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A choice procedure for drug reinforcers: Cocaine and methylphenidate in the rhesus monkey. Antagonist Competitive antagonist Irreversible antagonist Physiological antagonist Inverse agonist Enzyme inhibitor. Treatment of 'ecstasy' overdose with dantrolene. Fry, C. Methadone dosage, cocaine and opiate abuse.
Subcription rates. However, on the basis of animal behavioral data, several groups have recently proposed alternative explanations, i. From the pharmacological perspective, models 1—3 allow predictions about the change in the shape of drug dose-effect curves that are based on mathematically defined models governing receptor-ligand interaction and signal transduction.
It evaluates the animal experimental approaches employed to support or prove the existence of each of the models and reinforcement components, and recapitulates the clinical evidence, which strongly suggests that escalation of drug use is predominantly based on an increase in the frequency of intoxication events rather than an increase in the dose taken at each intoxication event.
Two apparent discrepancies in animal experiments are that a sensitization to overall reinforcement has been found more often for psychostimulants than for opioids, and that b tolerance to the reinforcing and other effects has been observed more often for opioids than for cocaine. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway. Set up a giveaway. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get fast, free delivery with Amazon Prime.
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Cocaine abuse remains a major public health problem and contributes to many of our most disturbing social problems, including the spread of infectious disease . Editorial Reviews. Review. "Each of the 17 chapters elegantly weaves empirical research into Cocaine abuse results from a complex interplay of behavioral.
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Some users find that the drug helps them to perform simple physical and intellectual tasks more quickly, while others experience the opposite effect. The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Large amounts of the stimulant several hundred milligrams or more intensify the user's high, but may also lead to bizarre, erratic, or violent behavior.
Those using cocaine in such amounts may experience tremors, vertigo, muscle twitches, paranoia , or, with repeated doses, a toxic reaction closely resembling amphetamine poisoning. Some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or sometime thereafter. Cocaine-related deaths are often a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest.
Long-term effects of cocaine use include addiction, irritability and mood disturbances, restlessness, paranoia, and auditory hallucinations.
Binge cocaine use, in which the drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly higher doses, leads to a state of increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia. It may result in a full-blown paranoid psychosis in which the individual loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations.
There can be severe medical complications associated with cocaine use. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular, including disturbances in heart rhythm and frank heart attacks; respiratory effects such as chest pain and respiratory failure; neurological effects, including strokes, seizures, and headaches; and gastrointestinal complications, including abdominal pain and nausea. Cocaine use has been linked to many types of heart disease. Physical symptoms may include chest pain, nausea, blurred vision, fever, muscle spasms, convulsions, coma, and death.
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. Regularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to the loss of the sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can result in a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow.
Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and "tracks," most commonly in their forearms.
Intravenous cocaine users may also experience allergic reactions, either to the drug or to some additive in street cocaine, which in severe cases can result in death. Research has revealed a potentially dangerous interaction between cocaine and alcohol. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the most common two-drug combination that results in drug-related death. For more information on symptoms, causes, and treatment of stimulant-related disorders, see our Diagnosis Dictionary. When users come down from the high, they are usually depressed, edgy, and craving more drug.
No one can predict whether they will become dependent and addicted, or whether the next dose will be deadly. As with any disorder, treatment strategies need to assess the psychobiological, social, and pharmacological aspects of the individual's drug abuse. Behavioral therapies are often the only available effective treatment for many drug use problems, including cocaine use,. Cognitive -behavioral treatment is a focused approach to helping cocaine abusers cut d own or abstain— and remain abstinent—from abusing cocaine and other substances.
The underlying assumption is that learning processes play an important role in the development and continuation of substance abuse. The same learning processes can be employed to help individuals reduce drug use and successfully cope with relapse. Cognitive-behavioral therapy aims to help patients recognize the situations in which they are most likely to use cocaine, avoid the situations when appropriate, and cope more effectively with a range of problems associated with drug abuse.
Another approach to treatment is harm reduction, whereby psychotherapeutic strategies are aimed at reducing the negative consequences associated with substance abuse without requiring the individual to commit to abstinence.