webdisk.lauren.reclaim.hosting/13764.php Among various forms of names - Keraunia, Corinaeum, Cerinia, Cernia - the city is indeed mentioned repeatedly, but these sites do not offer further clues to the history of the city. Fragments of Greek and Phoenician inscriptions from Keryneia suggests that a corresponding, Phoenician population next to the Greek, was established there. Their cults were those of Aphrodite and Apollo , proved by inscriptions on buildings, a gymnasium is mentioned. The rocky plain of Chrysokava in Roman times was used as a cemetery and then as a limestone quarry.
Under the Roman Emperor Claudius, the city may have received an aqueduct; the city is also mentioned in an inscription from the Flavian period. Whether it held the status of a civitas, is not assured. In early Christian times the city was a bishopric under the name of Kyrenia.
Rock sculpture of Darband-i-Gawr in S. This text was initially published by G. The Greeks had long assumed in themselves, partly on environmental grounds, a cultural and ethnic superiority over all alien societies. See: R. Del Monte G.
The city became well known among archaeologists and ancient historians through the "Ship of Kyrenia", which today can be seen in the Shipwreck Museum of the eponymous city. The almost 15 meter long ship sank in about BC. It was discovered in by the Cypriot diver Andreas Kariolou in a depth of 30 m and recovered by Michael Katzev from the University of Pennsylvania in After the island had declared itself independent from Byzantium in , the English King Richard the Lionheart conquered the island in and captured the treasury of Kyrenia.
The Venetians extended the fortifications of the city in massively to defend the island against the Ottomans. Grainger 7 J. Grainger J. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and related Texts from Babylonia. Oelsner, edd. Huot, edd. Jursa, Der Tempelzehnt in Babylonien vom siebenten bis zum dritten Jahrhundert v.
Babylonische Archive 1 , Dresden, p. Kessler K. Marzahn and H. Alexanders und der Diadochen Ph. Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East c. Kuhrt and Sherwin-White A. Kuhrt and S. McEwan G. Maehler , London, p. M aehler , London, p. Rochberg, The heavenly writing : divination, horoscopy, and astronomy in. Mesopotamian culture, Cambridge. Sachs and H. Hunger, Astronomical Diaries and related Texts. Schuol, Die Charakene.
Zeit Oriens et Occidens 1 , Stuttgart. S herwin-White and A.
Kuhrt, From Samarkhand to Sardis. A new Approach to. Shipley G. Slotsky, The Bourse of Babylon. Market Quotations in the Astronomical Diaries. Slotsky a. Andreau, P.
Funck ,. De Neeve ; edd. S ancisi-Weerdenburg, R. W allinga , Amsterdam, p. Maehler ,. Briant and R. Vargyas 7 P. A ndreau, P. Vargyas P. Prices of. Wallenfels, Uruk. Almost only legal and chronological studies appeared at that time, see e. Unfortunately some opinions or theories from these early days lingered in books by ancient historians at times when they were not accepted anymore in assyriology. For examples concerning the reign of Antigonus Monophthalmus in Babylonia, see Boiy A fourth volume with the fragmentary astronomical diaries that cannot be dated exactly will be published later see Sachs and Hunger , p.
Assyriology and the history of the Hellenistic period [article] Tom Boiy. Plan Assyriological abbreviations [link] Bibliography [link]. The arrival of several hundreds of Hellenistic legal documents originating from Uruk on the western antiquities market during the first quarter of the twentieth century did not mean an impetus for assyriological studies on the Hellenistic period. Apart from the use 1 t. Though the available information from the cuneiform tablets was still limited and not really studied yet, some of these conclusions based on these new tablets did find their way to the scholarly world of the ancient historians.
A new wave of publications dealing with cuneiform texts from the Hellenistic period started at the end of the sixties with the first large collection of legal and administrative tablets from Hellenistic Babylon CT Also the sealings on the tablets are now included thanks to the doctoral dissertation of Wallenfels on the sealings on the cuneiform tablets from the Yale Babylonian Collection published as Wallenfels The main difference with the first wave of publications is that this time the text editions were accompanied and followed by several studies based on these texts and reconstructing the history of Babylonia during the Hellenistic period and this way assyriology studying the Hellenistic period really came into being.
Apart from several articles dealing with all sorts of topics concerning Hellenistic 2 assyriology and the history of the hellenistic period Babylonia, Oelsner wrote a basic handbook compiling all sources on Hellenistic Babylonia. The cuneiform tablets were mainly used for social and economic studies by Doty , archives from Uruk , Funck , on the temple prebends from Uruk and van der Spek ; land ownership in the Seleucid Empire.
The political research during the early years, mainly the search for confirmation of facts known from the classical sources, was now concentrated on the study of the main character of the Seleucid Empire and the role the eastern satrapies played in this respect. The transliteration and translation of the so-called astronomical diaries by Hunger on the basis of a manuscript by the late Sachs Sachs and Hunger, , and was another important step in the study of the Hellenistic history.
Apart from the study of Babylonian astronomy see most recently Rochberg , several other topics could be studied again thanks to the enormous amount of information found in the diaries. At the end of each paragraph some other additional information is presented : prices of basic commodities, water level of the Euphrates at Babylon and some historical notes. The fifth volume of the series Hunger deals with lunar and planetary texts and it is therefore less informative for the reconstruction of the Hellenistic history of Babylonia.
The new elements for the chronology and political history of the Hellenistic period on the basis of the information from the first volume of astronomical diaries were immediately communicated to a wider audience of ancient historians by Bernard Other studies by Stolper , Geller and , van der 3 10 t. Van der Spek and Finkel are at present preparing a re-appraisal of the chronicles of the Hellenistic period that were published by Grayson ; ABC b. Especially on the presence of seasonal changes the opinions were very different and the discussion was at times heated.
Linssen focused on the cult in Uruk and Babylon during the Hellenistic period on the basis of the information found in ritual texts. The increased interest from ancient history for the cuneiform sources as a means to reconstruct Hellenistic history has clearly left its marks in academic research.
This promising fashion of co-operation with an integration of cuneiform studies in ancient history clearly needs wider application. The chronological studies by the ancient historians Anson in print , Bosworth , a and and Wheatley , and make also extensive use of the cuneiform material to reconstruct the chronology of the early Hellenistic period. Also from the side of the assyriologists the Hellenistic period has turned more and more into an appealing field of study. There are not only more researchers focussing on cuneiform tablets from the Hellenistic period, also other assyriologists who studied the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid period mainly, have been including the Hellenistic period in their research also e.
In addition, general history overviews tend to include, however briefly, the research of documentation from the Hellenistic period and their results. Beaker, specialised in the Neo-Babylonian period, studies the properties and divisions of building plots in Hellenistic Uruk. In addition, the lack of assyriological input is also clear from the disappearance of all diacritical signs and the fact that the attestations of one person in different tablets 12 t.
The ongoing developments both in Ancient History and Assyriology promise a good environment to study the history of the Hellenistic period : assyriologists see the period now as an interesting object of study and the idea of decadence that was based on the classical sources is finally countered. If ancient historians pay now more attention to the new developments and information from Assyriology and assyriologists interested in the Hellenistic period do get a training in the basics of classical sources also, co-operation between the two fields and interdisciplinary research will allow us to generate a better global picture of Babylonia during the Hellenistic period and the Hellenistic kingdoms, the Seleucid state in the first place, in general.
Tom Boiy After the manuscript was finished new initiatives concerning Hellenistic Babylonia have started. In Amsterdam, van der Spek coordinates a project on the efficiency of the market for agricultural products in Babylonia based on the information from the Astronomical Diaries. In the framework of the Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative, Pearce Berkeley started a prosopography of Hellenistic Babylonia on the basis of the cuneiform tablets.
In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander's arrangements intact — Taxiles and Porus governed over their kingdoms in India; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes governed Gandara ; Sibyrtius governed Arachosia and Gedrosia ; Stasanor governed Aria and Drangiana ; Philip governed Bactria and Sogdiana ; Phrataphernes governed Parthia and Hyrcania ; Peucestas governed Persis ; Tlepolemus had charge over Carmania ; Atropates governed northern Media; Archon got Babylonia ; and Arcesilaus governed northern Mesopotamia.
Meanwhile, the news of Alexander's death had inspired a revolt in Greece, known as the Lamian War. Athens and other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Antipater was relieved by a force sent by Leonnatus , who was killed in action, but the war did not come to an end until Craterus's arrival with a fleet to defeat the Athenians at the Battle of Crannon on September 5, BC. For a time, this brought an end to any resistance to Macedonian domination. Meanwhile, Peithon suppressed a revolt of Greek settlers in the eastern parts of the Empire, and Perdiccas and Eumenes subdued Cappadocia.
Soon, however, conflict broke out. Perdiccas ' marriage to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. The actual outbreak of war was initiated by Ptolemy's theft of Alexander's body and its transfer to Egypt. Although Eumenes defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, in a battle at which Craterus was killed, it was all for nought, as Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus , and Antigenes during an invasion of Egypt.
Ptolemy came to terms with Perdiccas's murderers, making Peithon and Arrhidaeus regents in his place, but soon these came to a new agreement with Antipater at the Treaty of Triparadisus. Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. Antigonus remained in charge of Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia, to which was added Lycaonia. Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace, while the three murderers of Perdiccas—Seleucus, Peithon, and Antigenes—were given the provinces of Babylonia, Media, and Susiana respectively.
Arrhidaeus, the former Regent, received Hellespontine Phrygia. Antigonus was charged with the task of rooting out Perdiccas's former supporter, Eumenes. In effect, Antipater retained for himself control of Europe, while Antigonus, as leader of the largest army east of the Hellespont , held a similar position in Asia. Soon after the second partition, in BC, Antipater died. Antipater had been one of the few remaining individuals with enough prestige to hold the empire together.
After his death, war soon broke out again and the fragmentation of the empire began in earnest.
Passing over his own son, Cassander , Antipater had declared Polyperchon his successor as Regent. A civil war soon broke out in Macedon and Greece between Polyperchon and Cassander, with the latter supported by Antigonus and Ptolemy. In Epirus he joined forces with Olympias , Alexander's mother, and together they invaded Macedon again. They were met by an army commanded by King Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice , which immediately defected, leaving the king and Eurydice to Olympias's not so tender mercies, and they were killed BC.
Soon after, though, the tide turned, and Cassander was victorious, capturing and killing Olympias, and attaining control of Macedon, the boy king, and his mother. The Wars of the Diadochi were a series of conflicts, fought between and BC, over the rule of Alexander's empire after his death.
Antigonus was killed, but his son Demetrius took a large part of Macedonia and continued his father's dynasty. After the death of Cassander and Lysimachus, following one another in fairly rapid succession, the Ptolemies and Seleucids controlled the vast majority of Alexander's former empire, with a much smaller segment controlled by the Antigonid dynasty until the 1st century. This division was to last for a century, before the Antigonid Kingdom finally fell to Rome , and the Seleucids were harried from Persia by the Parthians and forced by the Romans to relinquish control in Asia Minor.
The Ptolemies lasted longer in Alexandria , though as a client under Rome. Egypt was finally annexed to Rome in 30 BC. In ancient Greek, diadochos  is a noun substantive or adjective formed from the verb, diadechesthai , "succeed to,"  a compound of dia- and dechesthai , "receive. The diadochos expects to receive it, hence a successor in command or any other office, or a succeeding work gang on work being performed by relays of work gangs, or metaphorically light being the successor of sleep. It was exactly this expectation that contributed to strife in the Alexandrine and Hellenistic Ages, beginning with Alexander.
Philip had made a state marriage to a woman who changed her name to Olympias to honor the coincidence of Philip's victory in the Olympic Games and Alexander's birth, an act that suggests love may have been a motive as well. Macedon was then an obscure state. Its chief office was the basileia , or monarchy, the chief officer being the basileus , now the signatory title of Philip. Their son and heir, Alexander, was raised with care, being educated by select prominent philosophers.
Philip is said to have wept for joy when Alexander performed a feat of which no one else was capable, taming the wild horse, Bucephalus , at his first attempt in front of a skeptical audience including the king. Amidst the cheering onlookers Philip swore that Macedonia was not large enough for Alexander. When Philip was on campaign Alexander would remark with pride at the report of each victory that his father would leave him nothing of note to do.
And yet the faithless king fell in love with a young woman, Cleopatra. He married her apparently for love when he was too old for marriage, having divorced Olympias. By that time Philip had built Macedonia into the leading military state of the Balkans. He had acquired his expertise fighting for Thebes and Greek freedom under his patron, Epaminondas.
When Alexander was a teen-ager, Philip was planning a military solution to the contention with the Persian Empire. In the opening campaign against Byzantium he made Alexander "regent" kurios in his absence. There was a source of disaffection, however. Plutarch reports that Alexander and his mother bitterly reproached him for his numerous affairs among the women of his court. Alexander was at the wedding banquet when Attalus , Cleopatra's uncle, made a remark that seemed inappropriate to him.
He asked the Macedonians to pray for an "heir to the kingship" diadochon tes basileias. Rising to his feet Alexander shouted, using the royal "we," "Do we seem like bastards nothoi to you, evil-minded man? The inebriated Philip, rising to his feet, drawing his sword, presumably to defend his wife's uncle, promptly fell. Making a comment that the man who was preparing to cross from Europe to Asia could not cross from one couch to another, Alexander departed, to escort his mother to her native Epirus and to wait himself in Illyria. Not long after, prompted by Demaratus the Corinthian to mend the dissension in his house, Philip sent Demaratus to bring Alexander home.
The expectation by virtue of which Alexander was diadochos was that as the son of Philip, he would inherit Philip's throne. After a time the king was assassinated. In BC, at the age of 20, Alexander "received the kingship" parelabe ten basileian. Alexander was acquiring dominion over state after state.
His presence on the battlefield seemed to ensure immediate victory. When Alexander the Great died on June 10, BC, he left behind a huge empire which comprised many essentially independent territories. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east.
It included parts of the present day Balkans , Anatolia , the Levant , Egypt , Babylonia , and most of the former Persia , except for some lands the Achaemenids formerly held in Central Asia. In the formal "court" titulature of the Hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature , conferred — ex officio or nominatim — to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank for protocol to various military and civilian officials.
Notably in Ptolemaic Egypt , it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. As there are no modern equivalents, it has been necessary to reconstruct the role from the ancient sources.