Punished by the Duke (Orphan Series Book 1)

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Harrison Graham, the duke of Fallbrook, has been given an order by the queen: He must marry or forfeit his title. Desperate for a bride, and unable to find a. Buy Punished By the Duke Orphan Series Book 1 by Emma Andersen (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details.

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Last Chance. The Tavern Wench. Maggie Meets Her Match. The Lady and the Sheriff. Kidnapped and Bound. Commander's Slave. Forever Wife. Holiday Wishes. According to the study's leader, Catherine Taylor, this suggests that "it's not just that children who are more aggressive are more likely to be spanked. A meta-analytic review by Gershoff that combined 60 years of research on corporal punishment found that corporal punishment was linked with nine negative outcomes in children, including increased rates of aggression, delinquency, mental health problems, problems in relationships with parents, and likelihood of being physically abused.

According to Gershoff, the Conflict Tactics Scale is "the closest thing to a standard measure of corporal punishment". A meta analysis found that with child noncompliance and antisocial behavior, conditional spanking was favored over most other disciplinary tactics. Including other measurements, customary spanking was found equal to other methods, and only overly severe or predominant usage was found unfavorable [42].

It was suggested that the apparently paradoxical effects are the result of statistical bias in typically used analysis methods, and thus relative comparisons are needed. However, primary usage and severe usage were associated with negative outcomes, and mild spanking still carries the risk of potential escalation into harsh forms.

A study at the University of Manitoba indicated that people who reported being "pushed, grabbed, shoved, slapped or hit" even "sometimes" as children suffered more mood disorders , such as depression, anxiety, and mania, along with more dependence on drugs or alcohol in adulthood. Those who reported experiencing "severe physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence" were not included in the results.

According to the researchers, the findings "provide evidence that harsh physical punishment independent of child maltreatment is related to mental disorders". Preliminary results from neuroimaging studies suggest that physical punishment involving the use of objects causes a reduction of grey matter in brain areas associated with performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [46] , as well as certain alterations to brain regions which secrete or are sensitive to the neurotransmitter dopamine , linked with a risk of drug and alcohol abuse.

Corporal punishment also has links with domestic violence. According to Gershoff, research indicates that the more corporal punishment children receive, the more likely they are as adults to act violently towards family members, including intimate partners.

Corporal punishment in the home

Chris Ferguson employed an alternative statistical analysis found negative cognitive and behavioral effects in children subjected to spanking and corporal punishment, but found the overall relationship to be "trivial" or marginally so, and externalizing effects were differed by age.

However, Ferguson acknowledged this still indicates potential harmful outcomes and noted some limitations of his analysis, stating "On the other hand, there was no evidence from the current meta-analysis to indicate that spanking or CP held any particular advantages. The pediatric division of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians has urged that physical punishment of children be outlawed in Australia, stating that is a violation of children's human rights to exempt them from protection against physical assault.

They urge support for parents to use "more effective, non-violent methods of discipline". They assert that corporal punishment often promotes further undesirable behaviors such as defiance and attachment to "delinquent" peer groups and encourages an acceptance of aggression and violence as acceptable responses to conflicts and problems. According to the Canadian Paediatric Society , "The research that is available supports the position that spanking and other forms of physical punishment are associated with negative child outcomes.

The Canadian Paediatric Society, therefore, recommends that physicians strongly discourage disciplinary spanking and all other forms of physical punishment". The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health of the United Kingdom opposes corporal punishment of children in all circumstances, stating that "it is never appropriate to hit or beat children".

The American Academy of Pediatrics AAP has stated "parents, other caregivers, and adults interacting with children and adolescents should not use corporal punishment including hitting and spanking ". They recommend that parents be "encouraged and assisted in the development of methods other than spanking for managing undesired behavior".

In their most recent policy statement on the matter, the AAP note "corporal punishment to an increased risk of negative behavioral, cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional outcomes for children. In the AAP's opinion, such punishments, as well as "physical punishment delivered in anger with intent to cause pain", are "unacceptable and may be dangerous to the health and well-being of the child. The AAP believes that corporal punishment polarizes the parent-child relationship, reducing the amount of spontaneous cooperation on the part of the child. In their words, "[R]eliance on spanking as a discipline approach makes other discipline strategies less effective to use".

The AAP believes that spanking as a form of discipline can easily lead to abuse , noting also that spanking children younger than 18 months of age increases the chance of physical injury. The United States' National Association of Social Workers "opposes the use of physical punishment in homes, schools, and all other institutions where children are cared for and educated. Paulo Pinheiro asserts that "The [UN study] should mark a turning point—an end to adult justification of violence against children, whether accepted as 'tradition' or disguised as 'discipline' [ The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child remarked in that all forms of corporal punishment, along with non-physical punishment which "belittles, humiliates, denigrates, scapegoats, threatens, scares or ridicules" children were found to be "cruel and degrading" and therefore incompatible with the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

In the Committee's view, "Addressing the widespread acceptance or tolerance of corporal punishment of children and eliminating it, in the family, schools and other settings, is not only an obligation of States parties under the Convention. It is also a key strategy for reducing and preventing all forms of violence in societies".

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The Committee on the Rights of the Child advocates legal reform banning corporal punishment that is educational rather than punitive:. The office of Europe's Commissioner for Human Rights notes that the defence of "reasonable chastisement" is based on the view that children are property, equating it with former legal rights of husbands to beat wives and masters to beat servants. The Commissioner stresses that human rights, including the right to physical integrity, are the primary consideration in advocating an end to corporal punishment:.

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It should therefore not be necessary to prove that alternative and positive means of socializing children are more effective. However, research into the harmful physical and psychological effects of corporal punishment in childhood and later life and into the links with other forms of violence do indeed add further compelling arguments for banning the practice and thereby breaking the cycle of violence.

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe maintains that corporal punishment is a breach of children's "fundamental right to human dignity and physical integrity", and violates children's "equally fundamental right to the same legal protection as adults". The Assembly urges a total ban on "all forms of corporal punishment and any other forms of degrading punishment or treatment of children" as a requirement of the European Social Charter.

The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights concluded in that corporal punishment "constitutes a form of violence against children that wounds their dignity and hence their human rights", asserting that "the member states of the Organization of American States are obliged to guarantee children and adolescents special protection against the use of corporal punishment".

UNESCO also recommends that corporal punishment be prohibited in schools, homes and institutions as a form of discipline, and contends that it is a violation of human rights as well as counterproductive, ineffective, dangerous and harmful to children. Sweden was the world's first nation to outlaw all forms of corporal punishment of children. In , the section permitting parents to use force in reprimanding their children as long as it did not cause any severe injury was completely removed from the Penal Code.

The intent of this change was to provide children with the same protection from assault that adults receive and to clarify the grounds for criminal prosecution of parents who abused their children. However, parents' right to use corporal punishment of their children was not completely eliminated, but parents might use mild forms of physical discipline that would not constitute assault under the Penal Code, until when the section permitting parents to use it was removed and fully replaced by the constitution of assault under the Penal Code.

Even though parents' right to use corporal punishment of their children was no longer supported by law, many parents believed the law allowed it. Therefore, it was necessary with a more clear law which supported children's rights and protected children from violence or other humiliating treatment. On 1 July , Sweden became the world's first nation to explicitly ban corporal punishment of children through an amendment to the Parenthood and Guardianship Code which stated:.

Children are entitled to care, security and a good upbringing. Children are to be treated with respect for their person and individuality and may not be subjected to corporal punishment or any other humiliating treatment. Some critics in the Swedish Parliament predicted that the amendment would lead to a large-scale criminalization of Swedish parents. Others asserted that the law contradicted the Christian faith. Despite these objections, the law received almost unanimous support in Parliament.

The law was accompanied by a public education campaign by the Swedish Ministry of Justice, including brochures distributed to all households with children, as well as informational posters and notices printed on milk cartons. In , a group of Swedish parents brought a complaint to the European Commission of Human Rights asserting that the ban on parental physical punishment breached their right to respect for family life and religious freedom; the complaint was dismissed. According to the Swedish Institute , "Until the s, nine out of ten preschool children in Sweden were spanked at home.

Slowly, though, more and more parents voluntarily refrained from its use and corporal punishment was prohibited throughout the educational system in ". As of [update] , approximately 5 percent of Swedish children are spanked illegally. In Sweden, professionals working directly with children are obliged to report any suggestion of maltreatment to social services. Allegations of assault against children are frequently handled in special "children's houses", which combine the efforts of police, prosecutors, social services, forensic scientists and child psychologists.

The Children and Parents Code does not itself impose penalties for smacking children, but instances of corporal punishment that meet the criteria of assault may be prosecuted. From the s to the s, there was a steady decline in the numbers of parents who use physical punishment as well as those who believe in its use.

In the s, more than 90 percent of Swedish parents reported using physical punishment, even though only approximately 55 percent supported its use. By the s, the gap between belief and practice had nearly disappeared, with slightly more than 10 percent of parents reporting that they use corporal punishment.

In , the first year that Swedish children were asked to report their experiences of corporal punishment, 35 percent said they had been smacked at some point.


According to the Swedish Ministry of Health and Social Affairs , this number was considerably lower after the year Interviews with parents also revealed a sharp decline in more severe forms of punishment, such as punching or the use of objects to hit children, which are likely to cause injury. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and Save the Children ascribe these changes to a number of factors, including the development of Sweden's welfare system; greater equality between the sexes and generations than elsewhere in the world; the large number of children attending daycare centers, which facilitate the identification of children being mistreated; and efforts by neonatal and children's medical clinics to reduce family violence.

While cases of suspected assault on children have risen since the early s, this rise can be attributed to an increase in reporting due to reduced tolerance of violence against children, rather than an increase in actual assaults.

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Since the ban on physical punishment, the percentage of reported assaults that result in prosecution has not increased; however, Swedish social services investigate all such allegations and provide supportive measures to the family where needed. According to Joan Durrant, the ban on corporal punishment was intended to be "educational rather than punitive". There have also been more social-service interventions done with parental consent and fewer compulsory interventions.

According to Durrant, data from various official sources in Sweden show that these goals are being met. Since , reports of assaults against children in Sweden have increased—as they have worldwide, following the 'discovery' of child abuse. However, the proportion of suspects who are in their twenties, and therefore raised in a no-smacking culture, has decreased since , as has the proportion born in the Nordic nations with corporal punishment bans.

Contrary to expectations of an increase of juvenile delinquency following the ban of corporal punishment, youth crime remained steady while theft convictions and suspects in narcotics crimes among Swedish youth significantly decreased; youth drug and alcohol use and youth suicide also decreased. Durrant writes: "While drawing a direct causal link between the corporal punishment ban and any of these social trends would be too simplistic, the evidence presented here indicates that the ban has not had negative effects".

Further research has shown no sign of a rise in crimes by young people. From the mids into the s, youth crime decreased, primarily owing to fewer instances of theft and vandalism, while violent crime remained constant. Most young people in Sweden who commit offences do not become habitual criminals, according to the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. His only hope is to rescue Kirstyn and somehow manage to win her hand as well.

It was different with many the flashbacks at the beginning, but I do like seeing their history together. Both of their faiths were shown an incredible amount of time and I definitely love it. Near the end, it did get a bit kissier than I was expecting, but overall still pretty clean. That Epilogue was the cutest thing and made me grin.

It does not mean I recommend all the books by this author. Sign into Goodreads to see if any of your friends have read The Orphan's Wish. Reading Progress. May 26, — Shelved as: to-read. June 24, — Shelved as: own-kindle. June 24, — Shelved as: to-read. June 24, — Shelved as: read-reviewed. May 26, PM. Oh, wow!!! May 28, PM. Awesome, can't wait to read it. Jun 28, PM.