Where an analogue can be found in the work of well-known structuralist and narratological theorists I have attempted a comparison. Where this is not possible I have done my best to provide helpful explanations. In a discussion of Poe's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym' Borges isolates the main motivational plank as the feature of 'whiteness': all the action is directed to either avoiding, or resisting its fascination. See 1. By paying attention to the nature of the parts the sentence may be recomposed to reveal its true sense, and referent, if any.
For Borges' criticisms, see 3. Thus 'Beth drives Tom to distraction' is a proposition that indicates Tom's attitude to Beth. Whereas 'Beth drives Tom to the airport' merely describes a physical act. For Borges' understanding of word-relations as the bearers of psychological relations see 3. In Borges it's not only the obvious elements of plot in narrative that determine the outcome, but their interplay with a main image say "whiteness" that "surfaces" at regular intervals to form a series of secondary associations "under the plot" as it were.
The outcome of the narrative is that point where the main image is revealed as the principal causative agent of the plot. Magic causality shouldn't be mistaken for Todorov's "imaginary causality" where a helper figure functions as the incarnation of luck or chance, since his 'generalised determinism', is so diffuse that it's useless as a description for Borges' idea. If magic causality is any kind of theory for narrative causation at all, it must be seen as a superficial reading of the German Motiv und Wort school, especially as formulated by Fritz Mauthner, Leo Spitzer and Josef Korner.
What makes the text recognisable in the first place. Texts have different levels of collateral resources. A realist novel is collaterally rich in that every mention of a thing weather, clothes, cars contributes to the reader's ability to locate it within a recognisable environment. Conversely, fantastic narrative is collaterally poor in that most objects have a symbolic value which is privileged over their value as narrative furniture.
See 4. Thus the anti-hero in a text may enact morally negative decisions, yet still give an impression of positive moral qualities. This impression is not an en bloc phenomenon, but occurs as the product of a number of symbolic associations, having their own history in the text, which agglomerate in, and are borne by, the character of a major character.
This does not imply that the 'personality' of the character is the product of psychological features, but functions as the bearer of a symbolic complex through which the reader identifies the defining features of the text. Thus Borges avoids both the necessity of psychological portrayal, and the detail of realistic description. Characters reveal their fictive integrity not only through expressive acts speech, thought, reflection but also through the location of these acts within the text. Because the complex is located by the reading consciousness within the person in the text, it occupies a much more localised and individual character than Husserl's idea of passive synthesis can express.
In narratives of psychological motivation action on the part of the character is determined by an internal dialogue of the subject with manifold forces and symbols, rather than by external circumstances alone. Not a reference to the Russian Formalists' idea of ostranenie, or 'making strange'. For Borges it constitutes a violation of expectations at the level of language use in daily life. See 3. Any set of relations that can be categorised in terms of transfer, duplication, substitution, exchange, etc. See Chapter 5 passim. Thus in fiction old age may be indicated by any feature commonly associated with it: i.
The 'life of emblems' is the continuous use of certain emblems in varying combinations by which the reader is able to recognise the text as both an individual author's work and the continuity of its symbolic repertoire.
See 2. In the first an archetype i. In the second the poet assumes a transcendent point of view beyond historical processes, thus becoming immune to material contingency. The doctrine merely indicates that words may be characterised by their grammatical function. Naming something as a verb, for example, obviously limits its interchangeability with other parts of speech.
The challenge for the semanticist is to determine the conditions under which verbal interchangeability is lawful or unlawful within a language system, from this deducing a series of law-like conditions for substitution within a larger semiotic context. Thus, in the sentence: 'I haven't seen you for a long time' a long time may be exchanged for any other phrase that also expresses a sufficiently long period, like three years, or five months, depending on the emotional attitude of the addressor.
While interesting in itself, this classification is meant to give a rule by which we may discount grammatical word- use when considering particular words in poetical utterance. Idiomatic use can be described as the conditions under which a word is used in a phrase, where replacing that word with an analytic instance would render the phrase lexically opaque. For example, as in the English phrases: 'I haven't seen you for a long time' and 'I heard a song of that time', the word 'time' in both cases is not replaceable by a specific periodic term, say 'four years and three months' and ''.
Grammatical use can be described as the substitution of a term within its class without this resulting in lexical opacity. In the Shakespearian sonnet this applies where love is described as not being 'time's fool. Replacing 'time' with any term of the same class, say 'the ages' or 'eternity' 'Love's not the Ages' fool,' or 'Love's not Eternity's fool' may supply the same grammatical sense, although neither the scansion, nor the beauty, of the original. See Chapter 1.
Metaphor and kenning, kenningar [pi. Thus the word 'time' for Borges assumes the status os an Object and a Super-Object on different occasions. Object-in-the-text- Not to be confused with the foregoing or the following, an Object-in-the-text is a discursive convenience, which can be thought of as the identification by the reading intelligence of the physical characteristics usually appended to the thing named in the outside world to its counterpart in the text.
A Super-Object see above on the other hand, is the idea of a thing outside the particularity of the text. This is, I feel, an advance on previous phenomenological accounts that posit an 'image' as liminal to consciousness. Because the 'Object' is physical and 'in-the-text' it may be readily distinguished from any extraphysical components it may have in the reader's imagination.
In Borges' case we may speculate he constructs the Super-Objective use of 'time' in order to explore a quasi-historical distanciation between himself and his work, stepping outside the poem for a moment to carry on a dialogue with God. See Chapter 2. In phenomenological accounts a 'passive synthesis', since not all of its constituents are actively cognised.
Existence may be spoken of as continuous, or discontinuous, universal or particular, teleologically informed or teleologically neutral, relative or absolute. In a more general sense, and certainly in the sense in which I employ the term throughout the dissertation, one's individual sense of ontology may be dependent on apparent guarantors of persistent identity, either singly or in various admixtures: memory, a body of literature, science and technology, the social transmission of mores, religious prejudice, racial doctrine, emotion, responsibility.
Unease about ontology would therefore be the result of doubt concerning any aspect of persistent identity. Thus Borges' symbolic repertoire is composed of coins, mazes, mirrors, books, etc. As its name implies, a key word is selected and analysed in terms of the ways that its paraphrases may logically substitute for it. The differences in semantic value discovered are used to theorise the relationship that the writer has to his or her subjectivity qua author. In the dissertation only two terms have been selected for study: time and space.
Their choice was not arbitrary, but based on their importance in Borges' work as structural principles. Actually, any term may be selected for substitutional analysis, providing it is general enough to furnish adequate ambiguities of sense that may then be investigated. Condillac 5. Professor Horst Ruthrof and Dr Jeff Malpas of the Department of Philosophy were also instrumental in providing timely, not to say cautionary, advice on aspects of phenomenology and linguistic philosophy. I would also like to thank Beth Leslie for her cheerful encouragement, etiamsi sine calore cubilis.
And, as always, thanks to Helena, Stephen and Sophia Joyce for preserving what little remains of my sanity. Introduction: Causal Magic in Borges I have titled this dissertation Magic causality: The Function of Metaphor and Language in the Earlier Verse, Essays and Fictions of Jorge Luis Borges, read as Constitutive of a Theory of Generic Incorporation because I wanted to bring together a number of apparently disparate elements and synthesise them into a reading of Borges' work that presents his thought as an evolutionary process, rather than a fait accompli that must be explained according to the dictates of any particular literary or philosophical system.
There are other studies that adopt the same approach. Thankfully such studies are becoming more numerous as English-speaking academics seek to explore the earlier, less homogeneous writings, rather than the now exhaustively mined ficciones. The way that Borges uses the words time and space in the early verse is, I claim, indicative of deeply held attitudes and beliefs that inform, and trouble, his later artistic production.
To extend the analysis, I have focussed my investigation on Borges' examination of metaphor as a primary tool of poetic creation, hypothesising that the relations that metaphor brings into play between words can be scaled-up to offer an account of the way in which symbolic narrative elements can be deployed to create a representational apparatus. Mature Borgesian poetics causes its audience to adopt a belief-structure fulfilling itself as a formal and functional culmination of action, but it does so with such insidious method that the effect may justifiably be regarded as magical.
I'm aware I have used the word 'magic' while only giving a cursory explanation of its place in Borges' thought. This is partly because it circulates through its space so pervasively it is difficult to say exactly what Borges means by it, and partly because its position is one of fundamental, and therefore submerged, importance to the whole Borgesian enterprise.
But one should be aware that magic causality is a continuously active causal principle of narrative, and as such must be rigorously demarcated from "magical realism," which is, in the introduction of some fantastic element whose contradictions must be accounted for, more a fundamental thematic presupposition that can be historically and culturally located, than a narrative mechanism to be universally applied.
Borges himself came to the narrative form only after substantial theoretical work on poetics, linguistic analysis, and theory of metaphor. There have been studies that have used the term, or variants of it, rather carelessly, seeing it as an indeterminate narrative principle that can be easily grouped with the French Symbolists, the Anglo-American New Critics, Structuralists, Receptionists, even Post Modernists, none of whom, however, can claim an iron-clad colonisation, but most of whom can point to obvious coincidental similarities.
I offer my Borges and this Borges is none but my own, et ad crucem captionibus as the bearer of a non-psychological, verbally causal theory of narrative reception, no doubt flawed and fragmentary, but one which nevertheless offers insights enough to warrant its further investigation. These concerns were grounded in the philosophical problems that not only beset his father, a teacher of psychology and free-thinker, but with which the impressionable child was to come into contact in his earliest, and therefore formative, reading experience.
Despite the obvious temptation, I have not settled on a psychoanalytical analysis, but rather based my research on reconstructing a system of ontological anxieties, for whose support we have Borges' own assertions. My reading of Borges' developing poetic subjectivity is dense, but systematic. It discusses the evolution of his thought as a dialectic of contradictory philosophical contingencies that must be resolved within the writing process.
This section is therefore heavily reliant on a defence of the ontological fallacy. I claim that, despite the critical chaos into which the work is flung, its author is always the most reliable person to describe it for us, since only he, or she, was present at the moment of conception, remained during development, and endured the tortures of delivery. This does not mean, however, that I have plumped for a naive reading of the progeny as the bearer of an elemental Message: authors change their minds, make revisions, and suffer from periodic memory loss, and in many cases are the very worst enemies of their own inspiration - take the case of Poe's tongue-in-cheek ex post facto reconstruction of The Raven'.
Thus, in the notorious absence of reflective self-scrutiny on Borges' part, I have adopted a semantically functionalist analysis of the early verse, determining a pattern of use arrived at through the substitution of key concepts which can only be 'read' as they occur within a formally determined system of ontological referentiality. I have not, however, used what I call 'substitutional analysis' exhaustively, as this would require an extensive work of its own, and I limit myself to analysing the terms time and space, or rather how Borges uses these words to plot the exigencies of his developing narrational environment.
This is not, however, to suggest that the author is strait-jacketed by word use. It is clear that Borges was working through a philosophically inspired poetic subject-position in Fervor de Buenos Aires that he perspicaciously modified in the subsequent early volumes of verse. Borges becomes less abstract, and more personally self-aware, after the publication of Fervor de Buenos Aires, and I focus on the notion of space in Chapter Two in order to analyse the growing tensions of Borges' social understanding.
It is no secret which side won out in the end. Borges never claimed, save in exceptional circumstances, and only when his growing international prestige lent him some security, to be a politician or dedicated social activist, preferring the engagement with interior speculative thought to that of exterior social reform. Reading the poetic works as a developmental series, and for the moment ignoring the essays and reviews that come between them, I extend my claim that we can here determine a pattern of philosophical reconciliations that were to mark-out his later literary production.
Time and space become theoretically congruent ideas; both open to the same sort of manipulations. As time can be extended and contracted, so can space. And, as space can be divided and re-joined, so can time. These, then, form the master tropes of the Borgesian fiction. But Borges was obviously interested in more than time and space.
Chapter Three selects his comments on language in the early essays for critical investigation. I claim that having established a rudimentary working-out of his own poetic subject position in the early verse collections, he used the essays to explore and consolidate a linguistically-inspired foundation for a general theory of readerly reception.
Although it is possible to see such an eclectic author as Borges in a variety of ways, on the basis of internal evidence I have interpreted him as mainly a linguistic functionalist it being his comments to this effect that spurred my own efforts , feeling that this gives a coherent reading in the light of his later narrative theory. Borges begins his theoretical work on language by investigating the comfortable assertion of the Ultraists that metaphor is the key to symbolic effect in verse.
I believe that he diverged from this point of view after an initial period of attraction, incorporating his insights from 19 the study of logical relations into a developing theory of linguistic relations. Language for Borges is not so much a bewildering pattern of multiple inferences differance , but the representation of a logical series of ideas. The practice of linguistic association creates not only a determinate set of relations that functions systemically i. I claim that Borges implicitly asks, that if words name concepts, then could not the concepts themselves be ordered in relations that mirror those of words?
I offer a Borges that is a structuralist only by coincidence, yet working to integrate some Saussurean insights with those of pre-Freudian psychology, a discipline of literary theory that would have its apogee in Anglo- American New Criticism: the mythopoesis of Levi-Strauss. When applied to the construction of narrative, as a determined set of conceptual components arranged to produce a mental event, Borges' pragmatics of the fantastic offer an understanding of magic causality at the level of symbolic production.
Chapter Four is an attempt to extend the analysis of conceptual production to an understanding of the reader's efforts to incorporate symbolic elements in narrative. I have employed Borges' portrayals of film imagery in reviews and essays to offer a more vivid account of the theory. The intensity of his theoretical vision, together with his philosophical insights, combine to reflect Borges' growing awareness of how iconic elements may be recombined to produce novel effects in narrative.
But these visual icons ultimately depend on their lexical conceptuality. From this point of view content is privileged over form, because it is the conceptual content of the icons that determines their functionality within any genre. This is why I claim that Borges can be read as the producer of a theory of verbal idealism, rather than as the exponent of a materialistically-informed explanation of linguistic relations. Borges' iconography may be causally-mechanistic, but the icons are ultimately verbally-constitutive. But just as in any good detective yarn, there are red-herrings to trouble the smooth surface of the text.
These Harengi rubri have had to wait, however, until there was sufficient explorative water over the weir for their escape. Chapter Five resurrects Borges' ideas on metaphor and analogy to reintroduce them in the context of structuralism and deconstruction, especially as they relate to Borges' 20 intentions as an author. This is the most "psychological" chapter, dealing as it does with a theorisation of desire resting on semantic foundations.
Borges the author claims to be offering a tidy set of linguistic and symbolic causalities, but we see that there are inconsistencies which may be investigated via the insights of deconstruction. Ultimately, Borges' account holds up well under scrutiny; the consistencies outweigh the inconsistencies, and I claim that Borges' aim of producing an enduring, although complex, narrative structure with a "life" of its own, generally succeeds.
It is important to note that the dissertation treats mainly those works which chart his development and emergence as a mature ficcionista in South America; that is, from Fervor de Buenos Aires in , through the essays, poetry and prose, to Otras inquisiciones in It will also be noted that I have not adopted the usual dissertation format of placing a separate Conclusion at the end of each Chapter. Instead, I have placed a short Section Summary before each section within the main Chapters. This gives my critical metanarrative more fluidity, allowing the reader to follow the argument in over-view.
I should stress that the Endnotes are not mere shows of conspicuous learning, but add important critical commentary to the material in the body of the text, much of which will otherwise appear dry and congested. The reader will find that many apparently contentious points are elaborated and justified there.
I have also included a Glossary immediately before the Table of Contents which will be helpful as the reader progresses through the text. I have also given all sub-sections individual titles that sign-post their arguments and points of orientation. But the genetic thesis is only used as a means of theorising a possible Borges, one who, if we take him at his word, would probably have eventuated from his special personal history.
For the purposes of this dissertation, I therefore argue that the forces shaping Borges' literary production have their origin in a complex of early philosophical contradictions, and his poetry discussed chiefly in this chapter , literary theory and fiction, are a direct outcome of his attempts to resolve them. Using a series of interview quotes, I've established an explanation of Borges' persistent concerns about the nature of being.
To attempt anything more is to descend into the nether world of biographical wish-fulfilment. Taking a cue from Borges' preoccupation with problems of language, one can use a linguistic approach to isolate these key concerns and separate them from the back-ground noise of their poetic subjectivity.
Grammatical time - the word time used as a temporal marker 2. Objective Time - a time existing beyond a particular percipient 3. Super-Objective Time - a time existing beyond all percipients 4. Objectivity - the subject's unconscious externalisation of self- awareness 5. Quasi-Personal Objectivity - subject's recognition of objectivity as false externalisation 6. Super-Objectivity - subject's suppression of QPO: auto-amnesia In his early poetry, with which I am principally concerned in this dissertation, Borges uses the word time both as a commonsensical grammatical term, and as a personal entity, when he addresses it by name.
Now, addressing time as a person presupposes that one is outside it, in which case the poet divides himself from time. However, this implies an ontological schism between Borges and the world. To be outside time is to be outside the world. To remedy the situation, Borges externalises time beyond poetic subjectivity. This, however, brings the problem of how to account for his own subject position: is Borges, or any of his personae, really beyond the world? Clearly not. To account for the division, Borges externalises his own subjectivity in a counter-move of objectification.
Borges is now in the world, but regarding himself in an act of quasi-personal objectification. To evade this contradictory state of affairs, Borges is obliged to repress his quasi-objectivity, re-externalising time as a phenomenon beyond human experience.
Of course, this series of rational accommodations implies that a Borges who now addresses Super-Objective Time would have to be in a similar position to the Borges who previously addressed Objective Time, leading to an eternally spiralling series of externalisations, incorporations, and re-externalisations. This is seen as formative for his life-long ontological insecurities. To add to this insecurity Borges' father introduces the idea that memory as well may be a linguistic effect, thus conditioning his son's acceptance of the profound division between verbal functionality as constitutive of human subjectivity, and sensual human experience.
The dissertation adopts a genetic point of view to analyse how these factors affect Borges' development. It investigates them as a pattern of ontological regulation with which Borges was to struggle throughout his life. Fervor de Buenos Aires was to be hailed as a collection that heralded the arrival of the hispanophone avant-garde in South America in That is, after the home-grown avant-garde had had a few years to consider it. However, its status as an Ultraist proclamation, named after the Madrid literary journal Ultra whose contributors strove to surpass the modernistic impulse of the Generation of , can't overshadow its genealogy as the product of a historically and culturally unique individual.
Even though a handful of critics and poets warmly noted its intimism Gomez de la Serna in , and praised its Valery-like super-realism Evar Mendez three years later in , they largely neglected the profound currents that had caused its surface effects. Borges himself acknowledges the important role that the anarchist, radical lawyer and Jamesian psychologist, had on his metaphysical development.
These problems are persistent concerns founded on logical oppositions, and I will now depict them briefly, before describing their probable origins. The first of these is Borges' preoccupation with the status of personal identity. Borges sees identity in terms of the interplay of psychic persistence and duplication.
We see its temporal inversion in 'The Secret Miracle,' where a condemned prisoner, Jaromir Hladik, attempts to exhaust the possibilities of his impending mortality. By imagining every possible eventuality, and reasoning that real life is never quite as we imagine it to be, he anticipates his murder by the Nazis in exacting detail over and over again. Hladik, exercising a perverse, homoeopathic logic, hopes to exhaust the potentialities of his pathetic circumstance, and so stave off an inevitable execution. How is one to admit one exists, if we can only demonstrate existence by remembering memories, and remembering those memories, ad infinitum?
The causal supposition of memory a theory he inherits from his father's reading of William James and Henri Bergson, both authors for whom the problem of personal identity exercised fundamental attraction , supplies a plausible source for Borges' ontological unease. He also, without my being aware of it, gave me my first lessons in philosophy. When I was still quote young, he showed me, with the aid of a chessboard, the paradoxes of Zeno - Achilles and the tortoise, the unmoving flight of the arrow, the impossibility of motion. Later, without mentioning Berkeley's name, he did his best to teach me the rudiments of idealism.
Borges is reminiscing about the comforts of home and hearth. However, his comments take on added significance in the context of the formation of identity, especially when we consider the roles of language and literature in forming Borges' fragmented cultural identity. Fanny Haslam, his maternal grandmother, introduced English to the criollo Borges clan as an alternative to Spanish and French. Borges' father, inherited this language as an Argentine Anglophile, encouraging its use within the household and amassing a large English library.
This is where the young Jorge Luis introduced himself to the literary classics of his divided heritage. But it was not only to his father that he owed this polylogy. He takes on the very voice of his father, as he recounts in the passage above, to recite the poetry that his father had, in turn, recited to him. Thus, the act of recitation functions both as a locational, as well as a dislocational act.
Borges was simultaneously made aware of his foreignness and familiarity. For the mystic this is a foundational belief, rooted in Socratic anagnoresis. One might say, of even seeing the past as something we can physically manipulate. Yet, because this past divides culturally between Spanish and English, the act of reproduction signals an awareness of a divided 27 heritage. Where re-production attempts to slough off its representational scales and become an act of seamless duplication, as the act of taking on someone's very voice implies, this duplication can never be complete because of Borges' awareness of the mixture of cultures and languages already composing the identity he is, for the moment, appropriating.
Zeno's paradoxes illustrate the logical problems of spatial determination: in the story of Achilles and the tortoise the Greek can never overtake his rival because he must first travel one half the distance between himself and the tortoise. Then he must traverse one half of that distance, and so on, until he falls into a receding loop of ever shorter distances, trapping him at the starting line. While this regressus ad initio serves to illustrate the impossibility of progressive motion based on the transition of infinitely divisible portions of space, Zeno's other paradox of the winged arrow at rest demonstrates the impossibility of motion, by making motion indeterminate.
If so, should the observer be able to say with certainty it flew through the air without committing a perceptual blunder, since at any time one sees that it was both at rest having stopped to be noticed by the percipient , and stationary not having moved , waiting to cross the next portion of space?
Borges' father's used a chessboard to illustrate these arguments, allowing the child to make a clear association between the geometric regularity of the board, and the divisibility of space and time. This was a particularly fruitful means of illustration, since it allows time to be viewed like a divisible substance. Borges will probably have realised that the Achilles paradox applies equally well to time, and the infinite divisibility of time is an important theme of a number of famous later fictions such as The Secret Miracle,' The Aleph,' and The Zahir'.
Borges was to use this principle of infinite divisibility in a later fiction, The Book of Sand' where a single volume, with the power of endlessly reproducing its own pages, threatens to drown the cosmos in a sea of paper.
Sundays is screened in the Documentary Short Films Exhibition. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Iris y Sonja se conocen en un centro de acogida para menores. Las estaciones de subte abren sus puertas y de su interior brota mansamente una turba de gente que camina dando tumbos por las calles de Lisboa. The equivalent of English the is as follows: masculine singular, el; Definite Article.
The book is also therefore 28 indestructible by fire, since this would start a universal conflagration, and is finally disposed of by the very Borgesian expedient of being forgotten in a library. Borgesian memory is an obsessive phenomenon provoked by the author's long struggle with morbid insomnia, a condition whose torments preoccupy him in his earliest major poetry. The insomniac becomes vividly aware of the passing of time, the repetition of trivial events taking on macabre significance.
While The Zahir' and The Aleph' are metaphoric crystallisations of insomnia's morbid power, 'Funes the Memorius' most practically portrays the consequences of intractable memory, the bed-ridden protagonist eventually dying after having memorised every event in every second of his immediate environment for the last few, excruciatingly vivid, months. But if tonight, I'm thinking back on this image, then what I'm really recalling is not the first image, but the first image in memory. So that every time I recall something, I'm not recalling it really, I'm recalling the last time I recalled it, I'm recalling my last memory of it.
So that really," he said, "I have no memories whatever, I have no images whatever, about my childhood, about my youth. Yet sometimes I walk down the street and say, not who is this walking down the street, but who is this thinking he's walking down the street, and then I'm really puzzled. I don't think that stands for anything. That's merely grammatical, they're only words. We can employ the division to construct a possible account of differing grammatical and propositional complexes in Fervor de Buenos Aires. While propositional complexes describe a belief system, grammatical complexes depend solely on their semantic structuration to express meaning.
The sentence: 'Beth gets under Tom's skin' may describe a physical unlikelihood, but its sense is unequivocal taken at the semantic level; Beth literally transplants herself under the epidermis of the unfortunate Tom. The propositional complex that the sentence describes presupposes a situation in which epidermal transfer is common. This would be a place where skins are regularly displaced, with everything that such gruesome behaviour entails: naked corpses, changed identities, an Epidermal Police.
Propositional eventualities derive their force from being in opposition to a commonplace reality. It's only in the so-called, real world that a belief system can assert itself as unique. Intercultural Cinema, Embodiment, and the Senses. Durham y Londres: Duke University Press, Martins, Laura. Punto de Vista 76 Agosto : Parodi, Ricardo. Fuera de campo. Otro cine es posible. Seminario 3, clase 2 Goethe Institut Buenos Aires.
Sai, Leonardo. Contrarreforma 3. Nuestra mirada. Sidicaro, Ricardo. Buenos Aires: Libros del Rojas-Eudeba, Toibero, Emilio. Zunzunegui, Santos. De ellos me he servido para elaborar el presente trabajo. Laura M. Agrandir Original jpeg, 16k. Agrandir Original jpeg, 56k. Agrandir Original png, k. Zech V Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought. Seller Image.
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