libertyinsurancebrokers.org/plugins/kyravab/370.php There are probably as many reasons as there are bullies themselves. Sometimes, what seems like online harassment may be accidental. The impersonal nature of text messages, posts, and other ways of communicating online means it can be hard to figure out if someone is joking or not. Most people know when they're being bullied, though, because bullying involves repeated insults or threats.
The people doing the bullying know they've crossed a line, too. It's not a one-off joke or insult — it's constant harassment and threats that go beyond typical fun teasing or a nasty comment made in anger. Sometimes, people are afraid or not sure if they're being bullied or not. So they don't do anything about it. If you're being bullied, harassed, or teased in a hurtful way — or know someone who is — you don't have to suffer in silence. In fact, you absolutely should report any upsetting texts, messages, posts, or emails. Tell someone. Most experts agree: The first thing to do is tell an adult you trust.
This is often easier said than done. People who are cyberbullied may feel embarrassed or reluctant to report a bully.
But bullying can get worse, so speak up until you find someone to help. Sometimes the police can track down an anonymous online bully, so it's often worthwhile to report it. Most parents are so concerned about protecting their kids that sometimes they focus on taking major steps to stop the bullying. If you're being bullied and worry about losing your phone or computer privileges, explain your fears to your parents. Let them know how important it is to stay connected, and work with them to figure out a solution that doesn't leave you feeling punished as well as picked on.
You may have to do some negotiating on safe phone or computer use — the most important thing is to first get the bullying under control. If the bullying feels like it's really getting you down like if it's affecting your sleep or concentration , therapy can help. If you're not ready for that, you can still benefit from the support of a trusted adult. Walk away. What you've heard about walking away from a real-life bully works in the virtual world too. If you see something upsetting, try to step away from the computer or turn off your phone for a while.
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At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. What it thinks must be in it just as characters may be said to be on a writing tablet on which as yet nothing actually stands written: this is exactly what happens with mind.
Over the centuries that followed Avicenna — , Ibn Tufail c. See Trimble, Jean Fernel — treated mind and brain together in his Physiology. He felt that the brain refined the animal spirits. Purged of all corporeal dross, they became concepts, finally even universal concepts and the ideas of the moral values Sherrington, He acknowledged the problems encountered in attempting to restrict the mind to the brain.
Pinker has recently discussed the role of nature vs nurture in the development of the mind. Locke recognized this problem and alluded to something called the understanding , which looked at the inscriptions on the white paper and carried out the recognizing, reflecting, and associating. Neurologists and neurosurgeons see patients with injured or diseased brains. Neurosurgeons attempt restoration of the internal structure of the brain to normalcy or correct disordered function in select areas by such modes as deep brain stimulation or ablation.
Some operations are performed on patients who are awake. Observations on patients provided clues to the functions of the mind in relation to the structure of the brain.
Neuroscientists can knock a gene out of a mouse a gene also found in humans and prevent the mouse from learning, or insert extra copies and make the mouse learn faster. Studies on patients who have suffered brain injury such as Phineas Gage have also provided interesting clues on the mind in relationship to the brain. We now know that damaged frontal lobes can no longer exert inhibitory influences on the limbic system with consequent aggressive acts.
The relation between the amount of grey matter in the frontal lobes and intelligence; the inferior parietal lobules and spatial reasoning and intuitions on numbers as in Albert Einstein and the third interstitial nucleus in the anterior thalamus and homosexuality Pinker, are a few more examples of specific areas of the brain linked to characteristics attributed to the mind.
Paul Broca showed that damage to the area subsequently named after him in the dominant cerebrum results in an inability to talk. Subsequent studies showed several other areas within the cerebrum that govern other aspects of speech. Bilateral frontal lobotomy and subsequent more sophisticated variants such as stereotaxic amygdalotomies or cingulotomies reduce an aggressive, maniacal individual to docility Heller et al.
Wilder Penfield — , Canadian neurosurgeon, was known for his groundbreaking work on epilepsy. He operated on patients with intractable epilepsy using local anaesthesia, ensuring that they remained awake throughout the operation. He stimulated areas of the brain surface in these patients in order to demarcate the part producing epilepsy. In many patients, electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain triggered vivid memories of past events.
One patient, while on an operating table in Montreal, Canada, remembered laughing with cousins on a farm in South Africa. It brings psychical phenomena into the field of physiology. It should have profound significance also in the field of psychology provided we can interpret the facts properly.
Imagine going about your daily life observing and walking past different people not knowing if that one face could be the last one you see. Each of the short. Read "Faces The Mind Never Traced" by MarkACherrington available from Rakuten Kobo. This is a fictional book but can be seen as a reality for a lot of people.
We have to explain how it comes about that when an electrode producing, for example, 60 electrical impulses per second is applied steadily to the cortex it can cause a ganglionic complex to recreate a steadily unfolding phenomenon, a psychical phenomenon. But the mechanism seems to have recorded much more than the simple event.
When activated, it may reproduce the emotions which attended the original experience. On 1 September , Dr. William Beecher Scoville performed bilateral mesial temporal lobe resections on a patient known as H. The inadvertent severe damage to the important limbic structures resulted in permanent loss of memory in this patient Scoville, But, he could remember almost nothing after that. Damage to discrete areas within the brain can thus produce a variety of disorders of the mind.
In his Nobel Lecture, Sperry described the implications on concepts of the mind of the observations made after splitting the corpus callosum Sperry, Myers, showed that the cat with divided corpus callosum now had two minds either of which was capable of learning on its own, and of responding intelligently to changes in the world around it on its own.
Subsequent experiments with rats, monkeys and later with human epileptic patients gave similar results.
Psychological tests showed that both John Does had remarkably similar personalities. Except for language ability, they were about as much alike as identical twins. Their attitudes and opinions seemed to be the same; their perceptions of the world were the same; and they woke up and went to sleep at almost the same times. There were differences however. John Doe Left could express himself in language and was somewhat more logical and better at [planning…].
John Doe Right tended to be somewhat more aggressive, impulsive, emotional - and frequently expressed frustration with what was going on. Such experiments led Sperry, Ornstein and others to conclude that each of the separated hemispheres has its own private sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories, in short, that they constitute two separate minds, two separate spheres of consciousness Gross, In addition to structure, we must consider the chemical processes within the brain.
The effects of caffeine, alcohol, marihuana and opium on the brain and mind are common knowledge. Chemicals within the nervous system, such as adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, the endorphins and encephalins, enable and modify the many functions of brain and mind and body we take for granted.
Carter described modern techniques for mapping the brain and mind. Sounding a cautious note, Carter pointed out that whilst the optimist might wish for a complete understanding of human nature and experience from such studies, others may insist that a map of the brain can tell us no more about the mind than a terrestrial globe speak of Heaven and Hell. The brain is the organ of the mind just as the lungs are the organs for respiration. Consciousness, perception, behaviour, intelligence, language, motivation, drive, the urge to excel and reasoning of the most complex kind are the product of the extensive and complex linkages between the different parts of the brain.
Likewise, abnormalities attributed to the mind, such as the spectrum of disorders dealt with by psychiatrists and psychologists, are consequences of widespread abnormalities, often in the chemical processes within different parts of the brain. Jackson suggested that the evolutionary development of the prefrontal cortex is necessary to the emergence of self. In this sense it could be called the organ of mind.
However, this is not to say that self resides in the prefrontal cortex. Rather, the new structure allows a more complex coordination of what is anatomically a sensori-motor machine. He used the terms lowest, middle, and highest centres…as proper names…to indicate evolutionary levels. Ascending levels show increasing integration and coordination of sensorimotor representations. The highest-level coordination, which allows the greatest voluntary control, depends on prefrontal activity.
Self is a manifestation of this highest level of consciousness, which involves doubling. This doubling is established by the reflective capacity that enables one to become aware of individual experience in a way that gives a sense of an inner life. Sherrington addressed function and emphasised the limitations of our means for analysis:. The physico-chemical produced a unified machine… the psychical, creates from psychical data a percipient, thinking and endeavouring mental individual… they are largely complemental and life brings them co-operatively together at innumerable points… The formal dichotomy of the individual … which our description practiced for the sake of analysis, results in artifacts such as are not in nature… the two schematic members of the puppet pair… require to be integrated… This integration can be thought of as the last and final integration.
Impenetrable, Unentered, unassailed, unharmed, untouched, Immortal, all-arriving, stable, sure, Invisible, ineffable, by word And thought uncompassed, ever all itself, Thus is the Soul declared! Arnold, Socrates — Now do you think one can acquire any particular knowledge of the nature of the soul without knowing the nature of the whole man? Phaedrus — If Hippocrates the Asclepiad is to be trusted, one cannot know the nature of the body, either, except in that way.
I was being mischievous. Where is it? The search for the location of the human soul probably dates back to the awareness of such an entity. Termed atman by ancient Indian philosophers, psyche by the Greek and anima by the Romans, it has been considered resident within, but distinct from the human body. Many consider it immortal, postulating death to be the consequence of the departure of the soul from the body. Several questions arise when considering the soul. Here are some examples. When does the soul enter the human body, as the sperm enters the egg or as they fuse into one cell or at a later stage?
Does the soul influence the body, mind and intellect? Is the soul identical with what we term conscience? What happens to the soul during dreams, anaesthesia, trance-like states?
What happens to it after the soul leaves the body? Where and how are acquired characters stored in the nebulous soul? Where, in the body, does the soul reside? The answer must be in a resounding affirmative. The efforts over millennia to determine the nature and discover the location of the soul have resulted in a better understanding of the wonderful structure and function of man and his place in the cosmos.
And if one knows how great is the likeness between bodily and mental diseases, and that both are treated by the same remedies, one cannot help refusing to separate the soul from the body. Chekhov echoes the question asked by so many over the centuries. Hippocrates concluded that madness originated in the brain. Plato in Timaeus felt that folly was a disease of the soul. Philistion subclassified folly into madness and ignorance Harris, Pythagoras c. The seat of the soul extended from the heart to the brain, passion being located in the heart and reason and intelligence in the brain Prioreschi, Leonardo da Vinci —; see Figure 2 , with his uncanny genius, placed the soul above the optic chiasm in the region of the anterior-inferior third ventricle Santoro et al.
Leonardo depicted the location of the soul at the point where a series of intersecting lines meet Santoro, Though human ingenuity by various inventions with different instruments yields the same end, it will never devise an invention either more beautiful… than does Nature because in her inventions nothing is lacking and nothing superfluous and she… puts there the soul, the composer of the body, that is the soul of the mother which first composes in the womb the shape of man and in due time awakens the soul which is to be its inhabitant Del Maestro, There is a great difference between mind and body, inasmuch as body is by nature always divisible, and the mind is entirely indivisible.
And the faculties of willing, feeling, conceiving, etc. But it is quite otherwise with corporeal or extended objects, for there is not one of them imaginable by me which my mind cannot easily divide into parts. Descartes localised the soul in the pineal gland as it lay deep within the brain, in the midline and was unpaired [see Figure 4 ]. The pineal gland according to Descartes. Lancisi — agreed that the soul must lie deep within the brain, in the midline and in an unpaired structure, but favoured the corpus callosum, especially the Nervali longitudinales ab anterioribus ad posteriora excurrentes , which are still called the medial longitudinal striae of corpus callosum, or nerves of Lancisi.
He felt that the vital spirits could flow in the fibres of the medial striae. These formed a pathway for the stream of the soul or perhaps consciousness between the anterior part of the corpus callosum and the anterior columns of the fornix and the posterior part of the corpus callosum and the thalami, a sort of connection between the seat of the soul and the peripheral organs, between the soul and the body Di Ieva, Thomas Willis wrote Cerebri Anatome while being a Professor of Natural Philosophy in Oxford, where he used the anatomy of the brain as a tool to investigate the nature of the soul.
Albrecht von Haller — placed the soul in the medulla oblongata Trimble, ; p Bloom commented on the refutation of the dualist view differentiating the body and the soul:. But the question is not really about life in any biological sense. It is instead asking about the magical moment at which a cluster of cells becomes more than a mere physical thing.
It is a question about the soul… It is not a question that scientists could ever answer.
The qualities of mental life that we associate with souls are purely corporeal; they emerge from biochemical processes in the brain…. Santoro et al. They concluded that there exist two dominant and, in many respects, incompatible concepts of the soul: one that understands the soul to be spiritual and immortal, and another that understands the soul to be material and mortal. In both cases, the soul has been described as being located in a specific organ or anatomic structure or as pervading the entire body, and, in some instances, beyond mankind and even beyond the cosmos.
Rationalists are doubtful. What do you mean by soul? The brain? Is there not something immortal of or in the human brain — the human mind? Because we do not know what that power is, shall we call it immortal? As well call electricity immortal because we do not know what it is… After death the force or power undoubtedly endures, but it endures in this world, not in the next. And so with the thing we call life, or the soul — mere speculative terms for a material thing which under given conditions drives this way or that. It too endures in this world, not the other. Because we are as yet unable to understand it, we call it immortal.
In , Dr. Duncan MacDougall of Haverhill, Massachusetts, decided to weigh the soul by weighing a human being in the act of death. It seemed to me best to select a patient dying with a disease that produces great exhaustion, the death occurring with little or no muscular movement, because in such a case the beam could be kept more perfectly at balance and any loss occurring readily noted.
He lost weight slowly at the rate of one ounce per hour due to evaporation of moisture in respiration and evaporation of sweat.