Only 30, did so as salaried workers. The mobilisation of women to assume this role was immediate and massive. The Ministry of War accepted volunteers from the Red Cross in the war zone starting in the spring of In the framework of contributions to the war effort, charity workshops numbering hundreds in Paris and dozens in the major provincial cities received thousands of women and girls who took action by knitting, sewing, making up care packages, offering welcome stations — in order to improve the living conditions of the combatants at the front, in captivity, on leave, mutilated, sick or injured , but also the civilian population in need unemployed men and women, refugees from the occupied territories in northeast France, war victims.
Charity workshops, helping the war effort through labour, were also one of the most widespread forms of aid to unemployed women there were of them in Paris. A very heterogeneous group occupied themselves with such tasks as sewing and were paid with a meal or a token sum of money. In this charitable world, women mainly played the role of small hands. Rare were those who occupied posts with any responsibility, and the honorific titles and financial management were usually reserved to men. And such activities were even more controlled after the adoption in May of a law guaranteeing the wise use of gifts.
The creation of any new service now had to be submitted for authorization and their accounts were frequently checked. Less visible because very ordinary was the devotion of wives, mothers, sisters and other family members of those mobilised, which constituted the most widespread feminine support to combatants, even within the least available and poorest sections of the population. The engagement of these women dates from the first days, when they prepared what was necessary for their men traveling to enlistment stations. It continued at a distance by the regular sending sometimes at the cost of great material sacrifice of many letters as well as parcels full of food, warm clothing, and affectionate words.
The postal traffic, with more than seven million letters per day, was much higher than in peacetime. This epistolary mobilisation facilitated by the establishment of postage exemption in August and considered as a true patriotic act, was the principal pillar of troop morale and one of the rare links between the home front and battle front. Originally it was a matter of offering a substitute family to soldiers who were orphans or deprived of ties to their own families residing in the northeast.
Other volunteer initiatives did not meet the same approval, however, like the proposal that aviatrixes put their skills at the service of the army. The heroism of this native of Lille, who started a vast information network in the occupied zone, was never contested — unlike that of Mata Hari or Marthe Richard — and nor was Louise suspected of immorality.
The war settled in to stay, and the nation could no longer be content with its industrial reserves and armaments and had to resort to women to replace men sent to the front. Indeed, between and , France mobilised 8 million men, including 3. These represented 60 percent of the active male population, of which almost half were assigned to combat units at the front.
Kir Erikson. En ce temps sans folie, ardente, tu protestes! The band experiments with multiple musical styles, such as jazz, classical, folkloric music, latin music, etc. A bugger rips out the entrails of a young boy and of a young girl, puts the entrails of the young boy in the body of the girl and those of the girl in the body of the boy, then sews the wounds, tying them back to back to a pillar that holds them back, and, placed between them, he watches them die. Published by Editions Du Jasmin Whatever you like.
The needs of the nation coincided with the needs of women. A portion of the 7 million active women in France in found themselves without jobs due to the disorganisation of labour caused by entry into the war. The mobilisation of working women in France was never completely organised, as was the case in England, and it was much slower and less systematic than in Germany. Mobilisation was carried out in an empirical way, gradually extending to all sectors of activity, as the war by its length overcame all hesitations about appealing to women.
Their work was all the more difficult because they were deprived of a good share of their draught animals, requisitioned by the army, and because the palliatives offered by the state for the shortage of manpower were very insufficient. The replacement of men by women was later extended, at the start of , to salaried service jobs. Commercial firms, banks, companies in transport and in some kinds of administration, after some hesitation, but when they saw the war getting bogged down, to hire women — as a temporary measure - to keep the businesses. The post offices recruited 11, to replace their 18, mobilised men , the education sector hired 12,, amounting to half the mobilised teachers 30, and the Parisian tramways hired 5, Wives, daughters, and sisters now commonly filled in for employees who had been mobilised.
In weapons factories mobilisation was still slower. It was only in November that the first ministerial circulars appeared that invited managers to hire women wherever this was possible. Military institutions, attached to a strict separation of men and women, were the last to widen recruitment to women. It was only in that the status of temporary military nurse was created to supplement the permanent nursing service and especially the Red Cross volunteers.
In , they numbered ,, out of a total during the conflict of , The military hierarchy, fiercely hostile to the militarisation of women, gave none of them military status, not even the women employed in the Automobile Service, although they wore uniforms and appeared in war zones. Contrary to the engagement of women in the caring domain, their mobilisation in posts habitually devolved onto men was not unanimously welcomed. Women should only be present on an interim basis, only until the men returned, and in no case should they compete with them.
Similarly, their salaries were always considered as extra income, although they performed identical work as men and were in fact sometimes the only breadwinner in their households. Moreover, very few of these substitute workers were thought of as being capable of assuming posts of responsibility. In the country, women farmers continued to receive instructions from their husbands by mail; sometimes the supervision of the property was entrusted to a young son or a grandfather rather than to a wife. While France was worried about its low birth-rate, there would be no question of the working-woman killing off the mother, or the producer killing the reproducer.
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After , when the spirit of the sacred union was beginning to crumble and exhaustion in public opinion was perceived, the state set up arrangements to anticipate the eventual demobilisation of women. Balme, this new Cultural History of Theatre series offers an insightful survey from ancient times BCE to the present.
The set of six volumes covers a span of 2, years, tracing the The set of six volumes covers a span of 2, years, tracing the complexity of the interactions between theatre and culture. Marx ed.
Bloomsbury Global Clicks Through Theatrescapes. Digital Humanities meet Theatrical Pasts. My talk on "Global Clicks through My talk on "Global Clicks through Theatrescapes. If you would like to use the slides and have questions on the graphs or else, please do not hesitate to contact me via n. Theatrical Trade Routes.
Editorial: Negotiating the Entertainment Business. Editorial Dr.
Nic Leonhardt is the guest editor of this special focus issue on " Negotiating the Entertainment Business: Theatrical Brokers at the Turn of the 20 th Century " ransnational trade, media, circuits and networks are essential Nic Leonhardt is the guest editor of this special focus issue on " Negotiating the Entertainment Business: Theatrical Brokers at the Turn of the 20 th Century " ransnational trade, media, circuits and networks are essential features of globalisation.
During the last few years, historians and social scientists have started to study the historical dimensions of globalisation and networks, while digital humanities have begun to develop tools for the visualisation and mapping of these networks. Despite the attention to global entanglements, scholars have almost completely ignored the various human agents that enabled these connections: mediators, brokers, ambassadors, diplomats, or—in the field of theatre and popular entertainment—agents, artists and impresarios.
The time period between and the s formed the heyday of the profession of agents, impresarios, managers and entrepreneurs in the fields of literature, music, and the performing arts: it was only in the mid th century that a professional class of brokers and theatrical agents began to emerge on an almost global scale.
As is well-known, this period is characterised by a paradox in the processes of globalisation, in that they involved the creation and construction of nation states on the one hand, but also an increased awareness and appreciation of global or transregional connections on the other. Balzac insisted to Gozlan that by searching through the streets of Paris, they would find a name suitable for a character he had imagined, a political genius thwarted by the mediocrity of the time. They finally came upon a tailor's sign that enraptured Balzac, bearing the name Z.
He believed that the name suggested "l'esprit je ne sais quoi de fatal" "some mysterious fatality" ,  and chose it for his story's protagonist. He wrote the page story soon afterwards. Balzac published Z. Marcas in the first issue of the Revue Parisienne , 25 July The story is told from the point of view of a first-person narrator, about whom little is revealed before the final pages.
Before the story itself, an extended meditation appears on the nature of human names, and that of Z. Marcas specifically:. Does it not seem to you that its owner must be doomed to martyrdom? Though foreign, savage, the name has a right to be handed down to posterity; it is well constructed, easily pronounced, and has the brevity that beseems a famous name Do you not discern in that letter Z an adverse influence?
Does it not prefigure the wayward and fantastic progress of a storm-tossed life? The narrator, Charles, lives with his friend Juste in a large boarding-house populated almost entirely with students like themselves Charles is studying law and Juste medicine. The sole exception is their middle-aged neighbor, Z. Marcas, of whom they see only momentary glimpses in the hall.
They learn that he is a copyist, and living on an extremely small salary. When the students find themselves lacking the funds for tobacco, Marcas offers them some of his own. They become friends, and he tells them the story of his political career. Recognizing at an early age that he had an incisive mind for politics, Marcas had allied himself with an unnamed man of some fame who lacked wisdom and insight.
They became a team, with the other man serving as the public face and Marcas as the advisor. Once his associate had ascended into office, however, he abandoned Marcas, then hired and abandoned him again. Marcas was left poor and unknown, resigned to duplicate the writing of others for very little pay. Eventually his politician friend seeks his help for a third time. Marcas is dismissive, but the students convince him to give the process one last chance. After three months, Marcas appears at the boarding house again, sick and exhausted.
The politician never visits Marcas, who soon dies. In addition to his distinctive name, Z. Marcas has a remarkable appearance which his neighbors notice immediately. The story's first line refers to his "saisissant" "striking" appearance. His hair was like a mane, his nose was short and flat; broad and dented at the tip like a lion's; his brow, like a lion's, was strongly marked with a deep median furrow, dividing two powerful bosses.
Marcas appears to be destined for greatness; he is described as having tremendous spirit, sound but speedy judgment, and comprehensive knowledge of public manners. The character of Z. Marcas nonetheless represents a fiery drive to succeed in the world of politics, an acute mind seeking to do good in the public sphere.