sne77.fr/includes/tennessee/rencontre-azuelos.php For their pastors know how much the laity contribute to the welfare of the entire Church. They also know that they were not ordained by Christ to take upon themselves alone the entire salvific mission of the Church toward the world. On the contrary they understand that it is their noble duty to shepherd the faithful and to recognize their ministries and charisms, so that all according to their proper roles may cooperate in this common undertaking with one mind. For we must all "practice the truth in love, and so grow up in all things in Him who is head, Christ.
For from Him the whole body, being closely joined and knit together through every joint of the system, according to the functioning in due measure of each single part, derives its increase to the building up of itself in love". The term laity is here understood to mean all the faithful except those in holy orders and those in the state of religious life specially approved by the Church.
These faithful are by baptism made one body with Christ and are constituted among the People of God; they are in their own way made sharers in the priestly, prophetical, and kingly functions of Christ; and they carry out for their own part the mission of the whole Christian people in the Church and in the world. What specifically characterizes the laity is their secular nature. It is true that those in holy orders can at times be engaged in secular activities, and even have a secular profession.
But they are by reason of their particular vocation especially and professedly ordained to the sacred ministry. Similarly, by their state in life, religious give splendid and striking testimony that the world cannot be transformed and offered to God without the spirit of the beatitudes.
But the laity, by their very vocation, seek the kingdom of God by engaging in temporal affairs and by ordering them according to the plan of God. They live in the world, that is, in each and in all of the secular professions and occupations. They live in the ordinary circumstances of family and social life, from which the very web of their existence is woven.
They are called there by God that by exercising their proper function and led by the spirit of the Gospel they may work for the sanctification of the world from within as a leaven. In this way they may make Christ known to others, especially by the testimony of a life resplendent in faith, hope and charity. Therefore, since they are tightly bound up in all types of temporal affairs it is their special task to order and to throw light upon these affairs in such a way that they may come into being and then continually increase according to Christ to the praise of the Creator and the Redeemer.
By divine institution Holy Church is ordered and governed with a wonderful diversity. There is, therefore, in Christ and in the Church no inequality on the basis of race or nationality, social condition or sex, because "there is neither Jew nor Greek: there is neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female.
For you are all 'one' in Christ Jesus". If therefore in the Church everyone does not proceed by the same path, nevertheless all are called to sanctity and have received an equal privilege of faith through the justice of God. For the distinction which the Lord made between sacred ministers and the rest of the People of God bears within it a certain union, since pastors and the other faithful are bound to each other by a mutual need. Pastors of the Church, following the example of the Lord, should minister to one another and to the other faithful. These in their turn should enthusiastically lend their joint assistance to their pastors and teachers.
Thus in their diversity all bear witness to the wonderful unity in the Body of Christ. This very diversity of graces, ministries and works gathers the children of God into one, because "all these things are the work of one and the same Spirit". Therefore, from divine choice the laity have Christ for their brothers who though He is the Lord of all, came not to be served but to serve.
Augustine puts this very beautifully when he says: "What I am for you terrifies me; what I am with you consoles me. For you I am a bishop; but with you I am a Christian. The former is a duty; the latter a grace. The laity are gathered together in the People of God and make up the Body of Christ under one head. Whoever they are they are called upon, as living members, to expend all their energy for the growth of the Church and its continuous sanctification, since this very energy is a gift of the Creator and a blessing of the Redeemer.
The lay apostolate, however, is a participation in the salvific mission of the Church itself. Through their baptism and confirmation all are commissioned to that apostolate by the Lord Himself. Moreover, by the sacraments, especially holy Eucharist, that charity toward God and man which is the soul of the apostolate is communicated and nourished. Thus every layman, in virtue of the very gifts bestowed upon him, is at the same time a witness and a living instrument of the mission of the Church itself "according to the measure of Christ's bestowal".
This was the way certain men and women assisted Paul the Apostle in the Gospel, laboring much in the Lord. Upon all the laity, therefore, rests the noble duty of working to extend the divine plan of salvation to all men of each epoch and in every land. Consequently, may every opportunity be given them so that, according to their abilities and the needs of the times, they may zealously participate in the saving work of the Church. The supreme and eternal Priest, Christ Jesus, since he wills to continue his witness and service also through the laity, vivifies them in this Spirit and increasingly urges them on to every good and perfect work.
For besides intimately linking them to His life and His mission, He also gives them a sharing in His priestly function of offering spiritual worship for the glory of God and the salvation of men. For this reason the laity, dedicated to Christ and anointed by the Holy Spirit, are marvelously called and wonderfully prepared so that ever more abundant fruits of the Spirit may be produced in them. For all their works, prayers and apostolic endeavors, their ordinary married and family life, their daily occupations, their physical and mental relaxation, if carried out in the Spirit, and even the hardships of life, if patiently borne—all these become "spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ".
Thus, as those everywhere who adore in holy activity, the laity consecrate the world itself to God. Christ, the great Prophet, who proclaimed the Kingdom of His Father both by the testimony of His life and the power of His words, continually fulfills His prophetic office until the complete manifestation of glory.
He does this not only through the hierarchy who teach in His name and with His authority, but also through the laity whom He made His witnesses and to whom He gave understanding of the faith sensu fidei and an attractiveness in speech so that the power of the Gospel might shine forth in their daily social and family life. They conduct themselves as children of the promise, and thus strong in faith and in hope they make the most of the present, and with patience await the glory that is to come.
Just as the sacraments of the New Law, by which the life and the apostolate of the faithful are nourished, prefigure a new heaven and a new earth, so too the laity go forth as powerful proclaimers of a faith in things to be hoped for, when they courageously join to their profession of faith a life springing from faith. This evangelization, that is, this announcing of Christ by a living testimony as well as by the spoken word, takes on a specific quality and a special force in that it is carried out in the ordinary surroundings of the world.
In connection with the prophetic function is that state of life which is sanctified by a special sacrament obviously of great importance, namely, married and family life. For where Christianity pervades the entire mode of family life, and gradually transforms it, one will find there both the practice and an excellent school of the lay apostolate. In such a home husbands and wives find their proper vocation in being witnesses of the faith and love of Christ to one another and to their children.
The Christian family loudly proclaims both the present virtues of the Kingdom of God and the hope of a blessed life to come. Thus by its example and its witness it accuses the world of sin and enlightens those who seek the truth. Consequently, even when preoccupied with temporal cares, the laity can and must perform a work of great value for the evangelization of the world. For even if some of them have to fulfill their religious duties on their own, when there are no sacred ministers or in times of persecution; and even if many of them devote all their energies to apostolic work; still it remains for each one of them to cooperate in the external spread and the dynamic growth of the Kingdom of Christ in the world.
Therefore, let the laity devotedly strive to acquire a more profound grasp of revealed truth, and let them insistently beg of God the gift of wisdom. Christ, becoming obedient even unto death and because of this exalted by the Father, entered into the glory of His kingdom. To Him all things are made subject until He subjects Himself and all created things to the Father that God may be all in all.
In this kingdom creation itself will be delivered from its slavery to corruption into the freedom of the glory of the sons of God. The faithful, therefore, must learn the deepest meaning and the value of all creation, as well as its role in the harmonious praise of God. They must assist each other to live holier lives even in their daily occupations. In this way the world may be permeated by the spirit of Christ and it may more effectively fulfill its purpose in justice, charity and peace. The laity have the principal role in the overall fulfillment of this duty.
Therefore, by their competence in secular training and by their activity, elevated from within by the grace of Christ, let them vigorously contribute their effort, so that created goods may be perfected by human labor, technical skill and civic culture for the benefit of all men according to the design of the Creator and the light of His Word. May the goods of this world be more equitably distributed among all men, and may they in their own way be conducive to universal progress in human and Christian freedom.
In this manner, through the members of the Church, will Christ progressively illumine the whole of human society with His saving light. Moreover, let the laity also by their combined efforts remedy the customs and conditions of the world, if they are an inducement to sin, so that they all may be conformed to the norms of justice and may favor the practice of virtue rather than hinder it.
By so doing they will imbue culture and human activity with genuine moral values; they will better prepare the field of the world for the seed of the Word of God; and at the same time they will open wider the doors of the Church by which the message of peace may enter the world. Because of the very economy of salvation the faithful should learn how to distinguish carefully between those rights and duties which are theirs as members of the Church, and those which they have as members of human society.
Let them strive to reconcile the two, remembering that in every temporal affair they must be guided by a Christian conscience, since even in secular business there is no human activity which can be withdrawn from God's dominion. In our own time, however, it is most urgent that this distinction and also this harmony should shine forth more clearly than ever in the lives of the faithful, so that the mission of the Church may correspond more fully to the special conditions of the world today. For it must be admitted that the temporal sphere is governed by its own principles, since it is rightly concerned with the interests of this world.
They should openly reveal to them their needs and desires with that freedom and confidence which is fitting for children of God and brothers in Christ. When occasions arise, let this be done through the organs erected by the Church for this purpose. Let it always be done in truth, in courage and in prudence, with reverence and charity toward those who by reason of their sacred office represent the person of Christ.
The laity should, as all Christians, promptly accept in Christian obedience decisions of their spiritual shepherds, since they are representatives of Christ as well as teachers and rulers in the Church. Let them follow the example of Christ, who by His obedience even unto death, opened to all men the blessed way of the liberty of the children of God. Nor should they omit to pray for those placed over them, for they keep watch as having to render an account of their souls, so that they may do this with joy and not with grief. Let the spiritual shepherds recognize and promote the dignity as well as the responsibility of the laity in the Church.
Let them willingly employ their prudent advice. Let them confidently assign duties to them in the service of the Church, allowing them freedom and room for action. Further, let them encourage lay people so that they may undertake tasks on their own initiative. Attentively in Christ, let them consider with fatherly love the projects, suggestions and desires proposed by the laity.
A great many wonderful things are to be hoped for from this familiar dialogue between the laity and their spiritual leaders: in the laity a strengthened sense of personal responsibility; a renewed enthusiasm; a more ready application of their talents to the projects of their spiritual leaders.
The latter, on the other hand, aided by the experience of the laity, can more clearly and more incisively come to decisions regarding both spiritual and temporal matters. In this way, the whole Church, strengthened by each one of its members, may more effectively fulfill is mission for the life of the world. Each individual layman must stand before the world as a witness to the resurrection and life of the Lord Jesus and a symbol of the living God.
All the laity as a community and each one according to his ability must nourish the world with spiritual fruits. The Church, whose mystery is being set forth by this Sacred Synod, is believed to be indefectibly holy. He did this that He might sanctify her. Therefore in the Church, everyone whether belonging to the hierarchy, or being cared for by it, is called to holiness, according to the saying of the Apostle: "For this is the will of God, your sanctification".
The Lord Jesus, the divine Teacher and Model of all perfection, preached holiness of life to each and everyone of His disciples of every condition. He Himself stands as the author and consumator of this holiness of life: "Be you therefore perfect, even as your heavenly Father is perfect".
They are justified in the Lord Jesus, because in the baptism of faith they truly become sons of God and sharers in the divine nature. In this way they are really made holy. Then too, by God's gift, they must hold on to and complete in their lives this holiness they have received. They are warned by the Apostle to live "as becomes saints", and to put on "as God's chosen ones, holy and beloved a heart of mercy, kindness, humility, meekness, patience", and to possess the fruit of the Spirit in holiness.
In order that the faithful may reach this perfection, they must use their strength accordingly as they have received it, as a gift from Christ. They must follow in His footsteps and conform themselves to His image seeking the will of the Father in all things. They must devote themselves with all their being to the glory of God and the service of their neighbor. In this way, the holiness of the People of God will grow into an abundant harvest of good, as is admirably shown by the life of so many saints in Church history.
The classes and duties of life are many, but holiness is one—that sanctity which is cultivated by all who are moved by the Spirit of God, and who obey the voice of the Father and worship God the Father in spirit and in truth. These people follow the poor Christ, the humble and cross-bearing Christ in order to be worthy of being sharers in His glory. Every person must walk unhesitatingly according to his own personal gifts and duties in the path of living faith, which arouses hope and works through charity.
In the first place, the shepherds of Christ's flock must holily and eagerly, humbly and courageously carry out their ministry, in imitation of the eternal high Priest, the Shepherd and Guardian of our souls. They ought to fulfill this duty in such a way that it will be the principal means also of their own sanctification. Those chosen for the fullness of the priesthood are granted the ability of exercising the perfect duty of pastoral charity by the grace of the sacrament of Orders.
By this same sacramental grace, they are given the courage necessary to lay down their lives for their sheep, and the ability of promoting greater holiness in the Church by their daily example, having become a pattern for their flock. Priests, who resemble bishops to a certain degree in their participation of the sacrament of Orders, form the spiritual crown of the bishops.
They should preserve the bond of priestly communion, and they should abound in every spiritual good and thus present to all men a living witness to God. Their praise lives on in the Church of God. By their very office of praying and offering sacrifice for their own people and the entire people of God, they should rise to greater holiness.
They should ever nourish and strengthen their action from an abundance of contemplation, doing all this for the comfort of the entire Church of God. All priests, and especially those who are called "diocesan priests," due to the special title of their ordination, should keep continually before their minds the fact that their faithful loyalty toward and their generous cooperation with their bishop is of the greatest value in their growth in holiness.
Ministers of lesser rank are also sharers in the mission and grace of the Supreme Priest. They will accomplish this by their constancy in prayer, by their burning love, and by their unremitting recollection of whatever is true, just and of good repute.
They will accomplish all this for the glory and honor of God. Besides these already named, there are also laymen, chosen of God and called by the bishop. These laymen spend themselves completely in apostolic labors, working the Lord's field with much success. Furthermore, married couples and Christian parents should follow their own proper path to holiness by faithful love. They should sustain one another in grace throughout the entire length of their lives. They should embue their offspring, lovingly welcomed as God's gift, with Christian doctrine and the evangelical virtues.
In this manner, they offer all men the example of unwearying and generous love; in this way they build up the brotherhood of charity; in so doing, they stand as the witnesses and cooperators in the fruitfulness of Holy Mother Church; by such lives, they are a sign and a participation in that very love, with which Christ loved His Bride and for which He delivered Himself up for her.
Finally, those who engage in labor—and frequently it is of a heavy nature—should better themselves by their human labors. They should be of aid to their fellow citizens. They should raise all of society, and even creation itself, to a better mode of existence. Indeed, they should imitate by their lively charity, in their joyous hope and by their voluntary sharing of each others' burdens, the very Christ who plied His hands with carpenter's tools and Who in union with His Father, is continually working for the salvation of all men.
In this, then, their daily work they should climb to the heights of holiness and apostolic activity. May all those who are weighed down with poverty, infirmity and sickness, as well as those who must bear various hardships or who suffer persecution for justice sake—may they all know they are united with the suffering Christ in a special way for the salvation of the world. The Lord called them blessed in His Gospel and they are those whom "the God of all graces, who has called us unto His eternal glory in Christ Jesus, will Himself, after we have suffered a little while, perfect, strengthen and establish".
Finally all Christ's faithful, whatever be the conditions, duties and circumstances of their lives—and indeed through all these, will daily increase in holiness, if they receive all things with faith from the hand of their heavenly Father and if they cooperate with the divine will. In this temporal service, they will manifest to all men the love with which God loved the world. Indeed, in order that love, as good seed may grow and bring forth fruit in the soul, each one of the faithful must willingly hear the Word of God and accept His Will, and must complete what God has begun by their own actions with the help of God's grace.
These actions consist in the use of the sacraments and in a special way the Eucharist, frequent participation in the sacred action of the Liturgy, application of oneself to prayer, self-abnegation, lively fraternal service and the constant exercise of all the virtues. For charity, as the bond of perfection and the fullness of the law, rules over all the means of attaining holiness and gives life to these same means.
It is the love of God and the love of one's neighbor which points out the true disciple of Christ. Since Jesus, the Son of God, manifested His charity by laying down His life for us, so too no one has greater love than he who lays down his life for Christ and His brothers.
The Church, then, considers martyrdom as an exceptional gift and as the fullest proof of love. By martyrdom a disciple is transformed into an image of his Master by freely accepting death for the salvation of the world—as well as his conformity to Christ in the shedding of his blood. Though few are presented such an opportunity, nevertheless all must be prepared to confess Christ before men. They must be prepared to make this profession of faith even in the midst of persecutions, which will never be lacking to the Church, in following the way of the cross. Likewise, the holiness of the Church is fostered in a special way by the observance of the counsels proposed in the Gospel by Our Lord to His disciples.
The reason for this was and is that perfect continency for the love of God is an incentive to charity, and is certainly a particular source of spiritual fecundity in the world. The Church continually keeps before it the warning of the Apostle which moved the faithful to charity, exhorting them to experience personally what Christ Jesus had known within Himself. This was the same Christ Jesus, who "emptied Himself, taking the nature of a slave.
There are some who, in their freedom as sons of God, renounce their own wills and take upon themselves the state of poverty. Still further, some become subject of their own accord to another man, in the matter of perfection for love of God. This is beyond the measure of the commandments, but is done in order to become more fully like the obedient Christ.
Therefore, all the faithful of Christ are invited to strive for the holiness and perfection of their own proper state. Indeed they have an obligation to so strive. Let all then have care that they guide aright their own deepest sentiments of soul. Let neither the use of the things of this world nor attachment to riches, which is against the spirit of evangelical poverty, hinder them in their quest for perfect love.
Let them heed the admonition of the Apostle to those who use this world; let them not come to terms with this world; for this world, as we see it, is passing away. The evangelical counsels of chastity dedicated to God, poverty and obedience are based upon the words and examples of the Lord. They were further commanded by the apostles and Fathers of the Church, as well as by the doctors and pastors of souls. The counsels are a divine gift, which the Church received from its Lord and which it always safeguards with the help of His grace.
Church authority has the duty, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, of interpreting these evangelical counsels, of regulating their practice and finally to build on them stable forms of living. Thus it has come about, that, as if on a tree which has grown in the field of the Lord, various forms of solidarity and community life, as well as various religious families have branched out in a marvelous and multiple way from this divinely given seed. Such a multiple and miraculous growth augments both the progress of the members of these various religious families themselves and the welfare of the entire Body of Christ.
They further offer their members the support of fraternal association in the militia of Christ and of liberty strengthened by obedience. Thus these religious are able to tranquilly fulfill and faithfully observe their religious profession and so spiritually rejoicing make progress on the road of charity. From the point of view of the divine and hierarchical structure of the Church, the religious state of life is not an intermediate state between the clerical and lay states.
But, rather, the faithful of Christ are called by God from both these states of life so that they might enjoy this particular gift in the life of the Church and thus each in one's own way, may be of some advantage to the salvific mission of the Church. The faithful of Christ bind themselves to the three aforesaid counsels either by vows, or by other sacred bonds, which are like vows in their purpose. By such a bond, a person is totally dedicated to God, loved beyond all things.
In this way, that person is ordained to the honor and service of God under a new and special title. Indeed through Baptism a person dies to sin and is consecrated to God. However, in order that he may be capable of deriving more abundant fruit from this baptismal grace, he intends, by the profession of the evangelical counsels in the Church, to free himself from those obstacles, which might draw him away from the fervor of charity and the perfection of divine worship. By his profession of the evangelical counsels, then, he is more intimately consecrated to divine service.
Since this is so, the spiritual life of these people should then be devoted to the welfare of the whole Church. From this arises their duty of working to implant and strengthen the Kingdom of Christ in souls and to extend that Kingdom to every clime. This duty is to be undertaken to the extent of their capacities and in keeping with the proper type of their own vocation. This can be realized through prayer or active works of the apostolate.
It is for this reason that the Church preserves and fosters the special character of her various religious institutes. The profession of the evangelical counsels, then, appears as a sign which can and ought to attract all the members of the Church to an effective and prompt fulfillment of the duties of their Christian vocation. The people of God have no lasting city here below, but look forward to one that is to come. Since this is so, the religious state, whose purpose is to free its members from earthly cares, more fully manifests to all believers the presence of heavenly goods already possessed here below.
Furthermore, it not only witnesses to the fact of a new and eternal life acquired by the redemption of Christ, but it foretells the future resurrection and the glory of the heavenly kingdom. Christ proposed to His disciples this form of life, which He, as the Son of God, accepted in entering this world to do the will of the Father. This same state of life is accurately exemplified and perpetually made present in the Church. The religious state clearly manifests that the Kingdom of God and its needs, in a very special way, are raised above all earthly considerations.
Finally it clearly shows all men both the unsurpassed breadth of the strength of Christ the King and the infinite power of the Holy Spirit marvelously working in the Church. Thus, the state which is constituted by the profession of the evangelical counsels, though it is not the hierarchical structure of the Church, nevertheless, undeniably belongs to its life and holiness. It is the duty of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to regulate the practice of the evangelical counsels by law, since it is the duty of the same hierarchy to care for the People of God and to lead them to most fruitful pastures.
It also aids by its vigilant and safeguarding authority those institutes variously established for the building up of Christ's Body in order that these same institutes may grow and flourish according to the spirit of the founders. Any institute of perfection and its individual members may be removed from the jurisdiction of the local Ordinaries by the Supreme Pontiff and subjected to himself alone.
This is done in virtue of his primacy over the entire Church in order to more fully provide for the necessities of the entire flock of the Lord and in consideration of the common good. The members of these institutes, in fulfilling their obligation to the Church due to their particular form of life, ought to show reverence and obedience to bishops according to the sacred canons.
The bishops are owed this respect because of their pastoral authority in their own churches and because of the need of unity and harmony in the apostolate. The Church not only raises the religious profession to the dignity of a canonical state by her approval, but even manifests that this profession is a state consecrated to God by the liturgical setting of that profession. The Church itself, by the authority given to it by God, accepts the vows of the newly professed. It begs aid and grace from God for them by its public prayer. It commends them to God, imparts a spiritual blessing on them and accompanies their self-offering by the Eucharistic sacrifice.
Religious should carefully keep before their minds the fact that the Church presents Christ to believers and non-believers alike in a striking manner daily through them. The Church thus portrays Christ in contemplation on the mountain, in His proclamation of the kingdom of God to the multitudes, in His healing of the sick and maimed, in His work of converting sinners to a better life, in His solicitude for youth and His goodness to all men, always obedient to the will of the Father who sent Him.
All men should take note that the profession of the evangelical counsels, though entailing the renunciation of certain values which are to be undoubtedly esteemed, does not detract from a genuine development of the human persons, but rather by its very nature is most beneficial to that development. Indeed the counsels, voluntarily undertaken according to each one's personal vocation, contribute a great deal to the purification of heart and spiritual liberty. They continually stir up the fervor of charity. But especially they are able to more fully mold the Christian man to that type of chaste and detached life, which Christ the Lord chose for Himself and which His Mother also embraced.
This is clearly proven by the example of so many holy founders.
Let no one think that religious have become strangers to their fellowmen or useless citizens of this earthly city by their consecration. For even though it sometimes happens that religious do not directly mingle with their contemporaries, yet in a more profound sense these same religious are united with them in the heart of Christ and spiritually cooperate with them.
In this way the building up of the earthly city may have its foundation in the Lord and may tend toward Him, lest perhaps those who build this city shall have labored in vain. Therefore, this Sacred Synod encourages and praises the men and women, Brothers and Sisters, who in monasteries, or in schools and hospitals, or in the missions, adorn the Bride of Christ by their unswerving and humble faithfulness in their chosen consecration and render generous services of all kinds to mankind. Let each of the faithful called to the profession of the evangelical counsels, therefore, carefully see to it that he persevere and ever grow in that vocation God has given him.
Let him do this for the increased holiness of the Church, for the greater glory of the one and undivided Trinity, which in and through Christ is the fount and the source of all holiness. The Church, to which we are all called in Christ Jesus, and in which we acquire sanctity through the grace of God, will attain its full perfection only in the glory of heaven, when there will come the time of the restoration of all things. Christ, having been lifted up from the earth has drawn all to Himself. Sitting at the right hand of the Father, He is continually active in the world that He might lead men to the Church and through it join them to Himself and that He might make them partakers of His glorious life by nourishing them with His own Body and Blood.
Therefore the promised restoration which we are awaiting has already begun in Christ, is carried forward in the mission of the Holy Spirit and through Him continues in the Church in which we learn the meaning of our terrestrial life through our faith, while we perform with hope in the future the work committed to us in this world by the Father, and thus work out our salvation. Already the final age of the world has come upon us and the renovation of the world is irrevocably decreed and is already anticipated in some kind of a real way; for the Church already on this earth is signed with a sanctity which is real although imperfect.
However, until there shall be new heavens and a new earth in which justice dwells, the pilgrim Church in her sacraments and institutions, which pertain to this present time, has the appearance of this world which is passing and she herself dwells among creatures who groan and travail in pain until now and await the revelation of the sons of God. Joined with Christ in the Church and signed with the Holy Spirit "who is the pledge of our inheritance", truly we are called and we are sons of God but we have not yet appeared with Christ in glory, in which we shall be like to God, since we shall see Him as He is.
The Church has always believed that the apostles and Christ's martyrs who had given the supreme witness of faith and charity by the shedding of their blood, are closely joined with us in Christ, and she has always venerated them with special devotion, together with the Blessed Virgin Mary and the holy angels. When we look at the lives of those who have faithfully followed Christ, we are inspired with a new reason for seeking the City that is to come and at the same time we are shown a most safe path by which among the vicissitudes of this world, in keeping with the state in life and condition proper to each of us, we will be able to arrive at perfect union with Christ, that is, perfect holiness.
Nor is it by the title of example only that we cherish the memory of those in heaven, but still more in order that the union of the whole Church may be strengthened in the Spirit by the practice of fraternal charity. Our union with the Church in heaven is put into effect in its noblest manner especially in the sacred Liturgy, wherein the power of the Holy Spirit acts upon us through sacramental signs.
Celebrating the Eucharistic sacrifice therefore, we are most closely united to the Church in heaven in communion with and venerating the memory first of all of the glorious ever-Virgin Mary, of Blessed Joseph and the blessed apostles and martyrs and of all the saints. Let them therefore teach the faithful that the authentic cult of the saints consists not so much in the multiplying of external acts, but rather in the greater intensity of our love, whereby, for our own greater good and that of the whole Church, we seek from the saints "example in their way of life, fellowship in their communion, and aid by their intercession.
For all of us, who are sons of God and constitute one family in Christ, as long as we remain in communion with one another in mutual charity and in one praise of the most holy Trinity, are corresponding with the intimate vocation of the Church and partaking in foretaste the liturgy of consummate glory. Wishing in His supreme goodness and wisdom to effect the redemption of the world, "when the fullness of time came, God sent His Son, born of a woman Joined to Christ the Head and in the unity of fellowship with all His saints, the faithful must in the first place reverence the memory "of the glorious ever Virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord Jesus Christ".
The Virgin Mary, who at the message of the angel received the Word of God in her heart and in her body and gave Life to the world, is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and Mother of the Redeemer. Redeemed by reason of the merits of her Son and united to Him by a close and indissoluble tie, she is endowed with the high office and dignity of being the Mother of the Son of God, by which account she is also the beloved daughter of the Father and the temple of the Holy Spirit.
Because of this gift of sublime grace she far surpasses all creatures, both in heaven and on earth. At the same time, however, because she belongs to the offspring of Adam she is one with all those who are to be saved. She is "the mother of the members of Christ. The Catholic Church, taught by the Holy Spirit, honors her with filial affection and piety as a most beloved mother.
Wherefore this Holy Synod, in expounding the doctrine on the Church, in which the divine Redeemer works salvation, intends to describe with diligence both the role of the Blessed Virgin in the mystery of the Incarnate Word and the Mystical Body, and the duties of redeemed mankind toward the Mother of God, who is mother of Christ and mother of men, particularly of the faithful. It does not, however, have it in mind to give a complete doctrine on Mary, nor does it wish to decide those questions which the work of theologians has not yet fully clarified.
Those opinions therefore may be lawfully retained which are propounded in Catholic schools concerning her, who occupies a place in the Church which is the highest after Christ and yet very close to us. The Sacred Scriptures of both the Old and the New Testament, as well as ancient Tradition show the role of the Mother of the Saviour in the economy of salvation in an ever clearer light and draw attention to it. The books of the Old Testament describe the history of salvation, by which the coming of Christ into the world was slowly prepared. These earliest documents, as they are read in the Church and are understood in the light of a further and full revelation, bring the figure of the woman, Mother of the Redeemer, into a gradually clearer light.
When it is looked at in this way, she is already prophetically foreshadowed in the promise of victory over the serpent which was given to our first parents after their fall into sin. With her the exalted Daughter of Sion, and after a long expectation of the promise, the times are fulfilled and the new Economy established, when the Son of God took a human nature from her, that He might in the mysteries of His flesh free man from sin. The Father of mercies willed that the incarnation should be preceded by the acceptance of her who was predestined to be the mother of His Son, so that just as a woman contributed to death, so also a woman should contribute to life.
That is true in outstanding fashion of the mother of Jesus, who gave to the world Him who is Life itself and who renews all things, and who was enriched by God with the gifts which befit such a role. It is no wonder therefore that the usage prevailed among the Fathers whereby they called the mother of God entirely holy and free from all stain of sin, as though fashioned by the Holy Spirit and formed as a new creature.
Embracing God's salvific will with a full heart and impeded by no sin, she devoted herself totally as a handmaid of the Lord to the person and work of her Son, under Him and with Him, by the grace of almighty God, serving the mystery of redemption. Rightly therefore the holy Fathers see her as used by God not merely in a passive way, but as freely cooperating in the work of human salvation through faith and obedience. For, as St. Irenaeus says, she "being obedient, became the cause of salvation for herself and for the whole human race. This union of the Mother with the Son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ's virginal conception up to His death it is shown first of all when Mary, arising in haste to go to visit Elizabeth, is greeted by her as blessed because of her belief in the promise of salvation and the precursor leaped with joy in the womb of his mother.
When she presented Him to the Lord in the temple, making the offering of the poor, she heard Simeon foretelling at the same time that her Son would be a sign of contradiction and that a sword would pierce the mother's soul, that out of many hearts thoughts might be revealed. His Mother indeed kept these things to be pondered over in her heart. In the public life of Jesus, Mary makes significant appearances. This is so even at the very beginning, when at the marriage feast of Cana, moved with pity, she brought about by her intercession the beginning of miracles of Jesus the Messiah. Finally, she was given by the same Christ Jesus dying on the cross as a mother to His disciple with these words: "Woman, behold thy son".
But since it has pleased God not to manifest solemnly the mystery of the salvation of the human race before He would pour forth the Spirit promised by Christ, we see the apostles before the day of Pentecost "persevering with one mind in prayer with the women and Mary the Mother of Jesus, and with His brethren", and Mary by her prayers imploring the gift of the Spirit, who had already overshadowed her in the Annunciation. There is but one Mediator as we know from the words of the apostle, "for there is one God and one mediator of God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself a redemption for all".
For all the salvific influence of the Blessed Virgin on men originates, not from some inner necessity, but from the divine pleasure. It flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on His mediation, depends entirely on it and draws all its power from it. In no way does it impede, but rather does it foster the immediate union of the faithful with Christ. Predestined from eternity by that decree of divine providence which determined the incarnation of the Word to be the Mother of God, the Blessed Virgin was on this earth the virgin Mother of the Redeemer, and above all others and in a singular way the generous associate and humble handmaid of the Lord.
She conceived, brought forth and nourished Christ. She presented Him to the Father in the temple, and was united with Him by compassion as He died on the Cross. In this singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope and burning charity in the work of the Saviour in giving back supernatural life to souls.
Wherefore she is our mother in the order of grace. This maternity of Mary in the order of grace began with the consent which she gave in faith at the Annunciation and which she sustained without wavering beneath the cross, and lasts until the eternal fulfillment of all the elect. Taken up to heaven she did not lay aside this salvific duty, but by her constant intercession continued to bring us the gifts of eternal salvation.
For no creature could ever be counted as equal with the Incarnate Word and Redeemer. Just as the priesthood of Christ is shared in various ways both by the ministers and by the faithful, and as the one goodness of God is really communicated in different ways to His creatures, so also the unique mediation of the Redeemer does not exclude but rather gives rise to a manifold cooperation which is but a sharing in this one source. The Church does not hesitate to profess this subordinate role of Mary. It knows it through unfailing experience of it and commends it to the hearts of the faithful, so that encouraged by this maternal help they may the more intimately adhere to the Mediator and Redeemer.
By reason of the gift and role of divine maternity, by which she is united with her Son, the Redeemer, and with His singular graces and functions, the Blessed Virgin is also intimately united with the Church. As St. Ambrose taught, the Mother of God is a type of the Church in the order of faith, charity and perfect union with Christ.
The Son whom she brought forth is He whom God placed as the first-born among many brethren, namely the faithful, in whose birth and education she cooperates with a maternal love. The Church indeed, contemplating her hidden sanctity, imitating her charity and faithfully fulfilling the Father's will, by receiving the word of God in faith becomes herself a mother. By her preaching she brings forth to a new and immortal life the sons who are born to her in baptism, conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of God. She herself is a virgin, who keeps the faith given to her by her Spouse whole and entire.
Imitating the mother of her Lord, and by the power of the Holy Spirit, she keeps with virginal purity an entire faith, a firm hope and a sincere charity. But while in the most holy Virgin the Church has already reached that perfection whereby she is without spot or wrinkle, the followers of Christ still strive to increase in holiness by conquering sin.
Piously meditating on her and contemplating her in the light of the Word made man, the Church with reverence enters more intimately into the great mystery of the Incarnation and becomes more and more like her Spouse. For Mary, who since her entry into salvation history unites in herself and re-echoes the greatest teachings of the faith as she is proclaimed and venerated, calls the faithful to her Son and His sacrifice and to the love of the Father.
Seeking after the glory of Christ, the Church becomes more like her exalted Type, and continually progresses in faith, hope and charity, seeking and doing the will of God in all things. Hence the Church, in her apostolic work also, justly looks to her, who, conceived of the Holy Spirit, brought forth Christ, who was born of the Virgin that through the Church He may be born and may increase in the hearts of the faithful also. The Virgin in her own life lived an example of that maternal love, by which it behooves that all should be animated who cooperate in the apostolic mission of the Church for the regeneration of men.
Placed by the grace of God, as God's Mother, next to her Son, and exalted above all angels and men, Mary intervened in the mysteries of Christ and is justly honored by a special cult in the Church. Clearly from earliest times the Blessed Virgin is honored under the title of Mother of God, under whose protection the faithful took refuge in all their dangers and necessities. The various forms of piety toward the Mother of God, which the Church within the limits of sound and orthodox doctrine, according to the conditions of time and place, and the nature and ingenuity of the faithful has approved, bring it about that while the Mother is honored, the Son, through whom all things have their being and in whom it has pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell, is rightly known, loved and glorified and that all His commands are observed.
This most Holy Synod deliberately teaches this Catholic doctrine and at the same time admonishes all the sons of the Church that the cult, especially the liturgical cult, of the Blessed Virgin, be generously fostered, and the practices and exercises of piety, recommended by the magisterium of the Church toward her in the course of centuries be made of great moment, and those decrees, which have been given in the early days regarding the cult of images of Christ, the Blessed Virgin and the saints, be religiously observed.
Let them assiduously keep away from whatever, either by word or deed, could lead separated brethren or any other into error regarding the true doctrine of the Church. Let the faithful remember moreover that true devotion consists neither in sterile or transitory affection, nor in a certain vain credulity, but proceeds from true faith, by which we are led to know the excellence of the Mother of God, and we are moved to a filial love toward our mother and to the imitation of her virtues.
In the interim just as the Mother of Jesus, glorified in body and soul in heaven, is the image and beginning of the Church as it is to be perfected is the world to come, so too does she shine forth on earth, until the day of the Lord shall come, as a sign of sure hope and solace to the people of God during its sojourn on earth.
It gives great joy and comfort to this holy and general Synod that even among the separated brethren there are some who give due honor to the Mother of our Lord and Saviour, especially among the Orientals, who with devout mind and fervent impulse give honor to the Mother of God, ever virgin. Each and all these items which are set forth in this dogmatic Constitution have met with the approval of the Council Fathers. And We by the apostolic power given Us by Christ together with the Venerable Fathers in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and establish it and command that what has thus been decided in the Council be promulgated for the glory of God.
A question has arisen regarding the precise theological note which should be attached to the doctrine that is set forth in the Schema de Ecclesia and is being put to a vote. The Theological Commission has given the following response regarding the Modi that have to do with Chapter III of the de Ecclesia Schema: "As is self-evident, the Council's text must always be interpreted in accordance with the general rules that are known to all.
On this occasion the Theological Commission makes reference to its Declaration of March 6, , the text of which we transcribe here:. The rest of the things which the sacred Council sets forth, inasmuch as they are the teaching of the Church's supreme magisterium, ought to be accepted and embraced by each and every one of Christ's faithful according to the mind of the sacred Council. The mind of the Council becomes known either from the matter treated or from its manner of speaking, in accordance with the norms of theological interpretation.
A preliminary note of explanation is being given to the Council Fathers from higher-authority, regarding the Modi bearing on Chapter III of the Schema de Ecclesia; the doctrine set forth in Chapter III ought to be explained and understood in accordance with the meaning and intent of this explanatory note. The Commission has decided to preface the assessment of the Modi with the following general observations. For this reason, in reply to Modus 12 it is expressly said of the Twelve that the Lord set them up "as a college or stable group.
For the same reason, the words "Ordo" or "Corpus" are used throughout with reference to the College of bishops. The parallel between Peter and the rest of the Apostles on the one hand, and between the Supreme Pontiff and the bishops on the other hand, does not imply the transmission of the Apostles' extraordinary power to their successors; nor does it imply, as is obvious, equality between the head of the College and its members, but only a proportionality between the first relationship Peter-Apostles and the second Pope-bishops.
Thus the Commission decided to write "pari ratione, " not "eadem ratione," in n. Modus A person becomes a member of the College by virtue of Episcopal consecration and by hierarchical communion with the head of the College and with its members. In his consecration a person is given an ontological participation in the sacred functions [munera]; this is absolutely clear from Tradition, liturgical tradition included.
The word "functions [munera]" is used deliberately instead of the word "powers [potestates]," because the latter word could be understood as a power fully ready to act. But for this power to be fully ready to act, there must be a further canonical or juridical determination through the hierarchical authority. This determination of power can consist in the granting of a particular office or in the allotment of subjects, and it is done according to the norms approved by the supreme authority. An additional norm of this sort is required by the very nature of the case, because it involves functions [munera] which must be exercised by many subjects cooperating in a hierarchical manner in accordance with Christ's will.
It is evident that this "communion" was applied in the Church's life according to the circumstances of the time, before it was codified as law. For this reason it is clearly stated that hierarchical communion with the head and members of the church is required. Communion is a notion which is held in high honor in the ancient Church and also today, especially in the East. However, it is not understood as some kind of vague disposition, but as an organic reality which requires a juridical form and is animated by charity. Hence the Commission, almost unanimously, decided that this wording should be used: "in hierarchical communion.
Modus 40 and the statements on canonical mission n. The documents of recent Pontiffs regarding the jurisdiction of bishops must be interpreted in terms of this necessary determination of powers. The College, which does not exist without the head, is said "to exist also as the subject of supreme and full power in the universal Church. For the College, always and of necessity, includes its head, because in the college he preserves unhindered his function as Christ's Vicar and as Pastor of the universal Church.
In other words, it is not a distinction between the Roman Pontiff and the bishops taken collectively, but a distinction between the Roman Pontiff taken separately and the Roman Pontiff together with the bishops. Since the Supreme Pontiff is head of the College, he alone is able to perform certain actions which are not at all within the competence of the bishops, e.
It is up to the judgment of the Supreme Pontiff, to whose care Christ's whole flock has been entrusted, to determine, according to the needs of the Church as they change over the course of centuries, the way in which this care may best be exercised—whether in a personal or a collegial way. The Roman Pontiff, taking account of the Church's welfare, proceeds according to his own discretion in arranging, promoting and approving the exercise of collegial activity. As Supreme Pastor of the Church, the Supreme Pontiff can always exercise his power at will, as his very office demands.
Though it is always in existence, the College is not as a result permanently engaged in strictly collegial activity; the Church's Tradition makes this clear. In other words, the College is not always "fully active [in actu pleno]"; rather, it acts as a college in the strict sense only from time to time and only with the consent of its head.
The phrase "with the consent of its head" is used to avoid the idea of dependence on some kind of outsider; the term "consent" suggests rather communion between the head and the members, and implies the need for an act which belongs properly to the competence of the head.
This is explicitly affirmed in n. The word "only" takes in all cases. It is evident from this that the norms approved by the supreme authority must always be observed. It is clear throughout that it is a question of the bishops acting in conjunction with their head, never of the bishops acting independently of the Pope. In the latter instance, without the action of the head, the bishops are not able to act as a College: this is clear from the concept of "College. Without hierarchical communion the ontologico-sacramental function [munus], which is to be distinguished from the juridico-canonical aspect, cannot be exercised.
However, the Commission has decided that it should not enter into question of liceity and validity. These questions are left to theologians to discuss—specifically the question of the power exercised de facto among the separated Eastern Churches, about which there are various explanations. Cyprianus, Epist. Hilarius Pict. Augustinus, passim. Cyrillus Alex. Gregorius M. S Augustinus, Serm. Damascenus, Adv. Irenaeus, adv.
What an invaluable resource! Soulmate Chemistry Chemistry is what makes or breaks two people as being soulmates. Thus, the state which is constituted by the profession of the evangelical counsels, though it is not the hierarchical structure of the Church, nevertheless, undeniably belongs to its life and holiness. To make things crystal clear, he added, "[my] relationship has recently ended. I feel sooooo much better. Pius IX itt.
Haer, 24, 1: PG 7, B; Harvey 2, 13i, ed. Sagnard, Sources Chr. Cyprianus, De Orat Dom. Augustinus, Serm. Origenes, In Matth. Pro documentis liturgicis, cfr. Sacramentarium Gregorianum: PL 78, B. Chirag, to know about that, please have a look at the IIM Profilizer. Anup, should not be a problem as you can always show the marks of graduation uphill this point of time. I am aiming for CAT I have secured C. I am currently pursuing Economics Hons in Delhi University. I am now in 3rd year 5th semester.
I am a CL student and am getting percentile in my CL mocks. Anshuman, you have a extremely good chance of making it to the old IIMs. Please check the IIM Profilizer to know more. Is there any preference to state board student? Please confirm it with the new IIM-A criteria. Hello, my age is 34 years. I am a Government Clerk from last 10 years. Now I feel frustrated with my job and wants to do something big in life. I am very much attracted towards corporate life. And what are my chances of getting a decent corpo job after this MBA from top schools through campus placements?
My academics are as given below please Abhishek, age will not decrease your chances of getting into a top B-school. During the interview, you have to come up with a genuine and logical answer for why do you wish to pursue an MBA. Satya, considering your profile the top IIMs are possible. IIM Bangalore and Indore might not be possible. Avinash, considering your profile, you are eligible for most of the IIMs. Till last year there was a hope that I could do a bit well in verbal because of reasoning questions. But from this year as we all know we have to get separate good percentile in verbal as well.
I have 4 months of job experience as of now. I am a OBC candidate. Abhijit, the first and the foremost thing you should begin with is reading. Read newspapers, editorials, magazines. Apart from this, it is extremely important for you to go through the basics of Grammar. Going through the CL material would be a good way to go about this. Mark out the difficult words from the RC, learn their meaning and their usage in the context. I wanted to know if the IIMs take the average score of all the three years of graduation or just the final year.
Vanya, the average score of all the years is considered. A, LL. Class X — 9. Once again, would this be an issue? Soooooo, is it worth it? Career-oriented confusion is common at that age. You should keep looking for a job as a back-up. Sir, Thanks in advance for reading. I have TECH Mechanical. My 4 years of engineering education was very pathetic.
Now, I am in doubt that I may not get a good job. Please can you guide me. Ranit, your profile is good enough to get you to a good IIM and other top B-schools. Please confirm using the IIM Profilizer. You need to prepare well and get a good CAT score. Is this happens because of my under graduation degree?
Sunny, it depends on which colleges you applied to. If you applied to Cluster 1,2,3 colleges as per CL Rankings it is obvious that you wont get any calls at that percentile. Please advise me too. I have done an industrial internship and also have an year of work experience in Financial Services. What are my chances of getting into one of the top 10 B-Schools in India? Akhil, the old IIMs might not be possible with your profile. I am scared of failure. All this is really hampering my self-confidence. CAT is not like any school examinations, and i find everything important, and then it totally messes me up, and i am not able to focus on any.
Sir, could you please guide me on how to go about my studies? At this time of the year its important to study quality and not quantity, i know it but i am just not able to implement. Anu, you need not feel bogged down. Please refer to the CAT study plan. Could be good to prepare for IIM.. Sumit, most of the old IIms might not be possible with your profile. Hi Sir, My profile is as below X- Work Ex of 1. Nitesh, sorry for the delayed reply. Calls from the top IIMs are possible. The CA degree is considered. Deepika, most of the old IIMs will not be possible with your profile.
I was wondering if my poor academic scores family problems will affect my chances of being accepted into a top MBA school. I want to know if there is anything i could do make up for my poor past performances. Pranav, considering your profile most of the IIMs are possible. IIM Bangalore and Lucknow might be out of reach. Sir ,I am a tybcom student. Do I have a shot at iim-a,b,c? Lara, you are eligible for most of the IIMs.
IIM Bangalore might not be possible with your profile. Sasha, considering your profile calls from all of the top IIMs are possible. Hello sir, I am very poor in academics i. Can i get any IIM with this score sir…?? Anshu, the top IIMs might not be possible with this profile. The New IIMs are possible. Please confirm this using the IIM Profilizer. Sir My 10th percentage is 82 my 12th percentage is 62 while my Bachelors in engineering is Anurag, considering your profile, the top IIMs are possible.
The 4 year gap can be defended provided that you give a logical reason for it. Ankur, calls from all the top IIMs are possible with your profile. So please provide me some contact information so that i can get my queries sorted out. Shubham, for queries please raise it up with support careerlauncher.
Kedarnath, with your profile most of the IIMs are certainly possible. Please confirm it by checking your personalized report on the IIM Profilizer. The minimum required percentiles are also given there. What are the chances of getting into top 15 b schools and what is the percentile bracket i should aim for.
Yogesh, with your profile, the top IIMs are possible. Please confirm the same by entering your complete details in the IIM Profilizer. The percentile that can get you a seat at an IIM depends on your category. For the General category, the percentile should be above Sir i am very much interested to join any IIM in india. May I apply in CAT? Please go through the eligibility criteria of the top B-schools given here. Does this one year gap effects my mba admission?
Sasi, an year gap will not affect your chances at a B-school provided that you have a good reason supporting the year drop. Please note, at the time of taking the admission there should not be any pending back logs. He will still continue with his B. E to get a degree but long term goal for him is M. Kindly suggest a way out to prepare for the same and what colleges he should target with this academics. Anisha, a month period is usually good enough time for CAT preparation. Irrespective of when he starts his CAT preparation he should start the following immediately: 1.
Develop a reading habit, read books by different authors and of different genre at least 1 per month. A daily newspaper The Hindu or Indian Express along with a current affairs weekly will help build his general awareness, reading comprehension, vocabulary and sentence correction all of which will be helpful in his MBA entrance process.
This should be over in the next 2 months. He should not ignore his engineering classes, low marks in graduation could make him in-eligible for some of the IIMs, also in the interview your knowledge of engineering will be tested. His summer internship and B. I m in 3rd year B. As our CGPA will be generated of last 2 years. Vishal, the top IIMs might not be possible with this profile. I am aiming for Cat Tech, and i have a work experience of 2 years with an mnc.
Hi Sir, my 10th and 12th score are above 70s.. Which area of VALR do you have problems in? Nikhil, persistence is the key. You must immediately begin with taking Sectional Tests. This way you would be dealing with your section of difficulty, VA, more closely. This way you will also be able to develop a proper approach of attempting questions in the VRC questions. Also, you must start reading. This will not help you in the RCs but exposure to new styles of writing will also give you a better understanding of grammar.
Between both firms a gap of 4 months. Based on profile, and assuming I get high percentile which institutes I could look forward to? Varun, since your main aim is CAT , you have sufficient time to prepare for it. You may quit the job 1 month prior to CAT but ideally it totally depends on your level of preparedness at that time. Am I eligible to top colleges or iims? However, you need to score high Awaiting for 8th semister result. Am i eligible for top colleges or iims? However, you need to ensure that you score high in CAT Srimannarayana, your teaching experience will be considered and you should claim it while applying to the IIMs and other MBA institutes.
Your very good academic record and extra curricular will be helpful in getting and converting the interview calls. Suraj, if you will clear the backlogs along with your 8th semester then it is not a problem. Focus on our CAT preparation and college academics and do not let this minor issue derail your preparation. Here is my profile. I have 4 years of work experience in software industry.
Siva, please use the IIM Profilzer to get your query answered. I want to get admission into IIMS. Especially IIMs Ahmedabad. I am preparing for CAT Please let me know the possibility of getting calls from IIMS.
I have 4yrs of work experience in software industry. Please let me know the possibilities of getting calls from IIMS. Siva, please use the IIM Profilizer to get your query resolved. Sir, i have 4. Suraj, it will be difficult but is possible. Alternately get into a good MBA institute and do well in the program. Have been managing financial accounts, customer relations, taxes etc. So please guide me as for what shall i do now to make my dreams come true?
XLRI and a few others are possible for you since their qualifying criteria is graduation only. Hello, I am puursuing my b. I am thinking to prepare for CAT. I heard that most of the colleges judge on the basis of academics record. So will it be possible for me to get any good colleges if i perform well in CAT? Is work experience necessary?
Work experience is not necessary for an MBA in India. E from pune university is it possible for me to get into IIMS. I have 1. Archana, apologies, I misread your data and hence the correction. Please refer to the IIM Profilizer for details. Hi, I am in a big dilemma of my life.
I completed my engineering last year and found a job where I worked for 7 months. Unfortunately I had to quit it for very serious personal reasons. Now i tried a couple of other places but finding it hard to get a job. Avyan, focus on your CT preparation and do not bother about this minor issue. A gap of 1 year is not a problem and can be explained easily. Sir I had passed Btech Mech in year I am from state university affiliated not-so-good college. Please help me and let me know the real situation of mine!!! Expect you guidance!!
Thank You. Gap can be comfortably handled and is not an issue for admission also the learning and the career growth will make the 2 years invested by you beneficial. In any case my suggestion is to pick up a job and also take Bank PO papers to create a back up option for yourself. Iwish to ask should I try or it is not possible for a poor student like me to even try for the top Institutes….. What should I do in 4 years of my btech to make it possible. A good reading habit is helpful for MBA entrances hence a newspaper preferably Indian Express along with a current affairs magazine and a novel every 2 weeks should be your target.
Sir, My academic profile is as follows: class 10 : I have recently completed 3rd year and thus have no work ex. Sir , please guide on my profile. I want o give my best shot this year. But till admission i. My profile is… 10th : Nikhi, I am not comfortable with a two year gap and suggest that you pick up a job and prepare simultaneously.
Call me at in case you want to discuss the issue. Is it possible for me to get admission in any of IIM a, b or c. Maverick, Both jobs and good MBA institutes are possible if you start studying. Rupam, you have a chance of making it to all IIMs. I wanted to ask , if a 3 year long gap in resume would cause problem for admission and placements?
I worked for 8months in accounting adn then left the job as I didnt like it. I plan to take CAT this year. Rahul, the gap can be explained and will not be an issue. To your previous advice I have already taken admission at FORE and I am not sure about whether cancelling my admission or not especially since I was more comfortable with HR. What would you suggest?
Will it affect my career prospects? My academics are very poor. I have self employed experience of 3 years after my graduation, I own a garment retail business, maintained all books of accounts, have income tax return file of past 3 years, and registration document of my business. Will Xlri consider my work experience on the presentation of above said documents. I am good with my soft skills, and have ok ok writing skills for essays would be improving it. Even council me on joining coaching.
All the criticism and suggestions are heartily welcome. Vaibhav, 1. Call me at in case you need to discuss this further. Thanks, Shivali.
What percentile. Hello Gautam Sir…First of all really want to thank you for this amazing effort that you have put in creating this great resource Smart Cracker Comprehensive for working professional like us. I need your help to understand as to how I should plan my preparation for CAT. I have purchased smart cracker , got the books and material. Also, there are test gym , mock tests.. I have 6 months to CAT and actually kind of overwhelmed currently. Sir, my profile is : 10th — 91 , 12th — 83, B.
Ayush, apologise for the delay in responding to your query. You should target 3 hours on weekdays and about hours on holidays and you should practice all areas daily. Pick up a fundabook, go through the solved examples of a topic, watch the video lessons, move to the MCQs at the end of the book and then pactice more questions of the topic from Test Gym.
Start with the topics that you are comfortable with so that you can move on to practicing them fast. After the first 2 weeks you should split your time between fresh topic and practice of old topics. All important questions should be highlighted or book marked and revised once a week. Mock CATs should be taken as per the schedule and you should not wait for syllabus completion. This will help you improve your test taking technique. Analysis of all tests and regular revision is essential, please refer to the post Things you must-do after every mock you take. Akansha, with a 6.
However you may not be able to get calls from IIM B. Most of the other IIMs will not be a problem. Start preparing for CAT asap, to get started read a newspaper everyday Indian Express or Hindu and a novel every 2 weeks. I have 3 year gap during engineering.
I was active student in extracurricular actives during my graduation. No Work experience yet in my field, but worked for a NGO. Your target score should be over My query is regarding work experience. I graduated in June but because of some family problems, i was not able to go for a full time job, i was also preparing for the MBA entrances during the time. Therefore now i have around 8 months of gap after graduation. Sagar, 8 month gap is not an issue, is might be asked in the interview but can be handled comfortably. Also experience in start up is counted by IIMs and almost all other MBA institutes, in fact in the interview at times it is rated higher than a regular company experience because learning in start-ups is usually of a higher quality.
Shikha, your gap years will be questioned in the interview but can be explained and will not cause any problems. With your academic performance you should be targeting only the top institutes. Call me at in case you need to discuss this. Shikha, for the IIMs shortlisting for the interviews is primarily based on your CAT score and past academic performance. Gap year does not figure in their calculation so you will get shortlisted for interviews. Sir that means even the top iims A B C will have no problem in shortlisting me for interviews.??
Moreover i wana ask having work exp in IBM will be an advantage?? Shikha, yes ther will not be any problem in this regard. Work experience of any kind is an advantage, the name of the company is not very important. Shikha, do not look at explaining or justifying. The approach has to be of sharing the information and hence telling the interview panel the truth is the way forward. Suggest that you focus on CAT preparation and let us tackle this once you get the interview calls. To the best of my knowledge MDI does not have a problem with gap years.
Hello sir, i am about to enter final year of my degree from june FMS has also mentioned that the original final degree certificate should be submitted at the time of admission confirmation. Chakradhar, while it has not been mentioned most of the institutes will give you time till September. Some of them may extend the date in case of delay by the university. Is there any chance to clear waiting? Which one is better for me? I ll work this year in some company. I was preparing for government exams for past 1 year but no luck.
Now i had 1 year gap after Btech. I have only one option of BPO job. Is it advisable to do that job while preparing for cat? Please give me some suggestion? Sc biotechnology, but i am schedule caste category I am working professional in private company and have a 3. Hello sir, I have a wait list number of 99 in IMT gzb. Also, is XIM, Jabalpur a good choice yet to apply for it.. Thanks for the help :.
Rashi, you will most probably convert IMT G. XIM Jabalpur is avoidable. Yes you can post your queries here. Now the quandary is that IMT waitlist will be released only after 15th and I cannot afford to not take an admission this year. What should I do? Further, someone told my mother that rather than providing an official diploma, Fore people give you a simple certificate saying that you have pursued this course.
Basically they have made my mother doubt the authenticity of fore. The AICTE website gives the list of approved programs and showing the list to your mother might convince her, the list is available at: 1. Sir, loads of thanks for the great help. How does one rank FORE? I mean whenever I have to tell any of my relatives about its rank, I have to talk in comparative terms.
Can there be an absolute rank for such purposes? You can also share the article Jayein toh jayein kahaan Which Institute? I have not got placed till now as i was not eligible for most of companies came to my clg so i m trying something in elitmus recruitment exam and banking exams. Please tell me. You should try for a job and consider Bank PO as a back up option.
Placements after MBA are a function of your performance in MBA and hence a good marks in MBA will help you get good placements and no one will really bother about your past academic performance. How much acads affect in final admission criteria of fms, they give points for acads or just ask in interview? Mridul, while acads could have played a small role but primarily it would be the way you handled GD and the interview.
Sir, my cousin got By looking at my cousins situation every one is forcing me to leave mba as my career option. Everyone is saying there will not be any benefit for me doing mba and i will not get any job there as well. Sir can u suggest me what should i do? Mridul, conversion of calls is mostly a function of your performance in the personality assessment process hence it is possible that your cousin had poor interviews.
Call me at to discuss. Sir,does this mean that i have no chance in getting the admission in iim??? And also pls tell me that do i need to get work experience for getting the call from any other top non iim institutes?? Hello sir, i hav 8. Sir i hav no work experience. Pls help me sir. SIR, I have good score of Will this result into me missing out the opportunity of getting calls from IIMA in particular? Also the number of student selected each year approximately in finance field and the minimum score required to get calls for interview of IIMA The information provided by you will be of great help for me in coming years.
Eagerly waiting for your reply yours truly. You will not miss out on calls from any IIMs due to this. A general category candidate typically needs about Sir, My academic profile is as follows : Class 10 : Do I have any hope in the top IIMs? Kindly reply. I have got 8CGPAin 10 standard and My friends told me that you will not get iima, iimb, iimc with this much of percentage in 10 and 12 standard.
I want to know that this is true or not. Mukund, your friends are only partially correct. Sir, i have a doubt, i need your advice,please help me out. Recently i was checking the prerequisites for applying for a duplicate certificate, but it seems to be quite risky since i did not loose my certificate, and doing so in my case would be illegal. Chakradhar, unfortunately the only way forward will be to apply for duplicate certificates.
Average Extracurricular activities. Jo, it is difficult but with your 2 year work experience you have a chance of getting a call from IIMB. Vikas, prepare and go for a retake. Hi Gp sir, I am Shantanu Kaushik. I am planning to do an MBA and am just starting with my preparations.
My past record is really very poor due to negligence and now I wish to do something exceptional in life. Current desg: Senior software engineering. Also my acads will have impact on placements during my MBA?? Sir i have completed my B. E in and worked in TCS for a period of 11 months and then resigned to prepare for government jobs as i have desire to work in my core area i. Now i have decided to prepare for CAT will it be relevant for me to give the cat exam.
Sir please reply me wheather i am eligible to do MBA or not? If so can i get a placement after pursuing MBA. Hariprasad, while it can be explained, the 3 year gap will be an issue and hence if possible try picking up a full time job. If not then we will have to manage. Eligibility is not an issue. While some companies will not consider you because of the gap most will not have a problem. Am I eligible for CAT? In college 1st Yr- And I am contributing in 2 start ups currently. Please give me the tips for getting through it with reference to my track record.
Aditya, apologise for missing you query. Unlike the IIMs and a few other institutes, FMS does not have any weight for past academics so your marks do not matter as long as you are above the eligibility requirement. Atul, a retake requires practice and testing and is not as time consuming as your first attempt so do not drop a year.
Pick up a job and prepare simultaneously. I have completed my degree in Engineering in Mechanical in And I got admission through its own entrance examination. How can I Prepare myself for current job market? Sir, i got Overall I heard from someone that even if i get a good bchool then i will not get placed due to my poor record. I am from gen. What shud i do, do mba or not? How much my record hamper chance of getting a job in bchool?
As i didnt prepare well this yr so i was also thinking of trying next yr to get a better cat score. Plz tell me if mba a good option for me or not…. Rahul, please do not get carried away by such rumours. Placement is mostly a function of how well you do in yor MBA and is not dependent upon your past academics. Think about a retake only if you do not get into a good MBA institute. Please refer to the post Cutoffs of CAT allied institutes for information on the institute cutoffs.
Shubham, please email me your details at gp careerlauncher. Hi sir. My college has a marks based system and we are given the 4 year aggregate CGPA on our request. The percentage was calculated based on our marks by ourselves. Aastha, I am confused. If your college follows a percentage system then you should report it. If no such formula exists then multiply your CGPA with 10 to get the percentage. The percentage you have calculated based on marks does not have any value.
No, we get marks in our marksheet like out of which can be translated to percentage by us. But for our transcript and other requirements we are given CGPA too out of 10 and 4 depending on the requirement of the student. That CGPA is not given individually year wise but is comprehensive for the 4 years. Aastha, please scan and email one of your mark sheet to me at gp careerlauncher. Mehak, quittin g will not have a negative impact on your profile but will raise questions that you will need to handle in the interview.
My suggestion is to start preparing for CAT immediately and not wait for May and also if possible continue with your job. Call me at in case you want to discus this further. Is it possible to get a call from iim I,k,L if we have a percentile of 97 in cat.. I wrote CAT this year and attempted 37 ques. My exam was not so good as comparing to other candidates. So, I decided to prepare for the next year. My exam was not so good as compared to others.
So I decided to prepare for the next year. AP, this year calls from new IIMs are unlikely. Hello Sir, Xth I am from OBC category. But did not go. Because i want only IIM A. I am desperate to get into IIM A. Please help me sir. In Gandhinagar, CL class opened. Why do not you come there for visit? Please I want to meet you sir. Most welcome sir. Post on Facebook when you will be in Ahmedabad or Gandhinagar. Or i will call Gandhinagar center. I will meet you there. Respected Sir , I have a question regarding my situation.
My work ex : -8months with a Share service center of a top mangement consulting firm — 1 year in family business not sure on how this is viewed by the Adcoms -6months was bed ridden due to back injury. My questions are : 1. Are there any top colleges which would accept me dispite my shaky profile? Sir any other tips from you which would help my case , as you can Mine is probably the worst profile out here. Rahul, all colleges will accept you as there is nothing incorrect about your profile, while there will be questions on opting for open school in XII or change of jobs or moving to family business all of these can be handled comfortably.
Stop worrying about your profile and focus on your exams — CFA, XAT etc and let us discuss these issues once you get the interview calls. Respected Sir, my 10 th score is 84 12 th is 59 graduation engg took me 5 years to complete as i was detained for one year with lot of backlogs. Your extra year is not an issue, while it will be questioned in the interview it will will not be a reason for rejection. Summer internship could be an issue but if you do well in your 1st term then your chances will improve significantly. Final placement is also usually a function of your performance in MBA and not your past academic record.
Currently working for 7 months. Thanks a ton. Daipayan, pleae refer to the post Jayein toh jayein kahaan Which Institute? But after that i did B. Can i apply for the cat exam with my distance education degree and if suppose I have scored a good percentaile, will there be a chance for me to getting into IIM if i disclose my B.
Also I do have a 3 yrs of work exp in reputed banks. Please guide me in this!!! Distance education degree is not a problem. Your work experience will be an added advantage. Sc Maths is not important your B. Com will be considered. Sir just now i read the selection process of iims it states that you have to submit marksheets of all semesters i scored 67 and 68 percent in my first and second semesters respectively……my current cgpa is 7. Sweta, your CGPA till 5th semester is important since results till this semester are declared at the time of interview. CGPA of 7. Sir i want to know whether it can eliminate me from the race of IIMs since i am a fresher?????
All the Best! I am a commerce graduate Graduated in , working in an Investment bank. Also sir i have really strong extra curriculars. Rahul, unfortunately all extra curricular activities a4e considered only after you clear the hurdle of CAT score and here you are below the required score. You will have to pull yourself up in the next 2 weeks and get to a raw score of at least to have a chance in the top IIMs.
The target score for the top IIMs is In case of IIMB your work experience could compensate for your low acads profile score. I am little confused regarding my MBA preparation. Tech graduate. Tech But my preparation is not up to the mark. So, I am thinking of quitting my job and dedicatedly prepare for CAT.
But the problem is that I had an year gap after 12th and it took 4 months for me to get a job after completion of B. Now, the question is that if I take another year gap and prepare for cat, will it be a correct decision? Even if I score good percentile in exam, wont it effect the later part of selection process? I have understood very well that in my current working condition it is not possible to take proper preparation for any competitive exam. Please give me suggestion. Arijit, I do not agree with your decision to quit your job for CAT preparation.
If you go for classroom coaching then do tell them that you need the flexibility of attending different batches. Do not worry about the gap year after 12th, it is not an issue. I am a below average person. E Automobile Engineering. I do have a work experience of around 3. So basically my profile is very weak. The only call i got was from IMT ghaziabad. But i could not get through that also may be beacuse of my profile. My preparations are going good but while filling up for institutes i feel like it is not worth trying as i will not be able to get into them.
Please give me an honest opinion about my profile sir. Whether this is sufficient enough to get into one of top business schools? Pradeep, you cannot change your past hence there is no point worrying about it, focus on what is in your control. You had a good XAT score last year and there is no reason why you will not do better this year. Hi my profile.. Kindly tell me which entrance exam and which college I can apply to with my above academics and work profile.
Thanks for the reply. Keep it up. Sir I am a general category student………… I don t want nethng below IIM lucknow…….. Vikramaditya, you have good marks and as a general category candidate, a CAT score of over The kind of work that you have done is going to be more important than the company that you worked in.
So your work experience is not going to pull you down at all. Your work experience will add value to your candidature. Yes, with such a performance, you will have a good chance of making it to at least a few IIMs and other top b-schools. I cleared CA entrance exam in june but was unable to clear the next level from then. I am doing my B. Com gen in krishna university I have a year wasted preparing for CA. I started taking coaching from the Time institute for CAT Also Sir I need not attend my degree college I have to only prepare and write for my exams.
So I am workless at home throughout the day. I have CAT classes only on monday,thursday and saturday in the evening for 2 hrs At home I will revise the topics for sometime but I am getting damn bored to be laid off. I want to make my life busy Sir. Please suggest me what to do. I mainly want to thank you because this site is really very helpful to all of us. Thanks allot for spending your valuable time clearing our queries. Will be waiting to hear from you soon sir. In addition to you Mocks and online practice through Test Gym you should read e-papers also as it will help you in increasing your reading speed.
First of all, learn the basic formulae of two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry — for example, equations for radius, area, volume, etc. At least a few questions from geometry will be quite easy and mere knowledge of such basic formulae will enable you to answer these questions. Further, learn the different identities of geometry and start practising problems based on these identities.
For such problems, practice will be the key to mastery. Tech- My Question is, as my B. You may be questioned about your acads in your interview. If you are able to justify your acads, then it should not be a problem for you. Overall, your acads are quite decent. Aim for Hello GP sir, I am Santosh. My 10th percentage is Tech — My question is as my graduation percentage is very less compared to my 12th percentage will it be a problem for me to get into best B-schools? But, you have very limited time available. You will need to work very hard in order to achieve your goal.
Revise the basics in these areas and then, practise as many problems from these areas as possible. If you have access to Test Gym Adaptive, use it thoroughly. This will help you build up speed as well as accuracy. These steps will help you improve your performance.
Hi Sir How is Great lakes chennai. I have four years of experience. Acad grads are average. I want to pursue only one year MBA. What are best option for me in India. Great Lakes, Chennai is definitely a good b-school. Great Lakes would rank second. How do i make up for no work experience? Kindly help me out. Your academic scores are quite good.