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Critical Incident Stress And Trauma In The Workplace: Recognition Response Recovery - CRC Press Book. Critical Incident Stress And Trauma In The Workplace: Recognition Response Recovery 1st Edition by Lewis, Gerald W. published by Routledge on.
Don't have a Kindle? No customer reviews. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a product review. Most helpful customer reviews on Amazon. Verified Purchase. I bought this book used as I needed a resource for critical incident management. From interacting with employees before, during or after group sessions, counselors will offer individual sessions to workers observed to be under duress. Therefore, factors such as manager availability, and individual risk factors that predispose workers to visible duress may influence whether the unit delivers these services, regardless of the severity level of the incident.
When intake assessment identifies severe incidents, unit staff should emphasize the importance of on-site organizational support and follow-up consultation. If organizations experiencing a severe incident decline to provide services on-site, do not follow through with implementing them or disengage from follow-up, critical incident practitioners can raise the organization's awareness about best practices for severe incidents.
Conversely, when an organization impacted by an event of low severity demands immediate and intensive interventions that are inappropriate or unnecessary, consultation to temper reactivity and demand is indicated. Expanding the organization's understanding of the incident and recommending phased interventions, from the least invasive to intensive, may assist. As an alternative to reactively scheduling management consultations on-site, during intake consultation, critical incident units should recommend proactively scheduling management consultations as part of the incident response plan.
Occupational health practitioners should emphasize managers' pivotal role in employee recovery and communicate the benefits of consultation. Increasing manager awareness of how symptoms of traumatic stress emerge in the workplace assists with managing performance in the aftermath of an incident. For individual counseling immediately following an incident, it is often not feasible for an organization to identify individuals needing assistance or to obtain informed consent in order to schedule sessions proactively.
Continuing reactive scheduling of individual sessions for those observed to be under duress remains the best practice for most circumstances. Since bivariate analyses conducted on large samples have an increased likelihood of producing statistically significant relationships, results must be viewed cautiously. Additionally, effect sizes observed were small for incident severity level's influence on method of service delivery elected, method implemented and manager consultations. Finally, generalizability is constrained in three ways: First, analyses of pre-existing administrative data are by definition retrospective, precluding randomization within a controlled design.
Second, results from a single incident response unit are not applicable to other settings, and third, findings and conclusions generated from a US-based study are not generalizable to other countries. Initial Organizational Decision for On-site Interventions.
While this study suggests incident severity level may influence whether organizations elect on-site interventions, other factors warrant exploration. These include employer overestimation or underestimation of event impact, the nature of the incident, variation in practitioner's consultation skills or other situational factors within the affected organization.
Implementation of On-Site Services. For organizations intending to provide services on-site, what factors influence whether they subsequently follow through to deliver them? Further research could explore factors such as employer overestimation of employee needs, receptivity of employees to support services, rapidity of organization stabilization post-incident, cost structure for fees or other post-incident organizational circumstances.
Types of On-site Services Implemented by Organizations. While results suggest organizations implement group sessions when incident severity is high, other influences could be examined. These include manager awareness of processes to request and schedule groups, employee awareness of their availability, organizations' prior experience with group sessions or other factors. Further studies could also explore factors influencing delivery of individual counseling or management consultations. Completion of Post-incident Follow-up Services.
Given the importance of follow-up consultation as a component of critical incident practice, further research should examine why organizations that initially agreed to participate in follow-up do not respond to outreach. Explanatory factors could include overestimating the impact of the event, employee's restoring performance to prior levels quickly, officials needing to attend to higher organizational priorities or other factors. Well-developed standards for workplace safety and prevention protect workers from known health risks. Traumatic workplace events however, are frequently unpredictable or are not preventable.
Organizational response, therefore, is critically important. While affected organizations within the USA routinely request assistance from critical incident units, there is much variability in the decisions organizations make regarding provision of supportive services. This study tested for whether the severity level of an incident influenced such decisions. Results suggest the more severe is an incident, the more likely the affected organization elects to provide on-site group interventions, delivers them and completes follow-up consultations.
Findings translate into evidenced informed practice recommendations, especially in the areas of intake assessment, organizational consultation and critical incident response planning. Robert McCullough and James Thornbrugh, Directors, Critical Incident Stress Management Unit at Magellan Health Services supported the research by granting the author access to extensive program information and by providing the assistance of two data managers, Angela Ruppel and John Markuly, who provided consultation and assisted with data extraction and screening.
Conflicts of Interest: At the time of the study, the author was employed by the organization in which the critical incident response unit operated.
Cite this article as: DeFraia GS. Workplace disruption following psychological trauma: Influence of incident severity level on organizations' post-incident response planning and execution. Int J Occup Environ Med ; 7 : Abstract Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events known as critical incidents , which occur globally, are increasing in prevalence within the USA. Introduction P sychologically traumatic events such as industrial accidents, natural disasters, mass shootings and terrorism are increasingly prevalent within the workplace.
Impact of Traumatic Stress on Workers and Work Organizations Workers exposed to a critical incident frequently experience emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms that compromise occupational functioning. Critical Incident Response Plans Critical incident response plans are alternately known as business continuity plans, crisis mitigation plans, 12,13 crisis or disaster recovery plans, or occupational contingency plans. Gaps in the Literature and Research Objective While critical incident response seeks to support both the recovery of individual employees emotionally and the recovery of organizations functionally, research oriented towards treating individual traumatic symptoms dominates the literature.
Materials and Methods Research Setting The research setting was an external critical incident response unit, one of the largest in the USA. Administrative Data Mining Administrative data mining was employed to examine data produced by a single critical incident response unit.
Data Extraction Data for the variables—CrISIS-R scores and organizational decisions regarding post-incident response planning and execution—were extracted from incident records for — Statistical Analysis To test the potential association of CrISIS-R scores incident severity with organizational decisions, bivariate analyses were conducted using Student's t test. Post-incident response planning is a process of consulting with an organization to determine the types of interventions to be implemented, their frequency and the portion of employees identified to receive them.
The amount of organizational disruption caused by a traumatic workplace event ranges from minimal to catastrophic. Assessment of incident severity level informs incident response planning and assists occupational health practitioners with aligning incident characteristics, organizational priorities and workers' needs with various types of interventions—from the least invasive to intensive.
While on-site interventions for a large portion of employees are often indicated following more severe incidents, supportive educational information and individual worker-initiated counseling may be sufficient for less severe incidents. For organizations planning to provide few support services following highly severe incidents or those demanding intensive interventions for events of low severity, consultation from occupational health practitioners can increase organizations' awareness about best practices.
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Overview This text was developed as a manual for those employed in the emergency services ESP, those who deal with victims of trauma in the workplace, work in school systems or acute psychiatric settings, provide assistance to ESP, or who are employed in other settings where persons may experience trauma. The book can also be used by mental health workers as they conduct workshops or provide debriefings where trauma has occured. Visit www. Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Adult Biliteracy: Sociocultural and Programmatic Responses.
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