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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Syst Neurosci v. Front Syst Neurosci. Published online Feb Frank W. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Stahnisch ac. Received Oct 30; Accepted Jan The use, distribution and reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Most neuroscientists at the beginning of the twentieth century held the opinion that the human brain lacked any functional capacities for repair, readaptation, and response to neuronal damage following degenerative diseases e. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Neurophysiological Research at the Neurological institute in Frankfurt Am Main The period in which Bethe had joined the Neurological Institute—as an interdisciplinary institute for neurological, psychiatric, neuroanatomical, and neuropathological investigations—was characterized by profound transformations at the local university as well Hammerstein, Figure 2.
Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Discussion In the context of neurohistological and neurophysiological work during the first half of the twentieth-century, many Central European neuroscientists increasingly developed an interest in further understanding the morphological properties and processes that the CNS possessed to react to the influences of inherited degenerative disorders and destructive pathologies and injuries. Author Contributions The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest Statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References Anonymous. Albrecht Bethe. S, Stuttgart: Thieme, — Vorschlaege zu einer objektivierenden Nomenklatur in der Physiologie des Nervensystems. The early history of the synapse: from Plato to Sherrington. Brain Res. Ithaca, NY: Mainland Press; , — Studien ueber das Centralnervensystem von Carcinus Maenas nebst Angaben ueber ein neues Verfahren der Methylenblaufixation.
Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die Funktion des Zentralnervensystems der Anthropoden. Pfluegers Arch. Ueber die Regeneration peripherer Nerven. Allgemeine Anatomie und Physiologie des Nervensystems. Leipzig: Thieme. Neue experimentelle Grundlagen zu einer chemisch-physikalischen Theorie der Nervenleitung. Der heutige Stand der Neuronentheorie. Ueber Nervenheilung und polare Wachstumserscheinungen am Nerven.
Die Theorie der Zentrenfunktion. Neue Versuche ueber die Regeneration der Nervenfasern. Bonn , — Ein neuer Beweis fuer die leitende Funktion der Neurofibrillen.
Folia Neurobiol. Die Beweise fuer die leitende Funktion der Neurofibrillen. Protisten, wirbellose Tiere, physikalische Chemie. Tigerstedt R. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth; , 69— Zwei neue Methoden der Ueberbrueckung groesserer Nervenluecken. Beitraege zum Problem der willkuerlichen beweglichen Prothesen. Die Kraft menschlicher Muskeln und die reziproke Innervation der Antagonisten. Die neueren Methoden zur Ueberbrueckung groesserer Nervendefekte. Die Haltbarkeit von Nervennaehten und -narben und die Spannungsverhaeltnisse gedehnter Nerven.
Zur Theorie und Praxis der Verheilung durchtrennter Nerven. Libro en honor D. Jumenex Molina 2 , 31— Berlin: Springer; , Vol.
XV — Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologischen Physiologie. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth. Kinoaufnahmen zum Problem der Plastizitaet des Nervensystems. Kraftmessungen an Sportsleuten. Ergebnisse sportbiologischer Untersuchungen. Arbeiterolympiade Frankfurt A. Sport- u. Koerperpflege; , 25— Umstellung der Koordination nach Verlust von Gliedmassen.
Kritische Betrachtungen ueber den vorklinischen Unterricht. Form und Geschehen im Denken des heutigen Arztes. Ionendurchlaessigkeit der Koerperoberflaeche von wirbellosen Tieren des Meeres als Ursache der Giftigkeit von Seewasser abnormaler Zusammensetzung. Pflugers Arch. Gesamte Physiol. Menschen Tiere , — Pflueger als Begruender dieses Archivs. Aktive und passive Kraft menschlicher Muskeln. The permeability of the surface of marine animals. Studien ueber die Plastizitaet des Nervensystems.
Arachnoideen und Crustaceen. I Coleopteren. Leipzig: Thieme; , — Die Plastizitaet Anpassungsfaehigkeit des Nervensystems. Filme Normalfilm zur Physiologie des Centralnervensystems. Berlin: Springer. Berlin, Springer; , — Funktionswechsel nervoeser Zentren nach Amputation von Gliedmassen. Ueber Regenerationserscheinungen an zentralen Nervenfasern. Die entwicklung der Traumtheorie in der Psychoanalyse. Psyche 54 , — Hagner M. Goettingen: Wallenstein; , — A History of Microtechnique.
Die Materialisierung des Ichs. Zur Geschichte der Hirnforschung im Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, —, — Hans Albrecht Bethe — Fellows R. Regeneration in the vertebrate central nervous system. Cotman C. New York: Raven Press; , — Trends Neurosci. Primary and secondary findings in a series of attempts to transplant cerebral cortex in the albino rat.
Engelhardt Munich: K. Saur; , Vogel; , 3. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff; , 3 , 1—15; —, esp. Abstract and Concrete Behavior. Monographs , I. Gorzny W. Munich: K. September Von der Stiftungsuniversitaet zur Staatlichen Hochschule Vol. Munich: Wilhelm Fink; , xxi—xliii. Golgi, Cajal and the neuron doctrine. Plasticity and neuroplasticity. Munich, Darmstadt: Deutsche Buchgesellschaft; , Ueber die Bedingungen fuer das Auftreten eines faerberischen Polarisationsbildes am Nerven.
Geschichte der Neurowissenschaften in Frankfurt am Main. Madrid 1 , — Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis. Life Sci. Kurt Goldstein—a philosophical scientist. The morphology of synapses of the central nervous system. Cell Res. The black reaction. Die Vertreibung Deutscher Neuropathologen — Nervenarzt 69 , 99— Hirnforschung in Deutschland bis Briefe zur Entwicklung von Psychiatrie und Neurowissenschaften sowie zum Einfluss des politischen Umfeldes auf Wissenschaftler Berlin: Springer; , No Man Alone.
Acta Neurochir. Wien 77 , 3—4, 81— Die Faerbetechnik fuer das Nervensystem , 3rd Edn. Berlin: Karger; , Kurt Goldstein — —pioneer in neurology. Das Zeitalter der Nervositaet. Madrid 22 , 53— Cellule 9 , — Madrid 4 , — Studien ueber Nervenregeneration. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth, German trans. Bresler Spanish ed. Degeneration and Regeneration of the Nervous System. V , English translation by R. May et al.
Neuronismo o Reticularismo? Die Neuronenlehre und die periterminalen Netze Boekes posthum. English trans. Craigie, J. I, eds Lenoir T. Report on German Universities. Psychobiology of plasticity: effects of training and experience on brain and behavior. Tuebingen: Niemeyer; , 87— Ein Frankfurter Physiker der die Welt veraenderte. VI, eds Corsi P. Making the brain plastic: early neuroanatomical staining techniques and the pursuit of structural plasticity, — Ludwig Edinger — Pioneer of neurology. Transforming the lab: technological and societal concerns in the pursuit of de- and regeneration in the German morphological neurosciences, — Mention should be made that AT numbers may be used to 1 identify tale types; 2 isolate motifs6; 3 locate cultural variants.
Moreover, some AT motifs may be combined when it is difficult to separate them in a tradition. The same type number is referred to by its central motif, or by one variant folk tale of that type, which can vary depending on the diversity of the cultural contexts. Furthermore, there are also differences between variants of the same tale translated in different epochs.
The Aarne Thompson classification was criticized by Vladimir Propp7 of the s formalist school on the ground that it ignored the functions of the motifs by which they are classified. A macro level analysis shows that even though the classification must select some features as salient, the stories that repeat motifs may not be classified together.
An example may be the classification of an animal tale containing fantastic elements as a fairy tale. Thus, there may be shifts of categories. The ways of carrying out different functions influence one another and different forms are used to perform different functions. Thus, a form may be used in another place of the fairy tale getting a new significance without losing its old one. It is also applied to details with an attributive function a three-headed dragon. Many functions are logically structured into a series of well-defined areas of action, which, on the whole, correspond to the characters who fulfill the respective function.
There are 7 areas of action in fairy tales: the areas of the evil-doers actions, of the doners actions, of the helper, of the emperor daughters actions, of the senders actions, of the heros actions and of the false heros action. Furthermore, the most variable elements of fairy tales are the motifs, which represent both the causes and the aims of the characters actions.
Some selected motifs can only be mentioned here: mythological motifs, animals, magic, the dead,. Types of Fairy Tales First and foremost, the dominant aesthetic category in fairy tales is the fantastic the folklore fantastic. The plot has fantastic happenings that are impossible in real life and it is sustained by bizarre creatures fairies , scary creatures dragons with supernatural powers.
The creatures of fairy tales have their mysterious psychology and sociology; they communicate with humans, but they are not humans. Unlike other literary species, the fairy tale gives a conventional role to fantasy, underlined by the beginning, almost the same, for every fairy tale: Once upon a time Where this canon is not respected, the impression of fantastic universe is given by the fact that the hero, standing for Good, is always the winner. Consequently, the fairy tale is a deliberate fantastic narration. It has a unique narrative perspective that follows the heros big trial, usually ended with the heros victory.
Even if the writers bring particular elements in fairy tales, the fight Good-Evil is preserved; the fantastic convention, the trials, the characters and symbols of the folk fairy tales are preserved, too. Furthermore, it is interesting to compare the criteria of classifying fairy tales, but this is not our main concern here. In general, according to textbooks, fairy tales could be integrated into the following categories: 1.
Ft-Frumos Begotten of Tears; 2. The Wind in the Willows. Particularly, Aarnes classification focuses on fairy tales about animals e. Wise Dog and proper fairy tales: fantastic fairy tales e. Prince Charming , legends e. Olympic Myths and Legends , short stories e. The Princess and the Pea and fairy tales e.
Sleeping Beauty. Considering the criterion of the author, fairy tales are classified into: anonymous fairy tales that circulate orally e. Tom Tit Tot and cult fairy tales that circulate in written form e. Lawrence, The Rocking- House Winner. In classifying fairy tales according to functions, the family position and relationships, the heros moral features and the plot are taken into consideration.
In most fairy tales the victory over the evildoer is of utmost importance because the child who reads fairy tales undergoes changes in personality, intellect, attitude and social behaviour. Fairy tales have an important psychological component that assures an efficient actional and educational behavior Mitrofan The psycho- pedagogical component of fairy tales determines the happy end because every hero, who is always a good person, must win.
That is to say, he has to behave properly according to moral principles and social norms:. Fairy tales have a common pattern, therefore a common origin. But  every people, even every speech community has its own religious and cultural beliefs reflected in their fairy tales.
M temeam s adorm i s m trezeasc soneria telefonului din somn. London: Routledge Wells, K. Die Vertreibung Deutscher Neuropathologen — Poveti nemuritoare, p. Reviews [Details]. The method of Bethe for staining the neurofibrils within the new medullated fibers is limited in its use, inefficient, and inconsistent …. View Courses.
Every fairy tale is special because it is the product of knowledge, emotions and feelings, culture, civilization, tradition. If we demand a child to re-tell the story, he will just re-build it according to the particularities of his age, gender, moral beliefs, religion, etc. The Translator of Fairy Tales In general, the translator of literature for children is aware of the great responsibility towards both the writer and children in the mediating process between them.
In particular, the translator of fairy tales has to carry out an even more difficult task, because, on the one hand, s he knows that s he has to serve two masters, i. In this negotiation process, there are no perfect matches. That is why the question may arise: How can the fantastic be rendered in another cultural context for another speech community?
Every debate on national specificity entails an analysis of the great problems that the translator has to face in translating culture - specific elements which are most troublesome due to the above mentioned aspects. Moreover, the role of the fantastic in the reconstruction and reconfiguration of different identity categories in the process of translation is worthwhile mentioning.
Moreover, the idea is shared that an important aspect of the language is its expressiveness that facilitates communication better, gives it authenticity and makes it richer. The more expressive a fairy tale is, the easier it is for the child to memorize it. In this respect, one of the most difficult tasks of the translator of fairy tales is that s he should be aware of the semantic dimension of language: adequate words, adequate style and register, phrase length, their correctness, the socio-contextual usage of the language, the specificity of the speech acts all these are ways of assuring language expressiveness.
But as there is a measure in everything, expressiveness must help and not reduce the coherence of the message source text. On this line of thinking, I agree with Cronin who considers that [T]ranslators are generally accorded the grace of invisibility but whether this is necessarily sanctifying is a question that translators and theorists have asked more and more insistently in recent decades Under the circumstances, the reader depends on the translators competence and talent. So much the more does the success of a fairy book depend on both the translators competence and talent.
Translators of fairy tales may be overliteral in changing, or modifying the original because they try to attract children as the target readers TRs. In so doing, they try to put themselves into the position of children and mould the stories in the best way to attract them. For that, they may make changes to the original so that the translated tale can have the desired effect and impact on the TRs. Firstly, they are different in form having codes and rules regulating the construction of grammatical meanings Bell 6.
The translator must always choose between translating word-for- word literal translation or meaning-for-meaning free translation. Mention should be made that the TT, i. This means that the structures of the ST and those of the TT cannot be tested by the interchangeability of texts in a given situation. The translator has to use strategies which differ from one situation to another, according to the type of fairy tale, context or translation goal.
The translator may encounter cases of non-equivalence such as: 1. TL longer structures used to render a SL word; 2. TL longer structures used to render a SL word This is the most frequent case of non-equivalence both in translating from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. More often than not, verbs are translated by verbal phrases, whereas nouns are rendered by longer syntagms or by expressions including a verb:.
ST1: Pe drum horea i doinea, iar buzduganul i-l arunca s spintece norii, de cdea departe tot cale de-o zi. Vile i munii se uimeau auzindu-i cntecele, izvoarele  i tulburau adncul  pentru ca fiecare din unde s-l aud  Eminescu 65 TT1: On the road, he played for joy and sorrow and would throw his club to rift the clouds so that it dropped one days walk ahead. Mountains and valleys listened in dumb amazement, wells would boil deeper into the earth and bubble up  that every crest and drop might hear  Cartianu The noun can be translated by a verbal expression: e.
Six soldiers of fortune is translated as ase voinici duc totul la bun sfrit Grimm TL shorter structures used to render a SL word There are situations when a long syntagm is translated by a short structure. For example, Cnd era-nspre sara zilei a treia, buzduganul cznd se izbi de o poart de aram i fcu un vuiet puternic i lung Eminescu 12 is translated as On the late afternoon of the third day, the club crashed fearfully against a copper gate Cartianu Shifts of transposition Such shifts are related only to the linguistic level since they imply changes in the grammatical structure as well as in perspective:.
ST2: Bine te-am gsit, mprate  Ci mai bine-oi spune lutarilor s zic i cuparilor s umple cupele cu vin i-om lega frie de cruce pe ct om fi i-om tri. Eminescu 24 TT2:Good day, Your Highness  Let us instead ask the fiddlers to play and the cup-bearers to fill the cups and let us be sworn brothers as long as we live. Cartianu ST3: Muma zmeului roase din copaci, se ag de ramure, sri din vrf n vrf, se strecur i tot dup dnii, alergnd ca un vrtej.
Eminescu TT3: The giants mother gnawed at the trees, jumped from tree-top, slipped through - and kept upon their traces as wild as a whirlwind! Cartianu 46 ST4: Aici o dat sri ca o pisic de uure peste prag, de nici nu atinse pe clugria pe care o furase somnul; i, punnd mna pe vas, iei cum a intrat, nclec pe cal i pe aici i-e drumul. Taking the vessel in her hands, she went out the way she had entered, mounted the horse and was away without a backward look. Translation establishes a hierarchy of correspondences which depend on certain initial choices and which, in their turn, determine subsequent choices.
Especially in making the final choices, the translator is aware of the fact that there is no perfect equivalence between the source text ST and the target text TT , i. There is no perfect equivalence, in general, so much the less in translated fairy tales, in particular. The translator of fairy tales has to take special care in transferring the spirit of the original because the translated text must have a similar effect on the reader.
This implies a very good knowledge of synonymy, collocability of both source and target language and stylistic features in order to render the exact shades of meaning, feeling tones and the whole atmosphere. If such conditions are fulfilled, equivalence of response is achieved and the extent to which the response is similar depends upon the cultural distance between the two speech communities.
In addition, the efficiency of the translated fairy tale is judged in terms of the best reception, i. The clearer the expression and the more adequate the corresponding words, collocations, phrases and idioms, very special in fairy tales, the better the expected reactions of the TRs and the higher the degree of acceptability and fluency.
References Aarnes, A. Folklore Fellow Communication, no. Helsinki Bell, R. Cronin, M. Bucuresti: Editura Univers Schullerus, A. Bucureti: Editura Saeculum I. Thompson, S. A Classification and Bibliography. Corpus Cartianu, A. Bucureti: Editura Minerva Eminescu, M. Wordsworth: Routledge. Abstract Apparently an easy topic to handle, coordination manifests multifariously in the syntax of both English and Romanian. We can thus speak about word, phrasal and clausal coordination. Based on linearization, coordination is a rich source of expressing unchained thoughts, feelings and relations through temporality, consequence, addition, contrast etc.
The paper focuses on the interface between the syntax and semantics, syntax and stylistics of asymmetric and in the two languages, with illustrations from various sources. Key words: a symmetry of coordinands; embedded and multiple coordination; pragmatic and stylistic values for conjunctive coordination; conjunction spreading. Introduction Readings in specialized literature acknowledged coordination as a complex, dynamic phenomena occurring in the majority of natural languages.
Its intricacy manifests at all levels of linguistic analysis allowing various interesting sentential approaches: Coordination phenomena convincingly illustrate the way in which syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors decide on the over-all acceptability of a sentence Cornilescu Most often, coordination is defined as a syntactic structure that links together two or more similar units in a sentence, i. The simplicity of the definition opposes the elaborate constituency that the conjoined parts may have and the constraints that they may impose on sentence meaning, in agreement with the fact that [s]yntactic structure lies at the heart of much of what we understand about natural language Bjorkman There has been emphasized the existence of three basic types of semantically conceptualized coordination relations: combination, corresponding to the traditional conjunction relation carried by and; contrast, corresponding to the traditional adversativity relation made explicit by but, and alternative, corresponding to the traditional relation of disjunction introduced by or.
We have mentioned here only the prototypical connectives. The size of the conjuncts is a criterion of separating symmetric from asymmetric and:  the difference between symmetric and asymmetric interpretations for clausal coordination can be traced to the syntactic size of the constituents being coordinated Bjorkman Symmetric and is restricted to coordinations of larger constituents, while asymmetric and concerns smaller constituents: The correlation between interpretations of coordination and the size of conjoined constituents suggests that it is properties of those constituents that influence the interpretation of coordination, rather than any variation in the denotation of and itself.
At the same time, the denotation of and may be the source of the directionality of the connection between conjuncts, when such a connection is available Bar Lev and Palacas in Bjorkman Contextual and Typological Variation Clausal and coordination exhibits great diversity that could further supply inter- and intra- disciplinary research on various coordinates: syntactic, semantic, stylistic, pragmatic or logical, to which the formal criterion of structure or composition can be added, i.
Consider the examples below:. He came in every night and sat with her Zusak, p. He examined the book again and dropped it on the blanket Zusak, p. Kevin turned around and stared at the colonel Green, p. M-am ntors pe peron i m-am trntit pe banc fr o vorb. Paler, p. In English, sentences 1a and 1b are of a compound type with the two conjuncts being linked by and, assisting the desire for parallelism and balance Quirk and Greenbaum Sentence 1a is a short, sequence-of-event type, focusing on habitual actions in the past.
In 1b the dropping of the book follows its examination, as indicated by anaphoric it in the and clause. A change in the order of the two clauses will violate the rule above. Kevins turning around might be the result of an instantaneous decision taken after seeing, hearing and not approving the state of affair:  when evaluating a conjunction, the second conjunct is evaluated in a local context which contains not only the information in the global context, but also whatever information was given by the first conjunct Karttunen Thus, a backward interpretation would change both the order of events and the sentential meaning: Clauses beginning with and, or, and but are sequentially fixed in relation to the previous clause, and therefore cannot be transposed without producing unacceptable sentences, or at least changing the relationship between clauses Greenbaum and Quirk emphasis added.
Other values that can be attributed to conjunctive coordination in Romanian are of a pragmatic nature, adversative, conclusive or consecutive, due to the nature of the conjuncts, not to that of the conjunction: With propositional conjuncts, conjunctive coordination can be pragmatically enriched with adversative, 4a , conclusive or consecutive values 4b , resulting from the content of the conjuncts not from the coordinator itself : 4 a. Am dat zeci de telefoane i n-am rezolvat nimic. A lucrat sub presiune i a fcut greeli Croitor in Pan Dindelegan ed. Between the two, Eleanor was secretive and Mary was open.
El se gndea i se rzgndea cum s se ascunz mai bine. Poveti nemuritoare, p. M temeam s adorm i s m trezeasc soneria telefonului din somn. Paler, Lakoff calls this type of contrast semantic opposition, even if she uses the term in connection with symmetric and which allows the reversal of the order of the coordinated clauses and brings about a presupposition of difference in meaning, such as in the sentence, e. I am working and she is sleeping!
She is sleeping and I am working! The same as the other coordinate conjunctions, asymmetric and is subject to the acceptability condition, according to which Two sentences may be conjoined if one is relevant to the other, or if they share a common topic The common topic is not necessarily or even usually overtly present and identifiable in the sentences; nor is this a sufficient condition, though it is a necessary one Lakoff I judged rightly that in their awkward situation their close union was their main comfort and that this union had no weak spot.
Mama placed the washing on the table and worked herself up to the appropriate level of cynicism. Zusak, p. In the first example, we identify a complex sentence with two object clauses coordinated by and, as an illustration of embedded coordination. The second conjunct introduced by asymmetric and shares the same topic with the first, marked also formally by the retrieval of the noun union in the second conjunct, so the acceptability condition is preserved.
Birner Interfacing syntax with stylistics can be discussed starting from the following examples:. In Romanian fairy tales, in general, repetition takes the shape of incipient, middle and ending formulae of a binary structure, partly shown in the examples above, the stylistic effect being ensured by the balance of the paired conjuncts. This is due to the universal creative force of popular wisdom and the resort to orality as a basic means of handing it down to generations: A sentence is a duplicate. An exact duplicate is depreciated. Why is a duplicated sentence not depreciated.
Because it is a witness. No witnesses are without value Stein The number of coordinands occurrence in the sentence may lead to binary as we have already seen or multiple coordination. Haspelmath underlines the emphatic value of this construction: Keeping coordinators on all coordinands has an emphatic value and it is appropriate only under special circumstances, in Shopen , our interpretation of these special circumstances including the characteristics of the text type, the local, sentential and global context where multiple coordination occurs.
In fairy tales, multiple coordination adds to the drama and intrigue, confirms and validates cohesion by interweaving parts of the story, as can be seen in the samples below. So Jack climbed , and he climbed and he climbed and he climbed and he climbed and he climbed and he climbed till at last he reached the sky. English Fairy Tales, jacobsjoetexteftl In English, the chaining repetition of and he climbed adds suspense to the story, focalizing both the surreal elements and the sequential climax already in expectation by the reader, e. The coordinate constructions are structurally symmetric, the conjunction making a subconstituent with the second conjunct.
In the Romanian sample, the repetition of i merse is tripartite, e. Following these examples, clausally asymmetric and, on one hand, imposes usage restrictions in creating aggregates of  events and on the other hand, highlights the two central notions of likeness and constituency specified by Crysmann in a discussion about the functions of coordination.
By way of conclusion Analyzed at the borderline drawn by syntax, semantics, stylistics and pragmatics, the present endeavour has aimed at emphasizing the versatility of the conjunction and. The theoretical considerations provided have been supported by illustrations which have underlined the contribution of context to sentence acceptability. Our future research in the domain of coordination will focus more closely on a parallel approach between symmetric and asymmetric and in English and Romanian.
Univers Enciclopedic Gold. Zalta ed. Mouton de Gruyter, p. Abstract Contending that subtitling, although essentially, a technical process with many restraints, has also a very important cultural dimension, enhanced by the presence of the literary discourse in the filmic adaptation of novels, this paper proposes an analysis of the process of subtitling Gillian Armstrongs film, Little Women , into Romanian.
The conclusion is that subtitling may be regarded as an artistic, creative process, and that looking at the filmic translation from the perspective of its literariness might enhance the quality of the translation. Key words: film adaptation, subtitling, archaisation, literary discourse, creativity and constraints. Introduction This paper focuses on the intersemiotic translation of a famous and problematic literary work, namely the film Little Women dir. Gillian Armstrong , a reworking of the classic nineteenth-century American best-seller Little Women by Louisa May Alcott, and its subtitling into Romanian.
Although the translation of the novel into film is a form of synchronisation, updating the outdated literary and historical context for a twentieth-century audience, the film does not actually perform a re-contextualization by placing the four March girls in a present-day environment; it brings, nevertheless, some glimpses of modernity into the script, but the obsolescence of language is preserved for the most part.
As the audio- visual translation has a number of strict rules in what the archaisation of language is concerned, the paper aims at discovering the difficulties that arise from subtitling a filmic adaptation of such a text, written almost years ago. Some theoretical considerations In direct relation to some film theories which hold that film addresses to a larger, less intellectual mass than literature, translation theories concerning subtitling have borrowed from their arguments in imposing a number of constraints upon film translation, namely the assumption that films address a priori a broader category of public whose understanding might be compromised if the text is too long or too intricate.
Subtitling consists of the production of written text superimposed on visual footage normally near the bottom of the frame while an audio-visual text is projected, played or broadcast. In so far as it involves a shift from a spoken to a written medium, subtitling has been defined as a diasemiotic or intermodal form of audiovisual translation Gottlieb in Baker and Saldahna Time is of the essence in subtitling the written words must overlap the spoken discourse and must also remain on the screen sufficient seconds for an average reader to be able to grasp the whole message, between 5 and 8 seconds per frame.
The translation should be that of the actual utterances, not the translation of the script. The process of subtitling consists in three individual stages: listening and interpretation of the utterances, their translation and, then, an editing process in which the utterances must be condensed so as to fit the space constraints.
There should be no more than two titles lines per frame three is allowed only as an exception and each title should have no more than 36 characters, including spaces. The line should represent a coherent logical unit Praisler Audiovisual texts are multimodal inasmuch as their production and interpretation relies on the combined deployment of a wide range of semiotic resources or modes. Major meaning-making modes in audio-visual texts include language, image, music, colour and perspective Baker and Saldanha For that reason, it is superfluous and space-consuming to mention the vase, the shelf, and the flowers in the subtitle of a sentence such as: Put the flowers in the vase on the shelf!
Instead, an adequate subtitle would be: Pune-le acolo! If it does not happen too often, it is only because the subtitlers ignore the film altogether and focus on the script exclusively. Unlike literary translations, subtitles rely to a great extent on paraphrasing, condensation, and omission. The greatest challenge of the subtitler is that of rendering as accurately as possible the spoken utterances within the indicated number of characters per frame. To this effect, after having translated the whole spoken discourse, the translator should operate on the target text TT.
The scriptwriter may have or may have not simplified them if they have, all the rules above apply as for any other film.
For example, one can only rarely insert notes in a subtitle. If the spoken text is a famous quotation and the space permits, the subtitler may insert a parenthetical note with the name of the author cited. In the case of another foreign language used at some point in the film, most often subtitles in the language of the film are superimposed and the translator should translate those, not preserve the lines as they were uttered.
However, if the scriptwriters deliberately used an archaic language to enliven their characters, they had in mind a purportedly cultured audience able to understand a more archaic language. Of course, archaisation should not be exaggerated, but moderate, only to give a glimpse, a flavour of old, acquired mainly through lexical choices and syntactic inversions.
The practical application in the present paper will show the extent to which using archaic words and syntactic structures for the adaptation of a nineteenth century novel has been deemed reasonable. The last aspect envisaged as worth taking into consideration is the use of dialect and idiolect in translation. In this respect, the subtitling theorists are stricter: one should not use dialects and idiolects in subtitling, as they are difficult to render in writing and even more difficult to read within the given time frame.
This implies a great amount of loss, especially in cases when different idiolects are employed, for it annuls the equivalent effect completely. The translators are bound to combine two different techniques, one coming from the area of translation as art and the other from the domain of functional translations. Subtitle analysis The analysis focuses on one scene from the film Little Women, the third filmic adaptation of the homonymous nineteenth-century novel by Louisa May Alcott. Jo, Meg, Beth, and Amy March have to face the shortcomings of pauperisation and their fathers departure to war.
They are reared and educated in the spirit of womens independence by their mother, Marmee. Their artistic nature Jo writes, Amy paints, Beth plays the piano, and Meg is a talented actress allows the scriptwriter to preserve varied instances of metatextuality, metatheatricality and ekphrasis, which enhance the film and give it depth. Despite a few inevitable departures from the novel, the film script follows the latter closely, resulting in a faithful adaptation. The scene selected centres on Jo March, the character mirroring the real self of the author, considered autobiographical to some extent, and on her literary productions.
The scene starts with a fade-in of a song sung by the four girls and an exterior shot of the Laurences house.
Jos voice, reciting, is overlapped, and the viewer sees Laurie listening, as spellbound. Then the camera focuses on Orchard House, closer and closer, until it fixes on a medium-shot on Jo, dressed as a man, with boots and a hat. She is reading to an audience which is immediately revealed through a large shot: her sisters, who are also dressed as men, Amy wears a single-eye glass and Meg has a cigar in the corner of the mouth. Then it is Amys turn to read close-up on the newspaper with the header The Pickwick Society the title has been already introduced by Beths words, You ought to publish it, Jo.
Really, not just in The Pickwick Portfolio , so the film brings forth the Dickensian hypotext, although it seems to address viewers capable to recognise the intertextual allusion by themselves. On the newspaper, one can see the title The Masked Marriage one of Alcotts juvenilia stories, but this is again an insight for viewers well-acquainted to Alcotts diaries. The window, a symbol of openness, plays a significant role in the scene, allowing the girls to see the male other. The discourse points to otherness being male and foreign, Laurie must be uneducated: He has had no upbringing at all, they say.
He was reared in Italy among artists and vagrants The camera is on Laurie, but the focalisation is that of the four girls, who watch him through the window. The visual content more precisely, the girls dressed as male British Victorian literary characters plays with the boundaries between masculine and feminine, secrecy and openness, visibility and invisibility, and raises questions about gender, impersonation, and power Kyler At the subconscious level, it may be asserted that the March girls silently admit that literature is a male-dominated domain, although they subvert the patriarchal imposition of the role of women as good mothers, domestic paragons, benevolent contributors to society, [ Analysing transgendered and cross-dressers, Judith Butler concludes that gender is performative, that gender identity is not the expression of what one is, but what one does, the idea resembling Simone de Beauvoirs famous statement, one is not born, but rather becomes, a woman The March girls assume male identities and give up femininity during the role-play, giving up with it both silence and their role as little women living in an overseas Victorian context.
Jos identity dwells on the boundaries between femininity and masculinity in many respects her name, her tomboy behaviour, and her literary bias seem masculine, while her portrayal by a diaphanous and charming Winona Ryder emphasises her femininity. The doll Amy , the angel in the house Beth , and the housewife to be Meg act as supporting characters in Jos games of imagination, they dress as men but their language and acts remain stereotypically feminine. Further, the scene is discussed from the perspective of its verbal content, rendered via written text namely the subtitles. The process of subtitling has had five stages: a listening of the spoken text; b translation of the whole block of text; c adaptation of the translation to suit the subtitling constraints; d text-audio synchronisation with specialised software DivXLand Media Subtitler and e technical and linguistic comments referring to the choices made with respect to the lexical, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic content and the strategies used in translation, as well as occasional references to the translation of the novel.
Utterance: Knights and ladies, elves and pages, monks and flower girls, all mingled gaily in the dance. Pauline cried out in horror as the groom's mask fell, disclosing not her lover Ferdinand, but the face of his sworn enemy Count Antonio. Revenge is mine, quoth he. Romanian translation - Cavaleri i domnie, clugri i florrese, elfi i paji, unii cu voioie-n dan. Pauline ip ngrozit cnd mirelui i czu masca de pe fa, dezvluindu-l nu pe iubitul ei, Ferdinand, ci chipul vrjmaului lui de moarte, contele Antonio. M-am rzbunat! One should consider that the text is intended as a piece of literary work written in the 19th century, which is read during a literary meeting hence the use of italics.
Some of the choices made purposely disregard the rule of thumb which suggests synchronisation of language in subtitling.
Moderne Traumtheorie (German Edition) - Kindle edition by Eduard Schellhammer. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Moderne Traumtheorie: In Somnis Veritas (German Edition) [Dr Eduard Schellhammer] on dynipalo.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Träume sind der.
Sworn de moarte, in the. In point of morphological choices, the fragment is translated using perfectul simplu, a Romanian past tense form much favoured in narratives. Semantically, it has been considered that the verb a ipa implies terror, therefore the adjective ngrozit used in the translation of the text block to replace the adverbial in horror , has been omitted as superfluous. In point of semantic loss, Revenge is mine! An even greater loss is the impossibility to translate the verb quoth an archaism even in Alcotts times Jos writing style reminds her sisters of Shakespeare.
Unfortunately, the Romanian language does not provide an equally archaic synonym for a spune, a rosti. Utterances Continued in the following edition. I love forbidden marriages! You ought to publish it, Jo. Really, not just in the Pickwick Portfolio. Mr Tupman, are you demeaning our fine newspaper? Mr Winkle One periwinkle sash belonging to Mr N. Winkle has been abscondated from the wash line. Which gentleman desires any reports leading to its recovery.
Romanian translation - Continuarea n numrul viitor. De-adevratelea, nu doar n Documentele Clubului Pickwick. O fund a domnului N. Winkle a fost substras de pe frnghia de rufe. Numitul domn dorete orice informaii care ar putea duce la recuperarea acesteia. Winkle dorete informaii pentru a o putea recupera. Comments In this context, edition has been translated as numr, as they refer to a newspaper issue.
Similarly, in the second line, instalment is used with the meaning published fragment of a serial story column, yet, although the translation of the text block has used an approximation, contribuie, the subtitle omits it altogether due to space considerations. Although the intertextual reference may be signalled with a footnote in the literary translation, the space for subtitles does not allow such an intervention, and the viewer might be deprived of this information, unless he or she is familiar with Dickenss novel.
The same hypotext is used for the name of the four girls newspaper, The Pickwick Portfolio. Domestication has been envisaged as the best solution, using the translation of the original title as it is known in the Romanian culture, Documentele clubului Pickwick. However, the two Romanian equivalents have been deemed too archaic for the purpose of this translation. Firstly, Amy has trouble to pronounce the word perinwinkle, which is why she interrupts herself in the middle of the word, and then repeats it.
Since the meaning of the word is a large, decorative ribbon, which does not have an equivalent in the TT, translation by a hyperordinate fund has been chosen, which entailed another problem: the word used in the TT is too simple and short to reasonably split it in half as a result of a stutter, which is why it was repeated as a whole. A translator familiar with the text should know that Amy frequently uses sophisticated words, which she either misplaces or mispronounces, which is why the verb abscondate, a corruption of abscond, a very formal way of saying that someone has run with someone elses goods, has been preseved as an ideolectal specificity, being translated with a misspelt variant of the participle sustras, rendered within inverted commas to avoid being considered a spelling mistake on the part of the translator.
The last sentence was condensed for space considerations, replacing the said gentleman- numitul domn with the name already introduced, Dl. Utterances What do you think of the boy? Is he a captive like Smee in Nicholas Nickleby? He looks lonely. You dont think hell try to call? Maybe he has a secret.
A tragic European secret. He has had no upbringing at all, they say. He was reared in Italy among artists and vagrants. Doesnt he have a noble brow? If I were a boy, I'd like to look like that. Imagine giving up Italy to come and live with that awful old man. Jo, please, dont say awful, its slang. Romanian translation - Ce prere avei despre biat? E prizonier, ca Smee din Nicholas Nickleby? Credei c va veni n vizit? Un secret tragic, adus din Europa. A crescut n Italia, printre artiti i vagabonzi. Dac eram biat, mi-ar fi plcut s art ca el.
Oare o s vin n vizit? Unul tragic, adus din Europa. Aa voiam s art dac eram biat. Comments This excerpt provides more examples of condensation, one of the most frequently used techniques in subtitling. Ce prere avei despre becomes ce spunei de, which is shorter and more specific to informal conversation. Will try has been omitted for space considerations, as the verb to call used with the meaning to pay someone a visit can only be rendered with longer equivalents in Romanian. The first line of the excerpt is again an intertextual reference to one of Charles Dickenss novels; this time, the space has allowed a parenthetical note with the name of the British author.
The repetition of the noun secret in the ST was omitted and replaced with an indefinite pronoun, unul, used anaphorically; while for European, an addition was employed, as un secret european does not have any meaning in Romanian. Neither has the use of passive voice any justification in the TT, which is why he was reared in Italy was translated using the active voice: a crescut.
The question doesnt he have a noble brow? Old man was translated as moul to justify Megs next reply, while the determiner that was rendered in its contracted Romanian variant, la, specific to informal conversations. In the ST, the adjective awful is considered slang, which might have been the case in the nineteenth century, as nowadays it is only informal. The translation attempts at being indicative of the characters type: Meg is very ladylike and conscious of their femininity, unlike Jo; she is also the eldest sister and has a way of behaving maternally with her sisters.
Dont say awful, its slang was translated using two variants of addressing to children: nu vorbi urt and vorbete frumos have the same meaning in the TT. Final Remarks This paper has aimed at creating a methodological connection between trans-lation and translation, analysing both the way in which the novel gets translated into film with the help of visual images, audio utterances, sounds, musical score , camera movements, montage, and, of course, actors performance, and the way in which all the above are exploited in the process of film subtitling.
While at first sight it may seem that the scene has been analysed from two different perspectives, completely unrelated to one another, the truth is that the first part of the analysis was of utmost help in creating the subtitling as a whole. The translators aim has been to make the subtitling as literary as possible. To this effect, she often resorted to the text of the novel.
The paper has provided textual arguments so as to validate the assumption which considers subtitling a form of creative, artistic translation. Although it somehow contradicts the theories in use, looking at the filmic translation from the literariness perspective might enhance the quality of the translation for the respective text.
After all, if we look at films as cultural texts and analyse them with the tools of literary criticism and theory, why should we not approach their translation from the same standpoint? References Alcott, L. London: Penguin Classics Armstrong, G. Columbia Pictures Baker, M. Saldanha eds.
London: Jonathan Cape Gottlieb, H. Baker and G. Saldanha Routledge Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies. The Challenges of Subtitling. London: Routledge Wells, K. The history of American and British science fiction television is almost as old as the medium itself. From the early s, the speculations and extrapolations of science fiction have had a constant powerful presence, paradoxically in a medium associated above all with the family. While for thirty years, science fiction television provided spectacular stories set in the past, present, or future, the mids marked a change of perspective, the stress being placed on spectacular philosophical visions, apparently impossible worlds that, once explored, can be quite plausible.
The early history of American and British science fiction television SFTV looks back to the competing medium of film and a narrative model that started in the s: the serial an episodic sequence in which a continuous narrative unfolded over several short chapters, shown one per week as a way of attracting viewers to cinema halls on a regular basis.
Serials, with Westerns as the most popular genre, date back to the silent-film era, but remained highly popular in the early sound era of the s and s. However, they were almost entirely replaced first by radio serials then by television ones, which began in the s. The space opera form, with its interplanetary settings, heroic figures, and melodramatic situations, and heavily influenced by the comics or the space adventure novels of E.
Booker, Tomorrowland Trying to stake out a rather different direction for development, Walt Disneys Disneyland series introduced its Tomorrowland-themed shows with a group of episodes collectively called Man in Space. While they provided a humorous view of earlier beliefs about space, space travel, and alien life, and even satirized the typical space opera of the period, they balanced these elements with serious discussions by some of the key outer space experts of the time. Anthology Shows A more adult-oriented form of science fiction appeared in the early years of television, although it too was in a form that owed much to other media.
Anthology shows like Lights Out , Out There , Tales of Tomorrow , and Science Fiction Theatre drew heavily on the traditions of radio drama and provided futuristic tales written by some of the top young science fiction writers of the day H. Wells, Ray Bradbury, and Rod Serling. They were also notable for their use of big-name stars and a much greater concern with real science.
The Twilight Zone and The Outer Limits These anthology shows are also significant because they opened the door for two of the most important series in the early history of SFTV: The Twilight Zone and The Outer Limits , both mixing science fiction tales with narratives of horror and the supernatural. The Twilight Zone quickly established a reputation for the psychological dimension of its shows, often flavoured with an ironic twist at the end of episodes which jilted the audiences perception about what is right and real. Geraghty, viii Although The Outer Limits would become noted for emphasizing monsters rather than ironic or surreal twists, it generally stayed closer to the science fiction tradition.
Both series proved valuable for their use of fantastic landscapes to comment upon contemporary American culture. Ranging across a variety of themes, including alien encounters, space exploration, time travel, futuristic societies, and even genetic alterations, The Twilight Zone in particular addressed not only the fears and anxieties of the Cold War era but also a broad array of social issues: generally conformist values, racism and xenophobia, governmental control, and gender relations.
He adapted Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea from his own successful film of the same title and then, in quick succession, used its scientific adventure formula to produce Lost in Space, The Time Tunnel, and Land of the Giants. These series had a more basic human focus as they consistently explored the various ways people react when faced with unusual circumstances.
But above all, they were more often than not entertaining vehicles, thanks in large part to their creators consistent fixations and ability to dole out what viewers wanted from their small-screen entertainment. Oscar De Los Santos in Geraghty, Gene Roddenberrys Star Trek It was Gene Roddenberry who created the concept for the famous Star Trek the most important single work of science fiction in history Booker, The primary reason for its impact were its level of social commentary and its optimistic vision:.
Star Treks future is a place where man has ceased squabbling; where the Earth has been transformed into a garden; where robots ten times stronger and smarter than us strive to be human. Jones and Parkin, 7. In other words, humanitys problems could be worked out, technology would prove a truly useful servant, and humanity is not alone in the universe. Indeed, for all those who explored space, from the original series to the retrospectively historical crew on Star Trek: Enterprise , their voyages to unknown places, in which they met with aliens both hostile and friendly, were a constant means of education.
Freed from the past turmoil of an Earth wracked by war, poverty and inequality, the series was able to depict a future where humans could fulfil their true potential. Doctor Who The pattern also characterized to some extent a much longer-running series that has had a similar influence outside the US.