventing Abuses even with the utmost Attention, or both, have so exhausted the continental Magazines that we shall not have enough by a third at least.
So that every Musket carried into Canada will be in Effect the Loss of a Man to the main Army; notwithstanding which we are informed that the arms now at Albany are to be sent thither for the Purpose of arming the Canadian Militia. Secondly the Article of Provisions is among those which hath made the most serious Impression upon us. In a former Letter on that Subject we have assigned the Grounds of our Conviction, that Recourse must be had to the Eastern States for Supplies of Flesh, and that even with their Assistance and with all the Magazines we may now have we shall have the utmost Difficulty to subsist this Army if it should be of sufficient Strength to operate successfully against General Howe.
But should the Enemy gain Possession of Hudson's River next Spring and if the greatest Exertions are not made to prevent them they certainly will these Eastern Supplies would be quite cut off, and then to subsist an Army in Pensilvania would be impracticable; besides which the Army in Canada tho crowned with Laurels must in such Case undoubtedly starve. On the other Hand, if these Veterans instead of being sent against Montreal were stationed at Fish Kill in addition to the Force now there, they might perhaps keep open that Communication.
Or if their Services should not be necessary at that Post, they would certainly be an essential Reinforcement to the main. Army, by which it is expected that the capital Efforts of the Enemy will be defeated. And should General Howes Force in Philadelphia be destroyed all their lesser Posts would inevitably fall. But should he be able to ravage the middle States, and drive our army before him which from the want either of Men, Arms or Provisions may too easily happen the great Depreciation of our Money an Evil which first took Rise in a Canadian Expedition might effectually ruin every Plan either of Offence or Defence during the next Campaign, and so lower our Reputation in the Eyes of Europe that none could be found either to trust or assist us.
We pray Sir that Congress will excuse our Freedom upon this Occasion. Not perhaps so well informed as they are, it is possible that our Opinion may be ill founded; but you will pardon us when we add that it is possible it may not. Written by Gouverneur Morris and signed by Francis Dana. Endorsed by Charles Thomson: "Letter from Comee. At that time Congress appointed a committcc to "collect the best information they can, relative to the irruption into Canada.
Sir Moore Hall Feby. The travelling is so bad that we wish you wou'd not attempt to meet us while it continues. We shall employ ourselves in that part of our business which can be done without your personal attendance. We have been considering General Howe's letter which you was pleased to lay before us yesterday, and seem agreed and confirmed in the opinion that he hath some latent meaning in those parts of it. We flatter ourselves you will not take it amiss that we express to you our sentiments upon the proposition of a general exchange made at this time, by General Howe.
As the latter were expressly comprehended in the original Cartel proposed by himself, and agreed upon between you; and as he has been called upon by Congress, if not by yourself, to explain certain passages in his former letter which you laid before Congress, and explictly to declare in what light he held the faithful Citizens of these States, who by the fortune of war, or other accidents had fallen, or shou'd fall under his power, yet he has never deemed proper as we can learn, to make any reply at all, much less a full and satisfactory answer on that subject.
We cannot but think that he affects to consider every such Citizen as a rebel unexchangeable; and answerable to the Laws of England, and therefore treats them, if possible, with more rigour and cruelty than those whom he is pleased to say, properly fall under the denomination of prisoners of war. Impressed with the manifest injustice of such apprehensions which if well grounded, we deem a breach of his faith plighted in the Cartel, we cannot but think the present a happy opportunity of drawing forth from General Howe the most explicit declarations on a subject of so great importance to every mere Citizen of these States, and making a renewal of the Cartel, the sine qua non of an exchange.
Written and signed by Francis Dana. Although consideration of a general exchange of prisoners continued for several months, the tentative plan of Generals Washington and Howe finally collapsed under the weight of congressional opposition and British unwillingness to conclude an official agreement with the Americans. See Henry Laurens to Washington, March 15,, note 1. According to Elias Boudinot, who resigned as commissary general of prisoners on April 17, , after the cartel negotiations collapsed, the committee decided after meeting with Washington and his staff to oppose the proposed cartel.
Many years later Boudinot made the following observation on the committee's opposition to the cartel: "The Committee of Congress soon discovered their Sentiments, agt an Exchange, and urged it as the Opinion of Congress-That the settling this Cartel should be merely ostensible for the purpose of satisfying the Army and throwing the blame on the British, but true policy required us to avoid an Exchange of Prisoners just at the opening of the Campaign.
We absolutely refused to undertake the Business on these principles-if we went, we were determind to make the best Cartel we could for the liberation of our Prisoners-That we would not be made Instruments in so dishonorable a measure. Washington also. The Committee were much disgusted and soon left the Army, where they gave much dissatisfaction and returned to Congress.
Boudinot, ed. D, President of the Continental Congress, 2 vols. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co. See also JCC, , 68, 95, , Dear General, 11th Febry The former importing your sentiments upon the propriety of suspending the embarkation of Lieutt. Burgoyne's duplicity will be quoted as a precedent by future Writers, while the resentment of Congress will be recorded as an example of Sound policy. I shall have the pleasure to deliver to morrow Morning a Commission of Lieutt. Congress had not promised Monsr. Dubuyson the present Rank until he should be returning to France.
Had I been as rapid in presenting your Letter as the young Gentleman was vehement in his desires, he would have returned a Major owing to his Minor judgment. Sir Camp near the Valley Forge Feb Masters Department. You will therefore pardon us, Sir, when we again sollicit your Attention to it as an Object of the last Importance, on which not only the future Success of your Arms but the present Existence of your Army immediately depends.
The Influence of this Office is so diffusive thro every Part of your military System, that neither the Wisdom of Arrangement, the Spirit of Enterprize, or favourable Opportunity will be of any Avail, if this great Wheel in the Machine stops or moves heavily. We find ourselves embarassed in entering upon this Subject, least a bare Recital of Facts should carry an Imputation which we do not intend on those Gentlemen who have lately conducted it.
Large Quantities of entrenching Tools have in like Manner been left in various Hands under no other Security that we can learn, than the Honesty of those who have them in Possession. Those of a different Character desert in considerable Numbers. We need not point out the fatal Consequences of this delay in forming a new Army, or the Preservation of this. In Conference with the Forage Master on this Subject which tho in Appearance trivial is really important he acquaints us that tho out of his Line, he would have procured it if Waggons could have been furnished him for that Purpose.
Should the Enemy encouraged by the growing Weakness of your Troops, be led to make a successful Impression on your Camp, your Artillery would now undoubtedly fall into their Hands for Want of Horses to remove it. But these are smaller and tolerable Evils, when compared with the imminent Danger of your Troops perishing with Famine, or dispersing in Search of food. In yesterdays Conference with the General he informed us, that some. In whatever View therefore this Object presents itself, we trust you will discover that the most essential Interests are connected with it.
Unacquainted with the Resolution of Congress with Respect to Genl. Schuyler we have hesitated what farther to propose. Time is so extremely precious, that we are unwilling to lose a single unneces-. We are with the greatest Respect and Regard Sir, Your most obedt. In the hand of Joseph Reed. Nathanael Greene, with whom the committee consulted this day. Sir, [February ? Permit us then Sir a little to investigate the Causes by which we feel ourselves reduced to the present Situation. We place the Depreciation of our Money in the foremost Point of View and add that it hath in a great Measure arisen from the Giving of Commissions upon the Price of Commodities to those employed in Purchases.
The second. A fourth is the total Neglect of every Thing but the immediate and pressing Emergencies which arise without looking forward to provide for or rather [prevent? The last Cause is a plentiful source of this and numerous other Evils, the Want of Money which presses so hard that we are told on good Authority that private Persons buy Wheat in the Vicinage of this Camp two shillings per Bushel cheaper than the public Agents. Our Sentiments upon the Head of the Department we have already communicated and suppose that the Attention of Congress will be called to it in a Manner becoming its Importance.
The fourth Cause demands a little more Consideration. And first let us consider the now immediate want for the next Season and then what is of more Importance perhaps the Means of obtaining Supplies for the Campaign of the Year and the Winter preceeding it. Flour is out of the Question as there can be no want of that Article if the smallest Attention be paid to it. As to the Magazines for the Winter and Campaign succeeding the next the first Measure will be to contract immediately for as many. A considerable Quantity of Pork may be had in like Manner in those States and the State of Maryland, the Hogs to be driven to the Places where they are to be salted up and of the Fish put up as aforesaid a large Quantity should be kept as a Reserve for the Winter.
Dried Fish also should be purchased in the Eastern States during the Course of the next Summer as also all the salted Provisions which may be brought in by the Cruizers and which being laid up in the best Manner can be depended upon. Pork may be had also to the Eastward perhaps in the mutilated State of New York in considerable Quantities especially as the Article of Salt now begins to grow cheaper and tho that which is made by boiling will not preserve Pork yet if the Hogs be driven alive to Places where Stores of blown Salt and Nitre are laid up the public Agents may preserve that which is bought for the Army in the greatest Perfection.
The large Beeves in the Eastern States salted next Fall should be stall fed and not killed untill the Spring and then Salted up for the Use of the Summer as great Waste happens from the killing of Cattle in the hot weather besides which the Troops are not so healthy on fresh as on Salt Provisions.
Contracts should be immediately made from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania inclusive for very great Quantities of Vinegar An Article the most necessary of all others to the Health of the Troops. Onions should be contracted for on Connecticut River, other Vegetables in the different Parts of the several States which may probably be near the Seat of Action. It will add much to our Resources to reduce the cumbersome and unweildy Staff of the Army. This hath been partly attempted already. We shall pay such farther attention to it as we can and also to the Detection of Frauds many of which we are too sensible must prevail tho it is we fear very difficult to point out the particular Villains.
The Want of Money is perhaps as inexcusable as any other Want. The Means of obtaining it on Loan are certainly inadequate to the End. Pardon us our Freedom but judge of our Feelings when we hear that very great Sums might be had in the Neighbourhood even of this. Camp were there any Persons duly authorized to receive it. This probably is the Case in many other Places. It is true Congress have now the cheapest Mode of procuring what they do borrow but certainly with a little more Expence they might borrow much more and the Difference between Purchases for Money and Credit is such as will greatly overbalance the Expence of procuring Money.
We shall not debate further but beg Leave to recommend this Matter to the serious Attention of Congress. In the hand of Gouverneur Morris. Endorsed: "Letter on Supplies. The committee's statement that they "expect soon to recommend" a quartermaster general indicates a date sometime after February Philip Schuyler would not be an acceptable candidate for this post, but before February 25, when they nominated Gen. Nathanael Greene. It may be significant for the dating of this letter that the committee first officially consulted with Greene about the quartermaster general's post on February 12, for it contains a reference to a nominee "we expect soon to recommend.
The committee's opposition to the commission system also points to a date before the committee had conceded commissions should be allowed to quartermaster and commissary officials as indicated in their February 25 letter nominating Greene quartermaster general. Sir, York, February 12th, Your favor of the 29th of December did not reach me until the 24th of January, when, duly reflecting upon every circumstance, I thought it my duty to come here, though, I confess, I am almost tired of serving my country so much at my own expense.
I left home on [the] 29th of last month, and went into Congress next morning, where I found only nine States represented, and, including myself, but eighteen members, though five, now at the camp, and some others are expected in a few days. I hope General Rodney and Major Van Dyke will come as soon as possible; 1 but don't tell them that I lived in a little Dutch tavern, at an enormous expense, for ten days, before I could get other lodgings, and that I still am on sufferance. The situation of Delaware gives me constant anxiety. The choice of representatives in October, , and their choice of officers, have occasioned all its misfortunes.
Nothing but effectual laws, vigorously executed, can possibly save it, and there seems to me not the least prospect of the former, and when I learn that not a single step is taken towards collecting the fines under the present inadequate militia law, or to punish the most imprudent traitors, or even the harboring of deserters, I despair of any law, tending to support the freedom, independence, and sovereignty of the State, being executed, especially in Kent and Sussex.
The conduct of the General Assembly, having neither imposed a tax for reducing the paper bills of credit, nor passed the laws necessary even in times of profound peace, much less for competing their quota of troops, putting their militia on a respectable footing, etc. I shall endeavor to procure the account against the State, from the Auditor-General, as soon as possible. The votes of Congress, since January, , printed by Aitken, are not yet come to hand, though they have been sent out of Philadelphia. I shall send you all that can be got, not knowing to what time they are printed up.
Who can I propose in exchange for the President? Do inform me, if you can think of any one. None occurs to me but Governor Franklin, and hearing a gentleman say that he could do more mischief than the President could do good, and for other reasons, which will readily suggest themselves to you, I have little hope of success from that proposition. Notwithstanding all the diffidence you so modestly express of yourself, the State of Delaware think themselves happier, and I am sure they are in wiser hands than those of your predecessor In answer to your favor by your brother you will receive ten thousand dollars to be expended in recruiting only, 3 as Congress have lately purchased clothing, to a very great amount, at Boston, etc.
If more should be wanted you will be pleased to write to em again, but I should advise that the recruiting officers should first render you an account of the expenditure of this sum. No letter from General Smallwood has yet appeared in Congress; when it does, I shall attend to it. The whole affair, in my opinion, respecting the schooner, rests with.
An appeal lies to Congress. The case is undoubtedly in favor of the State, and not the first possessor, whether a wreck or dereliction. I have no news but what Major Read can tell you, and, therefore, shall conclude with my best compliments to Mrs. Philadelphia: J. Lippincott S; Co. Rodlley is very necessary here, and as to Mr. Van Dyke, the situation of his family will keep him for awhile. Sir Camp at Valley Forge Feb. We need not enlarge Sir upon the alarming Consequences of such a Situation. But such Circumstances are comparatively trivial with the Effect it would have upon the General State of our Affairs.
Should the Army from their present Distresses mutiny, refuse Obedience to their Officers, spread thro the Country on free Quarters or disperse with an Intention to return to their several States your Excellency can be at no Loss to. Be assured Sir we are not drawing an imaginary Picture. They inform us that they have purchased considerable Quantities of Pork in your State which they cannot forward to the Army for Want of Waggons.
In the mean Time the Army suffers. Permit us Sir, to ask another vigorous Exertion of that Zeal of which you have so often manifested on other Occasions. The Provisions to which we refer have been collected in the Western Part of your State. They appear to us to be considerable when compared with Exportation of former Times. If any Plan could be adopted to turn the Surplus beyond the Necessities of the Inhabitants to the Supply of the Army it would prove a most seasonable Relief.
We would also beg Leave to ask your Excellency's Aid in another Matter of great Importance tho not of such pressing necessity. We consider the remounting our Cavalry as a Matter of the greatest Moment. But unhappily the Duty of the last Campaign has left us few Horses fit for service.
If there is any one State more able to satisfy than another this capital demand it is New Jersey where for many Years the Inhabitants have bestowed peculiar Care in the Raising of a Breed of valuable Horses.