balmoralcampestre.com/map63.php On the heels of the Huns came the Ostrogoths who not only invaded, but also settled down in the region, especially near Treviso where the penultimate king Totila was born. An Exarch was established at Ravenna while a military tribune was set up in Oderzo. Greek-Byzantine rule did not last long. These invaders subdivided the territory of Venetia into numerous feuds ruled by Germanic dukes and counts, essentially creating the division of Veneto from Friuli. The invasion provoked another wave of migration from the mainland to the Byzantine controlled coast and islands. A reminder of Lombard rule can be seen in the place names beginning with the word Farra.
By the middle of the 8th century, the Franks had assumed political control of the region and the mainland of Veneto became part of the Carolingian Empire. Though politically dominant, these Germanic invaders were gradually absorbed into the Venetian population over the centuries. Under his tumultuous reign, the March of Friuli was absorbed into the March of Verona so that Verona's territory contained a large portion of Roman Venetia.
In the 10th century, the mainland of Veneto, after suffering raids from the Magyars and the Slavs , was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. Gradually, the communes of the mainland grew in power and wealth. The Second Treaty of Constance in confirmed the Peace of Venice of in which the cities agreed to remain part of the Empire as long as their jurisdiction over their own territories was not infringed upon.
The league was dissolved at the death of Emperor Frederick II in This period also witnessed the founding of the second oldest university in Italy, the University of Padua founded in Around this time, Padua also served as home to St. Anthony , the beloved Saint called simply "il Santo" "the Saint" by the inhabitants of the town. As the barbarians were interested in the wealth of the mainland, part of the Venetian population sought refuge on some of the isolated and unoccupied islands in the lagoon, from which the city of Venetiae or Venice was born.
After a period of Byzantine domination in 8th century, Venice became an independent maritime Republic ruled by its elected doge. The Republic became a commercial superpower and its influence lasted through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. In fact, the Venetian Republic enjoyed years of uninterrupted influence throughout the Mediterranean.
From the 13th to 17th centuries, it held the island of Crete and from the midth to midth century, the island of Cyprus. Venetian mainland holdings led to Venetian involvement in European and in particular, Italian politics. Cities had to be fortified, two impressive examples are Nafplio in Peloponese and Palmanova in Friuli. The wise rule and prosperity brought by the "Serenissima" most serene republic made the cities of the terra firma willing subjects.
Eastern Islands served as useful ports for Venetian shipping. However, as the Ottoman Empire grew more powerful and aggressive, Venice was often put on the defensive. Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean and the discoveries of sea routes to Asia around Africa and of the Americas had a debilitating effect on the Venetian economy. In , Napoleon invaded the territory of the Venetian Republic. Overwhelmed by more powerful forces, Doge Ludovico Manin resigned and retired to his villa at Passariano in Friuli and the thousand year old Republic disappeared as an independent state.
This proved very unpopular in the mainland cities where sympathies were strong with the Republic of Venice. The territory soon reverted to Napoleon in Then in —, it was conquered by Napoleon 's armies and included in the Kingdom of Italy. During , the region revolted against the French-Italian rule,  supporting the advancing Austrian troops during the War of the Fifth Coalition. It was mainly a peasant revolt, less organised than the nearby Andreas Hofer 's revolt, while hurban national guard troops fought on the French-Italian side.
It asked to be annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia to form an Italian confederation against Austria, then using the Italian tricolour in its flag, but, after the other Italian states left the war May and Sardinia surrendered August , then March , Venetia stood alone. It surrendered on 24 August , when the Siege of Venice ended. The Austrian imperial government was unpopular among upper and middle classes because of Metternich 's anti- liberal politics, turned by Emperor Franz Joseph into neo-absolutism after , and for not granting Lombardo—Venetia any real autonomy it was considered less than a puppet state.
At the same time, it was appreciated for the efficient and honest administration, especially among lower classes, and long-standing strong cultural ties linked Venetia and Austria even after it was ceded to Italy. Despite this, after — there was no revolt against the Austrian rule. Venetia remained under Austrian control until the Austro-Prussian War in , when the Kingdom of Italy joined on the Prussian side and was promised Venetia in exchange for its assistance.
Austria offered to sell Venetia to Italy, but the Italians refused, seeing it as a dishonourable act. Once the wars ended, the Treaty of Vienna ceded the region to neutral France, but left the fortresses under Austrian control for a time. Following protests, the Austrians left and the French ceded it to Italy on 20 October.
During the fascist era , due to the nationalist policy the Venetian language, as other local languages, was banned in public spaces. Due to uneven economic development reducing many to poverty, the 19th century and the first half of the 20th became a period of emigration. Millions of Venetians left their homes and their native land to seek opportunities in other parts of the world.
In many of these places, their descendants have maintained the use of their ancestral Venetian dialects. Those who remained in Veneto would experience the turmoil of two World Wars. Veneto became a major battlefront. After the Italians suffered an enormous defeat at Caporetto in November , the combined Austro-Hungarian and German forces advanced almost unhindered through Veneto towards Venice until reaching the Piave River. The Battle of the Piave River prevented their troops from advancing further and was celebrated in La Leggenda del Piave. The battle's outcome assured Italy's victory.
Many towns in the region were bombed by the Allies during the Second World War. The most hit were Treviso and Vicenza, as well as the industrial area around Marghera. Veneto is a semi-presidential representative democracy. The President of the Region , colloquially nicknamed Governor or even Doge in remembrance of Venice's traditional head of state, is also the head of the Regional Government.
Legislative power is exerted by the Regional Council , the local parliament. The Statute i. Traditionally a very Catholic region, Veneto was once the heartland of Christian Democracy , which won a record In the regional election Liga Veneta—Lega Nord won a combined According to Robert D. Putnam , the "institutional performance" of Veneto's regional government is higher than average in Italy and Veneto belongs to the "civic North". This is the political background in which the Liga Veneta was launched in Venetian Independence and other alike groups have been long proposing a referendum on the independence of Veneto from Italy.
After the Regional Council approved a resolution on self-determination with an explicit reference to a referendum in November ,   a referendum bill was proposed in April Plebiscite organised an online referendum , with no official recognition, for 16—21 March On 22 October an official autonomy referendum took place in Veneto: Veneto is divided into the Metropolitan City of Venice and 6 provinces and also divided in municipalities.
In contrast the capital city, Venice, has a moderate density of The region has about 4. Veneto has one of the highest population densities among the Italian regions inhabitants per km 2 in This is particularly true in the provinces of Padua , Venice and Treviso , where the inhabitants per km 2 are above Belluno is the least densely populated province, with 57 inhabitants per km 2.
Like the other regions of Northern Italy and Central Italy , though with a certain time lag, Veneto has been experiencing a phase of very slow population growth caused by the dramatic fall in fertility. The overall population has so far been increasing — though only slightly — due to the net immigration started at the end of the s, after more than 20 years of massive exodus from the poorer areas of the region.
Nearly 3 million Venetians were forced to leave their country between and to escape poverty. In , there were , Venetian citizens living outside of Italy 5. Due to the impressive economic growth of the last two decades, Veneto has turned into a land of immigration and has been attracting more and more immigrants since the s.
Veneto converted to Christianity during Roman rule. The region venerates as its patrons the 2nd-century bishop St. Hermagoras and his deacon St. Fortunatus, both of Aquileia and both martyrs. Aquileia became the metropolitan see of Venetia.
Aquileia had its own liturgical rites which were used throughout the dioceses of Veneto until the later Middle Ages when the Roman Rite replaced the Aquileian Rite. By the 6th century the bishop of Aquileia claimed the title of patriarch. Rejection of the Second Council of Constantinople led to a schism wherein the bishops of Aquileia , Liguria , Aemilia , Milan and of the Istrian peninsula all refused to condemn the Three Chapters leading to the churches of Veneto to break communion with the Church of Rome.
The Archdiocese of Venice was elevated to an honorary Patriarchate by the pope on 8 October when the Patriarchate of Grado , a successor to the Patriarchate of Aquileia , was suppressed. The first patriarch of Venice was St. Laurence , a nobleman of the Giustiniani family. The Patriarchate of Venice claims St. Mark the Evangelist as its patron. The same saint, symbolised by a winged lion, had become the typical symbol of the Venetian Republic and is still represented on many civic symbols.
Under Austrian rule, Veneto's agriculturally based economy suffered, which later led to mass emigration. Geography and historical events have determined the present social and economic structure of the region, centred on a broad belt running from east to west. The plain and the Alpine foothills are the most developed areas in contrast to the Po delta and the mountainous areas, with the exception of the surroundings of Belluno. This is why the Alps and the province of Rovigo are suffering more than other areas, from a trend of declining and ageing population.
Though its importance has been decreasing for the past 20—30 years, agriculture continues to play a significant role in the regional economy. The agricultural sector of Veneto is among the most productive in Italy. However, it is still characterised by an intensive use of labour rather than capital, due to the specialisation in market gardening , fruit-growing and vine-growing throughout the plain and the foothills, requiring very much handicraft.
In the south and in the extreme east of the region, grain crops are more common and land holdings are larger than in the rest of the region; mechanisation is more advanced here. The main agricultural products include maize , green peas , vegetables, apples, cherries, sugar beets , forage, tobacco, hemp. Moreover, Veneto is one of Italy's most important wine-growing areas, producing wines , such as Prosecco , Valpolicella , and Soave. The Amarone della Valpolicella , a wine from the hills around Verona, is made with high-selected grapes and is among the more expensive red wines in the world.
In the last 30—40 years industrialisation transformed the appearance of the landscape, especially in the plains. The regional industry is especially made of small and medium-sized businesses, which are active in several sectors: food products, wood and furniture, leather and footwear, textiles and clothing, gold jewelry, but also chemistry, metal-mechanics and electronics.
This has led to the establishment of a strongly export-orientated system of industries. Typical of Veneto is the partition of the territory into industrial districts, which means that each area tends to specialise in a specific sector. The province of Venice hosts large metallurgical and chemical plants in Marghera and Mestre , but is also specialised in glass handicraft Murano.
The province of Belluno hosts the so-called eyeglasses district, being the largest world manufacturer Luxottica a firm domiciliated at Agordo. Fashion industry is extremely strong all over the region: Benetton , Sisley, Geox , Diesel , Replay are all Venetian brands. During the last 20 years, a large number of Venetian companies relocated their plants especially the most dangerous and polluting productions in Eastern Europe , especially Romania. Although being a heavily industrialised region, tourism is one of its main economic resources; one-fifth of Italy's foreign tourism gravitates towards Veneto, which is the first region in Italy in terms of tourist presence, attracting over 60 million visitors every year, second after Emilia-Romagna in terms of hotel industry structures; the business volume of tourism in Veneto is estimated to be in the vicinity of 12 billion Euros.
A table which shows Veneto's GDP growth: . The unemployment rate stood at 6. The Middle Ages stimulated the creation of monumental works such as the complex of churches on the island of Torcello , in the Venetian lagoon, with the Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta founded in , its bell tower erected in the 11th century and the adjacent Martyrium of Santa Fosca built around the , notable for the mosaics. They saw the construction of the Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore in Verona , which was Veneto's main centre for that esthetic movement and we note, by the mixture of styles that Verona was an important crossroads to the north of Europe.
While in Veneto Byzantine art was important, an element of innovation was brought to Padua by Giotto , bearer of a new pictorial tradition: that of Tuscany. Towards the he was commissioned by Enrico Scrovegni to paint the family chapel, now known just by the name of Scrovegni Chapel , one of the most important artistic monuments of Padua and Veneto. The influences of the contribution of Giotto were felt immediately, as in the frescoes of Giusto de' Menabuoi in the Baptistry near the Cathedral of Padua and those of Altichiero in the Basilica of Saint Anthony.
After a phase of development of Gothic art , with the creation of important works including the Ca' d'Oro and the Doge's Palace in Venice , and the churches of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari and of Saints John and Paul in Venice, the influence of the Renaissance ushered in a new era. In addition to Donatello , an important Venetian Renaissance artist was Andrea Mantegna — , whose most important work in Veneto is perhaps the San Zeno Altarpiece , found in Verona. With the mainland expansion of the Venetian Republic and the consolidation of its institutions, there was also an artistic development of exceptional stature: Mantegna, Vittore Carpaccio , Giovanni Bellini , Cima da Conegliano , Pordenone laid the foundations for what would be the age of Venetian painting.
Padua was a cradle of the Venetian Renaissance, Where influences from Tuscany and Umbria filtered north. Amongst the Renaissance artists who worked there were Donatello , who worked on an altar of the Basilica of Saint Anthony , and Pisanello , whose works are mainly in Verona , for example, the fresco of Saint George in the Church of St. In the first phase with Carpaccio and Bellini, the influences of international painting were still evident and the references to Flemish art were numerous.
Giorgione and Titian developed an original and innovative style, which characterised the painters of the Venetian school rather than other traditions.
Giorgione's enigmatic style infused his work with allegory, and he created his paintings with less reliance on a preparatory drawing than previous painters. This innovation was looking for the imitation of natural phenomena by creating atmospheres with the colours and shifting the emphasis from the pursuit of artistic perfection.
The storm — , now in the Accademia in Venice, is an example of this use of colour, where the mixture colour and texture continue indefinitely without preparatory drawing for the painting work gives a special atmosphere. Titian, born in Belluno Pieve di Cadore , brought forward the use of this technique without pictorial design, creating masterpieces such as the Assumption of the Virgin — ,  an altar made by imposing visible sizes on the main altar of the Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice, a work whose suggestion is due to the use of colour.
At the end of his long life, he had acquired fame and commissions across the continent. Tintoretto — recast Roman Mannerism in a Venetian style, less linear, and with more use of colour to distinguish forms, highlighting the bright prospects for its operations, giving unusual deformations of perspective, to increase the sense of tension in the work. Palaces and churches of Venice abound with his paintings. The Scuola Grande di San Rocco alone sports 66 paintings by this painter. Paolo Veronese — was about as prolific as Tintoretto, with works that celebrated the Venetian state,  as well as decorating houses of Venetian nobles.
He decorated large portions of the Palazzo Ducale and the decoration of many villas Palladian , including Villa Barbaro. Jacopo Bassano — and Lorenzo Lotto were active in the mainland, and reflected some of the influences of Milanese painters with the introduction of images taken from real life, enriched by a touch of drama. In architecture, Andrea Palladio — , born in Padua , completed some highly influential works, including Villas in the mainland, in Vicenza , Padua and Treviso.
This aesthetic, through his publications, proved very popular and underwent a revival in the neoclassical period. In his villas, the owner shall permit the control over production activities of the surrounding countryside by structuring the functional parts, such as porch , close to the central body. In the case of Villa Badoer, the open barn, formed by a large circular colonnade, enclosing the front yard in front of the villa allows you to create a space that recalls the ancient idea of the Forum Romanum , and bringing all campaign activities to gravitate in front of the villa itself.
The research style of Palladio has created an architectural movement called Palladianism , which has had strong following in the next three centuries, inspiring architects, some of them his direct students, including Vincenzo Scamozzi , after the death of the teacher who completed several works, including the first Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza. The 18th-century Venetian school comprises many artists. Giovanni Battista Tiepolo — , described as "the greatest decorative painter of eighteenth-century Europe, as well as its most able craftsman.
Perspective played a central role in Tiepolo's representations, and was forced beyond the usual limits in his ceiling decorations depicting levitating figures viewed from below.
Another characteristic feature of Venetian art is landscape painting , which sees in Canaletto — and Francesco Guardi — the two leading figures. Canaletto's rigorous perspective studies make for an almost "photographic" reality, in contrast to Guardi's more subjective capriccios. Antonio Canova — , born in Possagno , was the greatest of the neoclassical artists.
After the fall of the Republic of Venice in , every city in Veneto created its own form of art.
The city also has the Felice Evaristo Dall'Abaco music conservatory;. Volgi a me le luci liete! Sigonius, De antiquo jure Italiae, Venice, Possessiones und Possessio, Heidelberg, Main article: Politics of Veneto.
Important was, however, the role of Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice , who was able to attract many young artists from the surrounding territory. Among the many artists which were important in modern ages were Guglielmo Ciardi , who incorporated the experience of macchiaioli movement, uniting the typical colour of the classic Venetian school, and yet bringing out from his paintings a chromatic essence, Giacomo Favretto , who too as Ciardi, enhanced the colour, which was sometimes very pronounced, painter Frederick Zandomeneghi , who deviates from the tradition of Venetian colouring to venture in a style similar to French impressionism, and finally Luigi Nono , whose works feel realistic, even if, in addition to painting genre scenes, includes portraits of finity for psychological enhancement.
Veneto hosts one of the oldest universities in the world, the University of Padua , founded in OECD investigations  show that school education achievements in North-Eastern Italy whose population comes mainly from Veneto are the highest in Italy. In the university had approximately 65, students. Most of the people of Veneto speak Italian along with widespread usage of local varieties of the Venetian language. Within Venetian there are distinct sub-groups centered on the major cities, and distinctions are also found between rural and urban dialects and those spoken in northern mountainous areas and on the plain.
Venetian dialects are classified as Western Romance.
All dialects are mutually intelligible to varying degrees, are descended from Vulgar Latin and influenced to varying degrees by the Italian language. Venetian is attested as a written language in the 13th century. The language of Venice enjoyed substantial prestige in the days of the Venetian Republic , when it attained the status of a lingua franca in the Mediterranean. Notable Venetian-language authors include the playwrights Carlo Goldoni — and Carlo Gozzi — , while Ruzante — is best known for his rustic comedies "cast in mainland peasant Pavan 'Paduan'".
These are two historical groups of villages of Cimbric origin, which for a long time formed two distinct "commonwealths" under the rule of the Republic of Venice, among others. Furthermore, in the area around Portogruaro people speak Furlan. As the region does not enjoy a special status of autonomy, minority languages are not granted any form of official recognition. A motion to recognise Venetian as an official regional language has been approved by the regional Parliament. Venetian literature is the corpus of literature in Venetian , the vernacular language of the region which roughly corresponding to Venice from the 12th century.
The Venetian literature, after an initial period of splendour in the 16th century with the success of artists such as Ruzante , reaches its maximum zenith in the 18th century, thanks to its maximum exponent, dramatist Carlo Goldoni.
Subsequently, the literary production in Venetian undergoes a period of decline following the collapse of the Republic of Venice , succeeding anyway during the 20th century to reach peaks with wonderful lyrical poets such as Biagio Marin of Grado. Cuisine is an important part of the culture of Veneto, and the region is home to some of the most recognisable dishes, desserts and wines in Italian, European and worldwide cuisine. Homemade wine making is widespread. After making wine, the alcohol of the pressed grapes is distilled to produce grappa or graspa , as it is called in the local language.
Prosecco is a dry sparkling wine. Campari or gin may also be used.
The sopressa vicentina PDO is an aged salami, cylindrical in shape and prepared with raw, quality pork meat. It may or may not include garlic in its ingredients and comes in medium and large sizes. The aroma is delicate, sweet and fragrant. Radicchio rosso di Treviso PGI is a peculiar vegetable with a faintly bitter taste and a crunchy texture. The production area encompasses many town districts in the provinces of Treviso, Padua and Venice.
The radicchio Variegato di Castelfranco PGI has a delicate and slightly sweet taste and a crunchy texture. They are commonly used in risotto dishes and have a high starch content. The White Asparagus of Bassano is a typical product of the northern part of the province of Vicenza. Each town, often every quarter, has its patron saint whose feast day is solemnly celebrated.
Many other festivals are closely linked to the religious calendar. Among these:. Veneto, and in particular Venice and Verona , are important Italian musical centres, home to a vibrant musical life. The city of Venice in Italy has played an important role in the development of the music of Italy.
The Venetian state—i. There is music everywhere. Concerts are often held in the historic Loggia Comaro , built in Rovigo is the site of the Teatro Sociale , built in Negroamaro Primitivo at its dark spicy best. Attention Farnese fans — the new vintage, de luxe edition of your juicy Italian favourite is here. Rich, densely flavoured Puglian red made in a similar style to Amarone. Warms with dark spiced fruit. Lavish Portuguese red, finished in port barrels, from the renowned 15th generation van Zeller clan.
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