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There will be no coat check returns during such an event. Dispute resolution procedures The Theatres are neither prepared nor required to participate in dispute resolution procedures through a consumer dispute resolution body. Law German law shall apply for all legal transactions made within the scope of these general terms and conditions. Early clinical studies suggest excellent short-term efficacy in treating obesity and its attendant metabolic risks, 21 improving glucose regulation and favorably altering the cardiovascular risk profile reviewed in ref. Our study implicates an essential role for normal lysosomal function, particularly with relevance to efficient execution of macroautophagy; and hints at a prominent role of TFEB-mediated transcriptional replenishment of the autophagy-lysosome machinery in transducing the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting.
It is important to note that other mechanisms may contribute to the observed benefits, too. In this regard, we have examined the role of CMA. Our data do not suggest an accumulation of CMA substrates, 40 as would be expected with ablation of the LAMP2A isoform in lamp2 null mice , 28 which could conceivably be due to upregulation of alternate protein degradation mechanisms.
Importantly, the levels of these substrates were not altered by the intermittent fasting regimen, suggesting that CMA is unlikely to be a significant contributor to the observed cardioprotective effects. In contrast, we observed accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, which are substrates for macroautophagy and increased oxidative stress in LAMP2 deficient mice on a fed day, paralleling impairment in macroautophagy, which is the major pathway for removal of damaged mitochondria.
In addition, we did not observe any obvious effect of intermittent fasting or LAMP2 ablation on microautophagy 62 in the ultrastructural studies, but definitive studies on its role will require development of tools to modulate this pathway. We observe that autophagic flux is not upregulated above basal levels on a fed day after intermittent fasting or in culture in nutrient replete medium after starvation, in vitro , at a time when the benefits of cytoprotection are observed. This suggests that the preconditioning effect of the lysosomal degradative pathways on maintenance of mitochondrial quality as demonstrated by our data in Figs.
Interestingly, we observe nuclear translocation of TFEB with fasting in the myocardium; paralleling the observations with starvation in various noncardiomyocyte cell types, in vitro. However, while both fasting and starvation induce autophagy, it is likely that fasting is sensed as a metabolic shift in the myocardium, unlike total nutrient deprivation employed in the in vitro modeling of starvation; which points to the need for elucidating unique signaling pathways that drive TFEB activation with fasting, in vivo.
Our findings suggest a critical role for TFEB in transducing starvation-induced upregulation of autophagic flux, in vitro. In this context, given that germline ablation of TFEB results in embryonic lethality, 67 generation of conditional cardiomyocyte TFEB knockout mice will be required to confirm its critical role in fasting-induced cardioprotection, in vivo.
Our data suggest the hypothesis that the transcriptional replenishment of the autophagy-lysosome machinery by fasting and starvation as previously described may be a critical determinant of beneficial autophagy; which permits living organisms to survive what is likely to have been one of the earliest evolutionary stresses accompanying the origin of life.
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Indeed, we have previously found that transcriptional suppression of the autophagy machinery with reperfusion-induced accumulation of BECN1 explains the lack of a protective role of the observed extent of autophagy induction in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.
In summary, our data implicate a central role for lysosomal degradative pathways in facilitating the previously described cardioprotective effects of intermittent fasting. Observations made herein also point to the need for exploring the transcriptional regulation of the cytoprotective lysosomal pathways to foster development of translational strategies to derive the benefits of calorie restriction in promoting cardiovascular health.
Mice with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of GFP tagged LC3 transgene 13 and those with Lamp2 ablation 28 have been described before. Echocardiographic studies were performed as previously described in conscious mice. Nonfasted control mice were simultaneously provided fresh food with change in bedding.
Daily food intake per cage was weighed to calculate average daily food intake per mouse.
Mice were weighed at weekly intervals on fed days. Terminal studies on mice were initiated between to AM after an overnight period of feeding i. All surgeries were performed by one surgeon C. For infarct size calculation, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride TTC -stained slices were imaged and infarct area quantified as non-TTC-stained pale area as a ratio of total myocardial area, as previously described.
I feel like I put on a few pounds every time I food blog surf! Google will use this information on our behalf to evaluate use of our blog. Do you know why this word has a double meaning? January 3, Unlike proper English, German makes no distinction between adjectives and adverbs, so I don't find this too surprising. Just please don't tell me that you've also added milk to your tea, because that would be a real abomination ;-. The statutory periods of limitation of the German Product Liability Act remain unaffected in each case.
Quantitative PCR analysis was performed as described. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and cultured, as previously described. Resulting founders were mated with mice carrying the MYH6 promoter driven tTA transgene also generously provided by Dr. Robbins ; and pregnant and lactating mothers with pups were maintained on doxycycline-mixed chow El-Mel diets, St.
ImageJ software was employed for quantitative analysis.
Protein abundance was normalized to ACTA1 protein expression and reported as fold change vs. Each chip was subjected to verification for quality standards for hybridization, labeling, staining, background signal, and basal level of housekeeping gene expression. After scanning the probe array, the resulting image was analyzed using the GenomeStudio software Illumina , background was subtracted; and log transformation and quantile normalization were performed. Changes in gene expression were determined using Partek Genomics Suite on quantile-normalized and background-subtracted microarray data; and principal components analysis was performed.
Then the DNP moiety is detected to measure the oxidative damage to a protein. Image J software was employed to quantify the relative abundance of carbonylated proteins. Statistical differences were assessed with the unpaired Student t test for 2 independent groups, one-way or 2-way ANOVA for comparing one or 2 variables, respectively, across multiple groups with SPSS software.
We thank Joseph A. Louis, MO, for assistance with microarray analysis; Peter A. Crawford, Washington University, St. Mann, Washington University, for his support. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed on the publisher's website. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Autophagy v. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, is potently stimulated in the myocardium by fasting and is essential for maintaining cardiac function during prolonged starvation.
Keywords: autophagy, fasting, ischemia-reperfusion, lysosome, myocardial infarction. Introduction Therapeutic interventions to promote myocardial salvage in ischemia-reperfusion injury remain impractical, as they need to be applied before or simultaneously with onset of injury to achieve clinically significant reduction in cell death. Open in a separate window. Figure 1 See previous page. Intermittent fasting-induced protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury is lost in Lamp2 heterozygous null mice, with impaired fasting-induced autophagy To determine whether the lysosomal degradative machinery is essential for the observed benefits of intermittent fasting, we first studied mice with heterozygous ablation of Lamp2 , an X-linked gene which encodes LAMP2 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 ; loss of which results in impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion and Danon disease.
Figure 2 See previous page. Table 1. Littermate wild-type females Lamp2 het null females Body weight g Table 2. Figure 3. Intermittent fasting induces adverse ventricular remodeling and cardiomyocyte death in lamp2 null mice, associated with impaired autophagic flux We next examined the effects of intermittent fasting on the myocardium with complete loss of LAMP2. Figure 4 See previous page. Figure 5 See previous page. Figure 6. Table 3. Figure 7. Figure 8. Fasting and refeeding transcriptionally modulate the autophagy-lysosome machinery Consumption of lysosomes and components of the autophagy machinery occurs with starvation-induced autophagy; with prompt replenishment observed with continued starvation stress.
Figure 9. Figure Fasting stimulates activation of TFEB in the myocardium Recent studies have uncovered a potential mechanism for transcriptional replenishment of the autophagy-lysosome machinery with starvation; and ascribed a central role to the rapid starvation-induced dephosphorylation and cytoplasm to nuclear translocation of TFEB transcription factor EB , a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of the MiTF family, with resultant upregulation of its target genes.
Endogenous TFEB-mediated stimulation of autophagic flux is essential for cytoprotective effects of repetitive starvation on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury Given that our in vivo observations suggest that fasting induced activation of TFEB and up regulation of autophagic flux may transduce the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting, we examined whether repetitive starvation preconditions NRCMs to protect against hypoxia-reoxygenation HR injury, via endogenous TFEB see schematic in Fig.
Intermittent fasting stimulates cellular degradative pathways The benefits of intermittent fasting or repetitive starvation on cytoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion or hypoxia-reoxygenation are observed in a fed state, while autophagic flux is not upregulated above the basal state. Table 4. Discussion Calorie restriction and stimulation of autophagy have salutary effects on life-span extension and cardioprotection.
Studies with NRCMs Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and cultured, as previously described.
Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed. Acknowledgements We thank Joseph A. Supplemental Material Supplemental data for this article can be accessed on the publisher's website. References 1. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Caloric restriction delays disease onset and mortality in rhesus monkeys.
Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study. Extending healthy life span—from yeast to humans. A role for autophagy in the extension of lifespan by dietary restriction in C.
PLoS Genet ; 4 :e Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity. Nat Cell Biol ; 11 Spermidine: a novel autophagy inducer and longevity elixir. Rapamycin, but not resveratrol or simvastatin, extends life span of genetically heterogeneous mice. Caloric restriction and resveratrol promote longevity through the Sirtuindependent induction of autophagy. Circ Res ; In vivo analysis of autophagy in response to nutrient starvation using transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent autophagosome marker.
Mol Biol Cell ; 15 Cardiac autophagy is a maladaptive response to hemodynamic stress. J Clin Invest ; Impairment of starvation-induced and constitutive autophagy in Atg7-deficient mice. The role of autophagy during the early neonatal starvation period.