http://dickcious.com/modules/ragihicec/991.html Coaches must remember that communication is a two-way street; it requires listening as well as talking because it involves both inputs and outputs. If managed effectively and by making an effort to develop positive relationships with their players, coaches can increase the chances of team success. Coaches should incorporate communication into every practice because it is one of the fundamentals of sport. As coaches establish a positive relationship with their athletes, many athletes begin to realize the importance of training the body physically in order to produce peak performances.
Hence, every coach should consider performance enhancement to be the number one priority when developing a strength and conditioning program. However, without adequate nutrition, training results may be suboptimal due to a lack of recovery and reduced ability to perform due to depleted energy. Therefore, nutrition is the foundation of performance enhancement. Without optimal nutrition, athletes cannot compete to their full potential.
Over the last few decades the nutritional requirements of athletes have been researched extensively. We now understand the importance of specific nutrients and when and how they need to be ingested, as well as how much should be consumed. A good place to start is the standard food guide pyramid While the pyramid as we know it has been modified over the last decade, the principles of a well-balanced diet remain the same. For an athlete, these principles still apply; however, they need to be modified based on the sport and type of athlete and the intensity of his training. Water is also a key nutritional component for athletes.
It is recommended that six to eight ounces of water be consumed every five to 15 minutes during exercise. Athletes should not rely on thirst as an indicator of when to drink water 21 , and coaches should not restrict water as punishment, as this could lead to a reduction in performance and possible serious health consequences. In an effort to stay hydrated athletes can weigh themselves before and after physical activity. Based on every pound lost, the athlete should consume three cups of water Additionally, coaches need to be aware of environmental conditions that can increase the rate of dehydration, such as hot and humid environments, and schedule water breaks at specific times during practice.
Key nutrients that need to be increased for all athletes include carbohydrates e. Intense exercise significantly depletes the body of stored carbohydrates and causes significant muscle damage. Coaches need to ensure athletes consume extra carbohydrates and protein after completing intense physical activity.
Extra carbohydrates replace the lost carbohydrates stored in the body and drive cellular activity for repair.
Protein helps muscles repair and grow. Increasing protein intake to between 1. These percentages are often modified based on the sport and body type of the athlete. Using grams per kilogram of body weight to develop a nutritional plan for an athlete is ideal. Athletes need to eat well-balanced meals and to supplement with additional proteins i.
Supplementing with vitamins and minerals may be needed for some athletes with specific nutritional needs, such as vegans. Nutrient timing also plays an important role during training and should be practiced by coaches wishing to optimize training results and promote recovery Specifically, carbohydrates and protein need to be consumed immediately after exercise Performance enhancing supplements also need to be considered when discussing the nutritional needs of athletes. Three ergogenic aids that are recommended for athletes include caffeine, creatine, and beta-alanine 6,18, These supplements work through specific physiological mechanisms that can improve performance.
However, coaches need to be educated about these products before making recommendations to athletes. Several articles have been published indicating proper dosage and the specific benefits for each substance and can be accessed for free on the Internet 6,18, Understanding nutrition is a start towards reaching optimal performance.
Multiple factors can influence overall performance; however, starting with the basics, such as nutrition, can lead to greater improvements in performance regardless of the training program.
Utilizing an ideal training program while implementing a proper nutritional program will enable athletes to realize optimal enhancements in performance. Thus, many athletes develop a desire to produce successful performance and gain mastery of any task completed.
For example, an athlete may not only want to win the contest but may also aspire to perform sport skills exceptionally well in order to produce peak performance. Without question, coaches have an opportunity to assist athletes with performance enhancement. Therefore, a primary responsibility of coaches is to motivate their athletes to perform at optimal levels. As Locke and Latham 26 stated, practitioners and researchers have examined empirical research concerning goal setting for almost four decades.
During this time, Locke and Latham 25,26 developed a goal setting theory that is well established on the review of approximately laboratory and field research investigations. Results indicate assigned specific, difficult goals i. Interestingly, a positive, linear relation between goal difficulty and performance is evident when an individual is committed to the goal, has developed the ability i.
As a positive athlete-coach relationship develops, many athletes begin considering their coaches to be role models. Hence, coaches should communicate with their athletes in order to assist them with the development of personal goals. In a professional manner, a coach may provide an athlete with constructive feedback concerning skill development, safety, nutrition, or injury prevention.
The formation of SMART goals can provide an athlete with the motivation and commitment to yield athletic success. Coaches need to be aware athletes should develop a series of short-term goals which allow measurable progress toward achieving a long-term goal. For example, one may create a goal to reduce running time to complete a 5K race by 5 seconds within the next 4 months.
After four months, a coach can assist the athlete with evaluating athletic performance and determine if the short-term goal was accomplished. Make certain the athlete possesses the skill and motivation to successfully pursue the established long-term SMART goal. Coaches should also realize group goal setting may be an effective strategy for enhancing group performance in sport and physical activity 19,7. For example, members of a team may establish a goal to score at least 50 points per game for the next four weeks. As described in previous sections, coaching education includes knowledge from several disciplines.
This will determine what kind of knowledge the coach needs and how it will be applied. The final piece of the coaching puzzle centers on how to make the coaching process athlete centered. No matter what the specific training discipline, a coach needs to understand the stages of athletic development in addition to knowledge of how individuals grow and mature. Athletes progress through several training stages as they get older and become more accomplished in their sport. For the most part training stages are age related 3,5. Training stages also take advantage of periods of accelerated adaptation for various training components.
For example, significant increases in aerobic capacity occur after the onset of peak height velocity so aerobic training should take priority during this period which generally lasts for 12 to 18 months 3. The accelerated period for learning skills occurs from about 8 to 11 years of age for girls and 9 to 12 years of age for boys, so during this period it makes sense to focus on skill development 3.
Speed has two periods of accelerated adaptation, one as a result of changes in the central nervous system 6 to 9 years of age , and the other resulting from changes due to training stimuli 11 to 13 years of age for girls and 13 to 16 years of age for boys 3. By periodizing on a career scale, coaches can take advantage of these various periods and be assured that athletes are being provided with training appropriate with developmental goals.
Most countries use an athlete development system that focuses on performance outcomes. This involves getting as many young athletes as possible into training programs and then focusing on the elite performers. The problem with this method is that sport governing bodies rely on early maturing youngsters—those who are simply bigger and stronger than their peers and who, almost inevitably, perform better in sport.
The outcome model tends to quickly discard those who do not measure up, and while this may not be by design it happens often enough to be considered a characteristic of the model itself. In the outcome model young athletes are treated as small adults, following the same training and competition patterns as older athletes.
Late maturers are discouraged from continued sport participation since the outcome model rewards early maturers with more coach contact, encouragement, and social recognition due to their early ability i. A better model might focus on the process of developing an athlete. This model is more inclusive because the path from instruction, to training, and finally, to competition is paved with intentionally stage-appropriate activities and training.
Early maturing or physically precocious youngsters do not affect this model.
In a process model, stages of physical and athletic development are paired so that athletes are receiving the instruction and training they need at times when it is most beneficial. By deliberately focusing on process rather than outcome providers of youth sport will be able to keep youngsters involved in programs for longer periods. Over the long term this will help athletes develop an appreciation for physical activity and sport.
It will also help sport governing bodies reduce the early vs. By making a conscious effort to keep all athletes involved through stage-appropriate modifications in training and competition, sport governing bodies will provide a better sport experience for everyone and increase the likelihood of developing elite athletes from those who might otherwise have dropped out from participating in sport. Not only will this enlarge the pool of talent available to national sport governing bodies but it will also increase the likelihood that athletes will continue to be physically active throughout life.
Specifically, as youths progress into adulthood, these individuals will have the competence to use skills and knowledge they acquired in organized sports to remain healthy and physically fit. However, burnout refers to the long-term effects of overtraining or inappropriate training based on the age of the athlete. Symptoms of burnout are frequent or chronic injury, lack of progress in training and competition, and general dissatisfaction with the sport 1 ; the key component is long-term involvement in training programs.
Dropout refers to the phenomena of athletes simply quitting their sport participation prematurely. Coaches should realize dropout is more detrimental to the athlete and the sport governing body. Following accepted athlete development guidelines and constructing career periodization plans which adhere to these guidelines, coaches can reduce both dropout and burnout.
In over 44 million youth participated in youth sport activities throughout the United States Since millions of young athletes participate in adult organized and supervised activities coaches must gain a solid understanding of performance enhancement and proper coaching methods. By providing a better sport experience for all participants more children will have the skills and knowledge needed to participate in life-long activity. Maintaining a physically-active lifestyle may help alleviate present-day mental and physical health issues associated with youth obesity.
Ultimately, coaches should be passionate about teaching sport skills to their athletes. Coaches must be life-long learners of sport in order to properly train their athletes for peak performance.
As the profession of sport coaching has evolved and sport has become a multi-billion dollar industry, many coaches have discovered sport incorporates both physical and mental training. Based on the guidance and leadership of Dr. Rosandich, the United States Sports Academy has created the American Coaching Patterns; a six-course program, embracing six basic fundamentals of training: stamina, strength, flexibility, agility, speed, and skill.
This article presented information which coaches should utilize when training their athletes. These six courses, which comprise the American Coaching Patterns, emphasize sports administration, coaching methods, sports medicine, strength and conditioning, sports psychology, and athlete development.
Baker, J. What do we really know about early sport specialization? Not much!
High Ability Studies, 20 1 , Balint, G. Study regarding the verbal and nonverbal communication during the training of the Romanian national ski jumping team. Science, Movement and Health, 2, Balyi, I. Coaching the young developing performer. Becker, A. Buford, T. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 6. Burke, S. Group goal setting and group performance in a physical activity context. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, Burton, D. Goal setting in sport. Singer, H. Janelle Eds. Handbook of sport psychology 2nd ed. The fundamental goal concept: The path to process and performance success.
Horn Ed. Advances in sport psychology 3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Campbell, B. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 8. Case, R. A study to examine the job competencies of sport facility managers. International Sports Journal, 7 2 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes: United States, school year. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55 38 , Clover, J. Dieffenbach, K.
Nutrient timing also plays an important role during training and should be practiced by coaches wishing to optimize training results and promote recovery Thus, sport participation and demanding athletic training regimens can produce significant sport injuries for athletes. To never shrink back in order to accommodate the insecurities of others who cannot handle their strength. Sure, I was successful in escaping my 9-to-5 and having a business that worked with big names…. I was fascinated by the different circumstances that people had to deal with in their everyday lives and how those circumstances influenced their training. We now understand the importance of specific nutrients and when and how they need to be ingested, as well as how much should be consumed.
Olympic Coach, 12 2 , I mean, you dream about goals that others shy away from, right?! After all, that was your original goal, right? Like past their comfort zone… slightly out of reach—maybe even UN-attainable. They stretch themselves. So what now?
Your small business success partner. helping small business owners, entrepreneurs, and those who are just starting out succeed even more. It pains me to see smart, inventive, passionately committed people drowning in misinformation, struggling to . SMARTSTART isn't like any other coaching you' ve had before. Aug 25, “We always knew he was going to be successful,” said Killough, the athletic director at Bainbridge. When Smart played at Georgia, former defensive backs coach and current “I thought, 'Well, Coach got a head start.'”.
Understand why you do what you do on a deeper level. What do super-successful coaches all have in common? All of these things are not a prerequisite for success. Hard to believe? Sure, they can all help your business build and grow. Why did you decide to become a coach? Why do you spend too many hours in front of your computer every week? Her why is to help other women who are in the position she was once in.
So let me now ask you. What drives you beyond money? The thing that has you springing out of bed each day? Could it be the desire to travel anywhere at any time? To not be at the mercy of a boss that drives you crazy? Do they allow me to experience what I crave to experience in life? Happy days. Great question! Ohh boy procrastination, confusion and lack of direction can be so painful!
And yet they fail to move forward and make their dream their reality. Usually not. First up, start with your long term vision. Now to setting motivating goals… In order to reach your vision and live your purpose, you need to take inspired action. This is why setting goals that excite you are vital.
A clear marketing message, website and funnel to attract ideal clients. Systems and automation in place to help you create your laptop lifestyle. A clear process to sign on clients into your coaching services. Create monthly, weekly and daily goals. Many people would dismiss it as next to impossible. Especially when you have a high-value program to offer your ideal clients. Your big dream? How can you deconstruct it into smaller milestones and goals? How can you then plan out your weeks and days to achieve them all one-by-one?
Jaimee and I have mapped the whole pathway out for you. No more guessing games about what goes where and at what time. Esther Gretton.