trailblazer.outdoorsy.co This is the twenty-sixth annual publication of the Historical Studies Journal ; the opportunities and experience provided to authors and staff is invaluable. The authors represented in this volume of the Historical Studies Journal are examples of the richness and diversity of the History Department program. Our authors explore the period of enlightenment in Philadelphias Eighteenth Century taverns and German Prisoners of War in WWII America, the role of advertising in the introduction and production of baby food and the development of ceramic art in the West. And, nally an updated study of the Viet Nam Antiwar movement and the incorporation of Native American culture in the Ben Nighthorse Campbell building on the new Health Sciences campus are explored.
On behalf of the editorial staff, we would like to thank the University of Colorado Denver History Department faculty for their continued support of the Historical Studies Journa l. Thank you to Dr. Rebecca Hunt for your encouragement and guidance, and Dr. Thomas Noel for reading page proofs and cheerful support. A very special thank you to Sue Sethney, without whom this and many previous Journal publications would have suffered, we will be poorer without you but are richer for having known you.
Thank you to Shannon Fluckey at Clicks! Thank you from all of us who have had the opportunity to participate. She wrote her paper for Dr. Carl Pletsch in Spring of for the Enlightenment Seminar. She plans to expand on the tavern as an institution in the public sphere for her thesis. Philadelphia was a welcome site. Rather than retire to their lodgings, however, Adams recalled that, dirty, dusty and fatigued as we were, we could not resist the Importunity, to go the Tavern, the most genteel one in America.
There we were introduced to a Number of other Gentlemen of the CityDr. Shippen, Dr. Knox, Mr. Smith, and a Multitude of others, and to Mr. Linch [sic] and Mr. Gadsden of South Carolina. Thomas Lynch, a solid, rm, judicious Man, was also a gossip. He is tallthin and slender as a reedpalehis face is not bigger than a large Apple. They were the delegates to the First Continental Congress.
They were dining companions in Philadelphias City Tavern. In September and October of , the City Tavern was not long in becoming the favorite rendezvous of those men who founded our government, but was only one of many taverns in Philadelphia that acted as an institution of the public sphere and nurtured Enlightenment discourse. Philadelphia taverns were manifestations of the Enlightenment in America, so much so that they deserve recognition alongside their counterparts of the public sphere, namely, the English Coffeehouse, French Salon, and Masonic Lodge. T he T avern and the EconomyHome to between 28, and 36, inhabitants, in Philadelphia was one of the largest cities in the British Empire and outstripped Boston and New York, each of which had more than a half-century head start.
Historian Henry Steele Commager described Benjamin Franklin, writing: Printer, journalist, scientist, politician, diplomat, educator, statesman, author of the most popular of aphorisms and the best of autobiographies, he was, or seemed, the complete philosophe, American style, as representative of his nation as Voltaire was of France or Goethe of Germany or Holberg of Denmark or Banks of England. That inuence was greatly felt in Philadelphias busy Middle Ward. As the citys main thoroughfare, Market Street sustained an immense public market.
Chestnut, Second and Third Streets invited urbanites to peruse their shops and businesses. The London Bookstore on Second sold books on medicine and law, as well as swords, scientic instruments, spurs, and backgammon tables. A business on Third displayed a piano that was constructed within its very walls.
The up and coming Middle Ward was a half-mile walk from the Delaware River, with brick footwalks, gutters, and trees probably bordering the streets. The State House and Carpenters Hall were to the southwest. Taverns abounded here. The One Nun Tavern, on the northeast corner of Third and Chestnut, had front and back rooms on the ground oor, a kitchen, stables, and upstairs lodging. The Indian King and Three Tuns were two of the largest taverns; both had kitchens, stables, and hired help.
The three-story high Indian King had eighteen sleeping rooms, its guest room walls were plastered, and some lucky travelers cozied up to replaces before bed. The enormity of the One Nun and the Indian King were unique compared to the usual unassuming exterior and claustrophobic interior of Philadelphias taverns. Despite identication signs, tavern exteriors looked identical. Their interiors were cramped. Guests converged around a large, oblong table squeezed into a single room, sharing conversation or even a communal drinking bowl. Booths and banquettes did not exist, eliminating privacy. Until the middle of the eighteenth century, most taverns were also private residences, regular food menus were unavailable, and most lacked private meeting rooms.
Any upstairs lodging was small and crowded. Laborers, seamen, artisans, stage drivers, post riders, and travelers came early. They downed a quick meal and a dram, forgoing formal breakfast that was not provided until nine. Between nine and noon, locals came to read and discuss the newspaper and merchants conducted their business. Dinner was served at noon, and soon thereafter, gambling began. Oftentimes a cockght or stght occupied the afternoon, or sometimes later than that, as a retiring guest, Dr. Alexander Hamilton, discovered at the Three Tuns: At six in the evening I went to my lodging, and looking out att the window, having been led there by a noise in the street, I was entertained by a boxing match between a master and his servant.
The master was an unwieldy, pottgutted fellow, the servant muscular, rawbond, and tall16 Philadelphians could purchase tickets to concerts or lectures between dinner and supper, served at seven in the evening. Balls, concerts, political debate, or societal meetings, such as the rst of Benjamin Franklins Junto, escorted Philadelphia into the night. The tavern keepers, striving for prosperity, were just as varied as their businesses.
To better support his family of eight, Enoch Hobart operated a tavern as a second job. Wealthy Philadelphian George Emlen ran the popular Three Tuns Tavern on Chestnut Street, a supplement to his other ventures, such as his stable and bakery. The Crooked Billet, owned and operated by Quaker widow, Alice Guest, was a model tavern, strictly adhering to licensing laws, while the widow Cox of the Blue Anchor was charged with keeping a disorderly house. The widow Gray ran and lived at the Bulls Head Tavern, playing hostess downstairs and inhabitant upstairs.
John and Sarah Biddle, marriage and business partners, worked side by side managing the Indian King. Men, women, and couples owned taverns. The rich and poor applied for licenses. No one was immune from license denial or suspension. An easy entrance into the tavern trade meant that almost any Philadelphian could seek wealth, status, and happiness. Europeans, however, witnessed class, gender, and racial restrictions in the race of life. Usually, however, obtaining a license and running a tavern depended not on a colonists background, but on their determination and ability to hustle up business and make a penny where it could be made.
A determined, tactful, but relatively poor alehousekeeper could compete successfully for prots with a less able but relatively well-off tavernkeeper. This was just what William Penn had intended. Since the colonys founding, Penn had allowed tavern construction in Philadelphia, despite the contradiction with his Quakerism. Penn meant to ensure Philadelphias success in the race of life, PAGE 12 Historical Studies Journal 5 believing that a handful of taverns in the city would speed the work of development, not only by serving the needs of travelers and workmen but also by convincing potential emigrants that Philadelphia was habitable.
Philadelphias heterogeneous population also induced competition between different cultures and religions, which sponsored economic security and advancement that were the envy of laboring men elsewhere. An American Encyclopedie was unnecessary. The failure of the craft guilds to control the trades of the town gave newcomers and resident artisans alike an occupational freedom unknown in EuropeIt meant for the common man that there was always a chance for a fresh start.
In New York City, a observer lamented that the ill-boding aspect of things, cramping of trade, suppression of paper money, duties, courts of admiralty, appeals, internal taxes, etc. Consequently, the number of public houses dropped from about in to in The sanctioning of tavern operations, minimal ownership restrictions, and freedom from powerful guilds helped secure Philadelphias economic future. Such prosperity kept Philadelphians pouring into their taverns unique public spaces, enhancing the Enlightenment practices inside. W hat is Enlightenment? D are to know! If Immanuel Kants motto for the Enlightenment was Dare to know!
The noisy conversations, educational opportunities, and scientic ponderings that took place inside Philadelphias taverns were evidence of the spirit of rational inquiry. Curious Philadelphians had much to inquire about and found many people with whom to engage. The populations that converged on Philadelphias taverns were remarkably heterogeneous. Food, drink, singing, and toasting were commonplace in every tavern.
Philadelphians used these rituals to, draw into fellowship men and women from different cultural backgrounds and social stations. For instance, a Dr. Alexander Hamilton, stranger to the city, was surprised and uncomfortable with one of his dinner table neighbors. He recalled, A gentleman that sat next me proposed a number of questions concerning Maryland, understanding I had come from thence.
During his rst visit, he dined at the Crooked Billet on Water Street. He later recalled that as he ate, several sly questions were asked me, as it seemed to be suspected from my youth and appearance, that I might be some runaway. Taverns were also centers of education. Urbanites learned how to dye silk at the Three Tuns, and about screenmaking and wireworks at the Bulls Head.
Any Philadelphian planning a European expedition could visit the Queens Head where Michael Coleman Saugnessey, a Latin professor, taught foreign languages. While silk dying and dancing might have been eeting hobbies or interests, organized groups with explicit causes met regularly. The persistence with which Philadelphias clubs, societies, and associations used public houses for activities which demand a modicum of privacy is testimony to the value they placed on the peculiar space taverns enclosed.
Hamilton was introduced by Dr. Phineas Bond into the Governours Club, a society of gentlemen that met at a tavern every night and conversed on various subjects Our conversation was entertaining; the subject was the English poets and some of the foreign writers, particularly Cervantes, author of Don Quixot, whom we loaded with elogiums due to his character. Tavern spaces also provided a venue for the intellectual inclinations of the citys most well known inhabitants.
The American Philosophical Society, a child of Franklins Junto, held its rst meeting in a Philadelphia tavern and aimed for advances in geography, mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy, medicine, and the like, all for societys benet. Charleston was Philadelphias closest rival in scientic studies. By the mideighteenth century, intellectuals of the city dabbled in Natural History. Charlestons scientists attempted to track the path of Venus, and established the Charleston Museum for Natural Science.
For instance, Franklins guidebook, Experiments and Observations on Electricity was widely used in Charleston and instead of constructing an orrey from scratch, the southern city tried to acquire one from Rittenhouse. A Philadelphia tavern was so much more than one would expect. In addition to the basic and obvious services a public house provided, these institutions served as prime locations for the inquiring public. Tavern sponsorship of inquisitive conversations, education courses, organizational meetings, and scientific questioning gave Philadelphians a genuine chance to dare to know.
A C osmopolitan Evolution and R evolutionary F ermentBefore , the exteriors and interiors of taverns dictated a cosmopolitan company. Cosmopolitanism was forced upon, but also fostered by, tavern patrons who engaged their minds in what seemed a philosophes heterogeneous, egalitarian, Utopia. The rich spoke politics with the poor, the Mennonite toasted the Presbyterian, the Virginian shared a communal bowl with the local Philadelphian, and the artisan learned French with the merchant.
The shared consumption of food and drink was understood to take place on terms of temporary equality. The pre social cosmopolitanism of Philadelphias taverns was unique and striking. At dinner on Friday, June 8th, Hamilton found himself immersed in Philadelphias diverse cosmopolitanism. He recorded the experience in his journal: I dined att a tavern with a very mixed company of different nations and religions.
The whole company consisted of 25 planted round an oblong table in a great hall well stoked with ys. The company divided into committees in conversation; the prevailing topick was politicks and conjectures of a French war. Hamilton ate that day, but the heterogeneity exhibited was natural to all of Philadelphias public houses.
As Dr. Hamilton described, Philadelphians of all ancestries and religions, as well as genders, classes, and trades gathered together comfortably in public houses. Elbow to elbow around the communal tables were rich male citizens, aspiring patriciate, current judicature also their minions and personal secretaries , timeserving clerks, master craftsmen, artisans, laborers occasionally their wives and sweethearts , rogues, or vagabonds.
Other cities in Colonial America did not exhibit such striking social tolerance. While Charlestons population was impressively heterogeneous,45 its artisans, merchants, and planters usually convened in separate public houses to discuss business and politics. New Yorkers were divided by distinct neighborhoods, classes, ethnicities, and religions. Therefore, taverns were constructed in both the city slums and the elite neighborhoods, and were visited by patrons of appropriate classes.
In greater gaps now existed between the material life of the upper and lower strata even in public houses, and the character of tavern life in Boston became more complex as different clienteles distinguished themselves from each other. Most evident was the withdrawal of the genteel into select companies. He argues that in the s, Philadelphians of all ranks and backgrounds grew disillusioned with the mixed company previously typical of their citys taverns, and certain taverngoers displayed, increasing preference for sociability among men of similar background and opinion.
At the same time, sections of the taverngoing public demanded the more efcient provision of specic services. At rst glance, it seemed that Philadelphias cosmopolitanism would meet the same fate as her fellow colonial cities. To the contrary, the separation into distinct tavern companies actually allowed Philadelphias intellectual cosmopolitanism to emerge. Around , educated and inuential urbanites began shunning the mixed company of the usual taverns. The conscious separation of the upper, educated classes from the lower, uneducated classes, undermined social equality, but promoted cosmo politanism in the intellectual realm.
In ordinary taverns like the Three Tuns, common Philadelphians, talked there upon all subjectspoliticks, religion, and tradesome tolerably well, but most of them ignorantly. Desiring well-informed, unimpassioned debate, the emerging upper class removed themselves from ordinary public houses, selecting more reputable ones like the City Tavern or London Coffeehouse. In the spring of , John Adams wrote to Abigail from Philadelphia, relating a curious situation.
Davids by the Welch, and St. Andrews by the Scotch. Upon the Twenty third of April annually, they had a great Feast. Philadelphias comfort with heterogeneity, as well as its acceptance in busy taverns, increasingly appeared a thing of the past. Philadelphias social cosmos was indeed on the decline, while its intellectual cosmos began to rise. This remarkable shift in the complexion of Philadelphias cosmopolitanism occurred most noticeably in places like the City Tavern or London Coffeehouse. Like the taverns that came before them, these institutions welcomed a variety of men, all of different ancestries, religions, monetary backgrounds, and professions.
They gathered from all thirteen colonies. But the diversity present after was unique. Four key elementsthe gravity of worldly topics, the higher education of tavern patrons, the level of discourse, and the more focused use of tavern spaceenabled post taverns to develop an intellectual cosmopolitanism. And this critical evolution subsequently facilitated organized revolutiona development which was particularly evident within the City Tavern.
The delegates normally wound down with a newspaper in the bar and coffee room, the two front rooms on street level. For supper, delegates walked to the back of the building to one of several large club rooms. Two of these rooms could combine to extend fty feet long and could accom modate up to one hundred people, anticipating the aforementioned entertainments.
The City Taverns construction coincided with the onset of organized American resistance in Philadelphia. For instance, months before the First Continental Congress assembled, in May , Pennsylvanians met in the City Taverns long room to discuss an appropriate response to the Intolerable Acts. Following the daily congressional sessions, many delegates retired to the City Tavern, only one block to the east.
Each days topics accompanied the representatives to the Tavern, enlivening the space with boisterous voices, ripe with excitement over colonial unity, or dismay regarding a break with England. Those assembled were indeed an educated lot. Edward Shippen IV was educated in medicine. Many lawyers attended the First Continental, all of whom patronized the impressive tavern. Not only were the men in the City Tavern talking about the world, they were of the world.
It was a further walk to the City Tavern for the congressmen of the Second Congress, meeting in the Pennsylvania State House three and one-half blocks to the west. But the traitorous operations in play at the State House still found their way to the City Taverns supper tables. Some of the sixty-ve delegates dined there on July 1, , the evening before Congress declared the United States an independent nation. The intellectual musings bouncing about these buildings, including the City Tavern, progressed from local to national to international. Their intellectual cosmos had matured. This maturation, inspired by the Enlightenment, helped propel the Revolution onward.
The Declaration was signed and the Constitution composed in Philadelphia and their authors and contributors pondered nightly in the City Tavern. In order to realize an American, republican government, the existing political authority had to be extinguished. Accordingly, the members of Congressthe City Taverns clientele declared war, proclaimed independence, and fueled the army to violently rip the colonies from Britains iron grip. The clientele who frequented The City Tavern had also signed their names to a document, which declared, all men are created equal.
Equality, another core Enlightenment idea and central ethic of the American Revolution had been made possible in no small part by the presence of the City Tavern, that handsome building on Second Street. The City Tavern was also a place of action-taking. Historian Daniel Boorstin perceives this bent toward action as inherent of the American Enlightenment. Boorstin speculates, American thought has produced philosophes to restrain philosophy.
We have allowed the mind enough play to keep it alive and aware of itself and yet seldom have allowed it to doubt the intrinsic virtue of action. But might the reader acknowledge that improvised thoughts verbalized in a more casual atmosphere, like that provided in the City Tavern, could become concrete ideas presented in congressional meetings the next day? That ideas are prerequisite to action, and that ideas crowded its interior, make the City Tavern a contributor to the actionpacked minutes of the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention.
The congressional committeemen, acting by day toward a world-altering goal, were incapable of detachment come evening. How convenient that the City Tavern stood a short stroll east and offered meals for the fatigued, private rooms for thought collection, and the company of other delegates on which to test fresh ideas. The bull sessions of the evening comrades, increasingly of the cosmopolitan air, were also ripe with republicanism, rebellion, egalitarianism, and action.
The Enlightenment was lived in a most surprising venue. Benjamin Franklin was comfortable in Philadelphias taverns. But he was also comfortable in the salon of Parisian salonniere Madame Helvetius. It is not implausible, then, to suspect that Europes nest philosophes might have felt at ease around the oblong table of the Three Tuns or in the City Taverns back room. Why, then, do the taverns of colonial Philadelphia seem unacknowledged as institutions fostering Enlightenment discourse in the public sphere?
In the wake of recent historical reconsiderations of the Enlightenment movement, Philadelphias taverns gain signicance. A new historical suggestion encourages viewing the Enlightenment not just as an age of light but also as an age of conversation. And what else did Philadelphians do in taverns but converse? In his essay, Enlightenment as Conversation, historian Lawrence E. Klein suggests that the Enlightenment is dened now not by a set of doctrines but by a set of communicative practices, along with such concepts as conversation, politeness and sociability, which contemporaries used to comprehend their distinctive practices.
Klein lists the French salon, the English coffeehouse, and the Masonic lodge. What about taverns? Inside a French salon, philosophes were part of an egalitarian, governed, social structure in which the salonniere kept order. At the salon, networks of social and intellectual exchange were being developed to connect the capital with the four corners of France and the cosmopolitan republic, and the salon better represented and better supported the new Republic of Letters, whose aim was to serve humanity and whose project was Enlightenment.
Coffeehouses could be used to construct a new sort of order to replace the authorities of church and state. Freemasons often met in taverns, testament to the adequateness and appropriateness of a taverns unique space. Masonic fraternity powerfully expressed the ideas of the early Enlightenment, especially its order, simplicity and social harmony.
Johns Lodge in Philadelphia. Benjamin Franklin was a Freemason. And what of Philadelphias colonial taverns? Do they meet Habermas criteria? This paper has explored that question. Consider the rst criterion. Whether the pre social variant or the post intellectual alternative, whether a Philadelphia politician was being interrogated by an artisan or John Adams was considering the opinions of a South Carolinian, Philadelphias eighteenth century taverns were indeed cosmopolitan.
Status was always checked at the door. Habermas second criterion requires that truth and meaning must be discerned independent of external authority. Firstly, the collective workings of individual minds uncovered truth and meaning. Local politics, educational interests, scientic discovery, and Englands continued abuses, for example, were topics freely pondered within the tavern. Secondly, the conversation and debate of the post taverns were not only liberated from, but blatantly assaulted powerful authority.
The justication for the American Revolution was oft determined around the oblong table. According to his third criterion, Habermas concludes that members of the public sphere must be aware of their inclusion within the larger public and their role and speakers for that body. In Philadelphia, particularly in the City Tavern, public houses hosted a determined few who represented the grievances, purposes, hopes, and plans of a larger public.
The representatives voiced the core reasons for the American Revolution in Philadelphiaand in their home coloniesand penned it as well. What better mouthpiece for the American public than the Declaration of Independence? The Philadelphia tavern is an institution of the public sphere. All of Habermas criteria are satised. As institutions of the public sphere, Americas heterogeneous taverns boiled with colorful personalities. In the fall of , Philadelphias taverns had become particularly accustomed to John Adams various dispositions.
By now, Adams often criticized his colleagues, saying, There is no greater Mortication than to sit with half a dozen Witts, deliberating upon a Petition, Address, or Memorial. But rst, like it or not, an annoyed Adams dined with his fellow congressmen for a nal time.
Both the court of appeals Pet. At the same time, sections of the taverngoing public demanded the more efcient provision of specic services. In light of those practical problems and the unambiguous terms of the Lease Agreements, there is no basis for adopting the Ninth Circuit's novel conception of sovereignty. They perform miracles, he said. Early in , the strict rule regarding matching trousers was relaxed, and by the end of February , ETO jackets had been transferred to the sales stores for officers.
Appropriately, they gathered at the City Tavern. Many delegates would never see it again. Many, like Adams, would return in May When they did, the City Tavern, a prime representative of Philadelphias post public houses, would continue to provide an environment conducive to the completion of the Second Continentals ambitious agenda.
Hopefully, by then John Adams would be in better spirits, eager to use the taverns exceptional space to help fulll the Congress goals. He and his fellow delegates, along with the City Tavern, had yet to play their biggest roles. PAGE 22 When my grandmother died a few years ago in her farmhouse outside of Windsor, Colorado, my aunts and I sifted through her collection of family photographs. In the oldest album, we came across a photograph of my father when he was a small boy standing next to an Army guard while German POWs worked the farms sugar beets in the background.
It turned out that my grandparents saved dozens of photographs of the prisoners who worked on their farm. Most were group photos, but there were a few portraits of individual POWs who seemed to have made an impression on my grandparents.
As I gazed on these mysterious photographs, I recalled the old family stories told around the dinner table and wondered about the smiling German soldiers who worked on northeastern Colorado farms. Why was there only one guard for so many prisoners? Were the prisoners smiling because they could talk with my grandparents in German? Who made the decisions that allowed prisoners to work? Surely, some of the prisoners were Nazis; were they allowed to work on the farms, or were they conned to a camp?
Was there a process that segregated some prisoners away from others? These questions drove my interest in this aspect of World War II history. Streeb Family Photographs 1 July He plans to pursue a Masters degree in the future. They hired prisoners to ll a labor shortage caused by the mobilization of the American home front.
As the war industries geared up for the war, they pulled manual laborers away from the small towns and farms. One emerging solution to this labor shortage was to allow local farmers to hire POW work crews as replacement stoop laborers. However, before any prisoners would be allowed to work and associate with American civil ians the Army had to decide which prisoners could work and which ones stayed in the prison compound.
The Army wrestled with the problem of prisoner segregation throughout the war. Racial segregation was not a new practice for the s Army.
If someones skin was black or if they had Japanese ancestry, the Army could racially place them in precise categories. When dealing with the German prisoners, the Army could not make such skin-deep racial determinations. On the surface, keeping captured German soldiers away from American civilians was simply a matter of determining ones national citizenship. However, the Army needed to segregate Germans from Germans.
Another method was required. Instead of relying on racial differences, the Army placed a prisoners political beliefs on an ideological continuum from Nazism to Communism. The government then used this determination as a basis for approving individual prisoners for increased contact with American civilians or relocation to specically designated POW camps. The following analysis explores the Armys political segregation of POWs; whether the Army developed a universal denition of Nazism, and what processes the Army used when prisoners were categorized and separated from their companions.
My focus is to specically determine if the Army conducted any political screenings prior to transferring a POW from one camp to another. My analysis indicates that although an individual prisoners transfer was indeed based on his political ideology, the government failed to implement a systematic screening process that segregated POWs into dened groups. In short, I discovered the Armys policies changed as it reacted to new information about its prisoners. American leaders quickly needed to establish a comprehensive POW program that addressed the connement of potentially hostile soldiers and met the recently signed and internationally recognized agreements of the Geneva Conventions.
The camp system that emerged addressed the prisoners health and safety, utilized prisoners as replacement agricultural workers, and during the latter years of the war taught selected prisoners about American democracy.
Download Citation on ResearchGate | DA PAM Prisoner of war utilization by the United States Army | This study is primarily a treatment of. HISTORY OF PRISONER OF WAR UTILIZATION UNITED STATES ARMY _ GEORGE G. D. C, £4 June DA Pamphlet is published for the information and use of all concerned. .. Henry, "History of Military Mobilization in the United States Army" (Special Studies Series, OCMH),
During times of war, a general ofcer was usually appointed to command the PMGO, and his large staff numbered in the hundreds. Since its conception, the PMGOs many duties included the custody of enemy prisoners and the criminal investigation of American soldiers. During the twentieth century, the PMGO conducted security investigations of personnel working on the Manhattan Project, and interned Japanese-Americans. In response to the established national priorities of prisoner security keeping POWs conned and ensuring their health , camp harmony, POW labor, and prisoner reeducation, the PMGO advocated for the identication and relocation of certain prisoners.
Unable to rely on racial determinations the Army developed non-racial methods of determining a prisoners support for or against Nazism. To this end, the PMGO wrote policy letters and expository memoranda to subordinate commands about how to identify a Nazi or to support one or more national policies. With the authority to make segregation decisions locally, individual camp commanders determined which national priority took precedence in their camps, and accordingly segregated the prisoners under their control.
Although commanders were able to determine which prisoners remained in their camp, they still had to answer to the PMGO and maintain the national priorities of prisoner security and camp harmony. Paramount to the national priorities the government had to implement the Geneva Conventions. Geneva dictated that POWs retained their military rank and chain of command while imprisoned, and remained citizens of their home country.
The conventions required the capturing country to provide for the humane treatment of POWs. Furthermore, Geneva prohibited the use of prisoner labor near the front lines, or in war related industries, and formally recognized the long-standing military custom that commissioned and non-commissioned ofcers were free from coerced labor. However, American leaders also realized that enlisted POWs, and willing ofcers, could augment the countrys agricultural labor shortage.
The POW camps in Colorado highlight examples of how the Army operated these institutions and provide a point of departure to compare POW camps in other states. Dispersed throughout Colorado as many as twenty-seven smaller branch camps augmented the three main camps. These branch camps functioned as forward operating facilities because of their location near agricultural enterprises. Some of the branch camps operated year round while others supported seasonal labor needs, such as ice cutting or timber harvesting.
Providing POW labor was a secondary motive. Unlike the main camps, where the Army constructed the stockade, the communities that beneted from POW labor often provided the branch camps facilities. Access Tokens If you have an access token for this content, you can redeem this via the link below: Redeem token. Forgot your password? War and welfare British POW families, — Related Content.
Front matter. Author: Nicholas Atkin. List of figures and maps. Terms and Conditions Privacy notice Contact Us. So it is worth it. Staying here is not. I just hope wherever she is, she knows that she was loved. And she was not alone. None of us ever were. Not even me. I wrote this for her. I spent a long time translating it. I wanted it to be beautiful. I hope she can read it. We are like Circles. We keep going. We cross paths and loop into each other.
Love exists in these loops. Even the ones we do not see. For this, we are not alone. We never end. This short story was inspired by the presence of the golden record on the Voyager spacecraft that are still traveling through space, alone, billions of miles away as I write this, as placed there in the s by Carl Sagan and other scientific minds of the time. Ever since I first learned what the golden record was, its existence and influence have constantly been on my mind.
Including the golden record on the Voyager spacecraft serves as so much more than a time capsule or a pipe dream of finding extraterrestrial life; for me, it is the perfect example of art and science. That record contained everything that humanity had come to know and create by that time concerning life on Earth.
Images of plants, animals, people, food, buildings, mathematical formulas, physics models, our location in the galaxy, and so much more were all held within that simple disc to show what being a human being on Earth is like. Every bit of it is science, every bit of it is art, and every bit of it is who we are. My greatest inspiration when working on this short story was the work of Ray Bradbury, in particular The Martian Chronicles. I fell in love with that novel many years ago because even though they were about such original fantasy concepts, I could feel the weight of humanity behind each story so heavily.
The works of NASA all those years ago and the creative work of Bradbury both came together in creating this piece in an attempt to fuse science and art once more. I wanted to hold a more realistic tone of cosmic loneliness above all other elements in the story. I believe the medium of written words really helps readers feel just as the protagonist of my story does when they read the words in the journal for the first time: an entire universe held on a record and an entire life held on a few pages.
I really wanted that feeling to sink in. I also made sure to use a first-person, non-gender-specific point of view to allow readers to place themselves completely in the mindset of the protagonist. As a central component of life, food is a subject intimately connected with our day-to-day experience and effects both our physical and psychological well-. It interfaces with diverse aspects of our society encompassing diet and health as well as politics and media. Consequently, food serves not only as a medium for cultural expression but also as a source of change.
Even the deceptively modest salad proves noteworthy on inspection; its transformations during and after WWII revealing the malleability and resilience of culture in the United States. To examine the complex nature of. Culinary literature also advertised salads as a medium through which women could showcase their culinary expertise. In other words, to craft an appealing salad, the cook had to possess impeccable, womanly finesse.
Its inherent characteristics, such as color and taste, were paired with feminine attributes such as purity, delicacy, and sweetness. Consequently, salad gradually became enmeshed with the reflection, celebration, and attainment of femininity in advertising and culinary literature.
Under those assumptions, the variety and color that vegetables and fruits naturally offered made them ideal candidates for the feminine palate, for they could be artistically arranged and appreciated. Consequently, foods reflecting feminine qualities. As a lighter fare, salad became a favored meal replacement in health and beauty articles offering dieting tips, and as a thinner look in women gained ground during the twentieth century, the pressure to be slim intensified.
As the field of home economics grew alongside efforts to make cooking a science during the late nineteenth century, so did the emphasis on crafting nutritionally balanced meals. Identifying these various influences helps explain why salad developed gendered connotations in U. Salad Goes to War Salad retained feminine associations in advertising well into the postwar era. Those changes indicated that the war gave salad a new significance and prompted its entry into masculine cuisine in the postwar decade. Claims that salads catered to unpalatable feminine tastes and that women intentionally rendered salads inedible by emphasizing the feminine sweet tooth, favoring display over taste, or conspiring to make them as unpleasantly healthful as possible characterized earlyth-century culinary literature, which mostly men wrote.
Consuming salad was perceived as a feminine habit and consequently an affront to the male ego. As the government imposed rationing measures and meals took a more vegetarian turn, salads entered a new context and gained prestige.
Wartime resource restrictions called for economy, conservation, ingenuity, and patriotism on the home front. Starting in , victory gardens received government endorsement, primarily because they reserved more canned produce for soldiers, alleviated the burden on commercial farmers, and stretched the ration supply. Moreover, the fusion of vegetables and fruits with wartime propaganda and patriotism expanded beyond victory gardens when the government launched dietary reform campaigns.
Furthermore, a new enthusiasm for salad as a main-course dish emerged. After the war, food supply stabilized along with an overall willingness to resume the traditional U. In response, salad had to begin catering to masculine tastes at the dinner table to retain its new status. Although men in culinary literature increasingly began to endorse salads, support proved conditional. Many wanted to reform the salad by incorporating heartier ingredients, simplifying its display, and replacing sweet tastes with pungent ones.
Such advice typified recipes for main-course salads published in the postwar decade. As a result, although salad gained greater culinary recognition in the s, pressure to eliminate its feminine associations and conform to masculine preferences increased. Certainly, some of those recommendations were meant to add caloric substance and make the salad a more filling meal, but the relentless appeal to masculine preferences suggests an unwillingness to serve a feminized food at the dinner table.
That attempt to masculinize the salad occurred, at least in part, because wartime socioeconomic and political forces had momentarily weakened prejudice toward its feminine connotations. On the one hand, U. This study, therefore, not only offers focused insight into the relationship between gender and U. The two are connected and contribute to both change and consistency. Understanding culture in those terms reminds us that even though our past is intertwined with our present, culture evolves as we participate in it, and the outcome is rarely fixed. Sara Alpern for serving as my adviser throughout this project.
Her guidance and expert advice helped me expand the scope of my topic, and I am grateful for her support throughout the research process. Shapiro, Laura. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 84, 98—, Green, Olive. One Thousand Salads. McFeely, Mary Drake. Can She Bake a Cherry Pie?
Bailey, Robeson, and Fletcher Pratt. A Man and His Meals. Alice L. Cooking in America, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Bentley, Amy. Eating for Victory: Food Rationing and the. Illinois Press, 58—59, —, Yang, Mei-ling. Christian Science Monitor. About million now people suffer from undernourishment, and that number will only increase as the population grows. Climate change, desertification, urban development, and other environmental issues are slowly decreasing the amount of land suitable for farming. Agricultural output is beginning to reach a ceiling, and as that dilemma continues to come to a head, the issue reaches far beyond an empty stomach.
Agricultural practices use massive amounts of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. In one year, Even if we could simply increase agricultural production to meet demands, the environmental fallout would be catastrophic. That situation puts us in a paradox; synthetic inputs are largely responsible just for maintaining current agricultural yields, but they are contributing to a feedback loop that is making farming much harder. To resolve that paradox, agricultural research is trying to find alternatives to pesticide and fertilizer use while maintaining high levels of production.
Naturally, genetically modified organisms and selective breeding have received the most attention,. However, using microorganisms to bolster or replace current pesticide and fertilizer use is a less explored avenue that offers ways to maintain crop health while minimizing environmental damage. This project aims to explore that new technology by establishing a better understanding of the signaling response seen in affected plants on the basis of genetic expression.
Therefore, we devised a way to observe which LOX genes were activated, and to what degree, in response to colonization by the beneficial bacterium P. For example, many species of plants rely heavily on relationships with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, the extent of those relationships is only recently being understood. Researchers have made a lot of headway into understanding how many of those microbes can help produce a larger crop.
The bacterium used for this experiment, Pseudomonas chlororaphis, can significantly increase both root structure and aboveground plant growth of corn plants in comparison with nontreated corn seedlings. However, the real reason we wanted to learn more about the genetic response in corn is because that microbial relationship is one of the keys to induced systemic resistance ISR.
Perhaps understanding how that occurs in the corn plant could help develop solutions to many of the aforementioned problems that agriculture faces. Thirty genetically uniform, nonmutant corn seeds were individually planted in sterile soil conditions. The soil was steam-sanitized twice to ensure an environment in which the only active microbial activity that affected the plants would be that of P.
During the growth period, the maize was grown indoors in controlled conditions and watered with sterile, distilled water. Once the seedlings had reached appropriate levels of maturity, approximately 2 weeks, an overnight culture of P. After the bacterial application, three plants were harvested at each time point: 8, 24, and 48 hours. Three plants were not inoculated and were harvested immediately to serve as a neutral control. After harvest, plants were immediately flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve genetic material. Each sample was then separated into leaf and root portions, ground into a powder, and the RNA extracted for genetic analysis.
After confirming the quality and concentration of the genetic material, we ran a series of quantitative polymerase chain reactions to determine the amount of LOX gene expression—the extent to which the gene was activated. The expression of every LOX that we had the means to test was analyzed in both the leaf and root samples.
To understand that interaction, we looked toward oxylipins. Oxylipins are signaling molecules produced by lipoxygenase LOX genes in the plant, a near equivalent to animal hormones. Although understood well in animals, little is known about them in plants. The collected data were analyzed. Much of the LOX gene expression showed negligible or no change, but we saw a few notable differences. With genetic expression, a change of more than half of the control amount in either direction is significant.
In the leaf tissue, the most drastic observance was LOX-5, which showed an increase in expression of 4. The induction was seen only at that time point; at the 8- and hour mark, LOX-5 showed. Conversely, the root samples showed nearly complete suppression of LOX-5 during the experiment, potentially implying some sort of root-to-leaf signaling.
LOX-6 also showed a notable increase in expression in leaf tissue, with 1. In other words, at the hour mark, we detected no activity. LOX showed a fairly consistent fourfold induction throughout the experiment, and LOX did so at twofold induction over control levels. The more intriguing results were those of LOX, which is important in priming induced systemic resistance. Because it was seen induced so clearly in the roots, LOX is promising for future endeavors.
LOX12 is the only LOX gene in the maize genome that shows very little sequence change over about 10, years of maize domestication. It is intriguing to think that one potential reason that gene was selected was because of its role in plant interactions with beneficial microbes in roots. Figures 1 and 2 show the observations discussed and other collected data that were statistically significant.
The graphs all begin at the time zero and at the levels seen in the control plants; any changes in the lines are deviations from the control levels. Conclusion The clear increase in expression for LOX is very promising. Combined with results from previous experiments that show induction from other ISRExplorations - Volume 9 That information can be used to discover how to reliably increase the effect and implement it for practical use. Corn is responsible for a considerable portion of food production and requires a significant proportion of agriculture input resources.
Doing so could not only provide the boost in productivity that agriculture is going to need but could also serve to alleviate the heavy use of fertilizer and pesticides that can have dramatic environmental impacts. Because P. A deeper understanding of the relationships between crops and beneficial microbes can be the breakthrough that leads to another Green Revolution.
Most research on microbes focuses on simply improving growth or nutrient uptake, but studying crop—microbe relationships is essential to provide the same benefits as pesticides and herbicides. Microbes may be used less than fertilizers, but the impact they have both for the environment and for society is significant. Experiments such as this one are building blocks for a solid foundation to move forward and address possible solutions to those issues, moving the world into an era of more sustainable agriculture.
Acknowledgments I thank the Bioenvironmental Sciences Undergraduate Research Program for the opportunity to take on this project. Kolomiets and Dr. Pierson for allowing me to operate in their labs, and Dr. Borrego, Zack Gorman, and Cameron Finley for valuable assistance. Zero Hunger. Department of Agriculture. Neal, Andrew, and Jurriaan Ton. Pathogen Infection, and Hormonal Treatments. Washington is passionate about agriculture and using research to help solve world hunger. After graduation, Washington plans to obtain a PhD in plant biology to pursue a career in research and development in the field of agriculture.
Introduction With the rise of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease, modern medicine has begun to rely heavily on using implantable devices to control symptoms. No area is more difficult than the bloodstream, where the clotting response can be easily triggered. As soon as the device is implanted, proteins in the blood rapidly deposit onto its surface and over time activate nearby platelets, which then initiate clotting. For patients who suffer from kidney failure, dialysis catheters are implanted for the long term to make filtering blood regularly easier, but are subject to the clotting response that can clog the tubing or form embolisms, small clots that travel through the bloodstream and can cause a heart attack or stroke.
Silicone is a popular material for catheters because of its flexibility, but it is highly prone to protein adsorption, wherein proteins deposit onto the surface and then induce clotting. One material in particular can prevent proteins from adsorbing depositing onto the surface. Poly ethylene oxide PEO is a polymer, a long-chain molecule made of many repeating units, that has been shown to resist protein adsorption when placed on rigid surfaces such as gold or silicon. Over time, the PEO tends to migrate to the middle of the silicone rather than stay on the surface.
Methods The project consisted of several phases: first, the synthesis, or chemical formation, of the additives. Doing so ensures that our additive stays inside the catheter material instead of leaching out into the blood. We then took that chain and allowed its other end to react with PEO, forming our final additive.
With PEO, however, water spreads out to maximize contact with the hydrophilic surface, making the contact angle very low. If our material has PEO at the surface, water should react by spreading out rather than beading up. Next, we showed PEO functionality by using a protein test, in which the modified materials were exposed to solutions containing fibrinogen, a blood protein with a critical role in clot formation, for 3 hours. During that time, the additive has the opportunity to prevent the fibrinogen from adsorbing to the surface.
The fibrinogen used had been made fluorescent, so the amount of protein on the surface could be determined by the intensity of the light. Reduced light on the material would indicate a similar reduction in protein. Our first objective was to make sure that our additive worked in bringing PEO, the waterloving polymer, to the surface when mixed into silicone. Our contact angle results showed an interesting pattern for the modified materials Figure 3.
Contact angle was measured for five minutes on each sample. At first, all samples have a very concentration, with the lowest reached by the 8. For those, enough PEO comes to than a minute the water droplet rapidly flattens out the surface to cause a decrease in contact angle. Those effects show that for the 0. The inclusion of PEO is insignificant for the 0.
With higher concentrations, however, we 1 see that our additive is able to reduce fibrinogen adsorption, with even the 1. This finding indicates that our additive will likely also prevent 0. Fluorescence intensity of modified silicones exposed to labeled 6 bloodstream. Horbett, Thomas A. This material has shown promise in preventing fibrinogen adsorption, but the more important test is to see how it fares in whole blood.
If the material prevents clotting, it may be used to improve the safety and life span of all bloodcontacting devices, improving the lives of millions of people around the world. New York: Elsevier Academic Press. Sefton, Michael V. Hoffman, Frederick J.
Schoen, and Jack E. Lemons, — Icenogle, Timothy B. Smith, Marilyn Cleavinger, et al. Murthy, Ranjani, Casey D. Cox, Mariah S. Hahn, and Melissa A. Rufin, M. Barry, P. Adair, et al. Barry hopes to become a professor so she can share her passion for research with students. Barry is currently pursuing a PhD in materials science and engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Introduction In , a local coalition reclaimed the Brenham Camptown Cemetery, a predominantly African American burial site that had become neglected and overgrown since the late s. Since , locals have tried to restore the cemetery and preserve its valuable history. The group of two dozen volunteer undergraduate students collected more than location points by using traditional surveying techniques. Although 81 gravestones have been identified in the cemetery, the community restoration team estimates that individuals were buried there.
To identify potential sites of unmarked graves, a noninvasive geophysical survey was conducted to map anomalies below the ground by using a method known. We have given the resulting visual representation and analysis to the Brenham community to be used for historic preservation purposes. Background The Brenham area of Central Texas has unique historical and cultural characteristics that allowed accelerated developments in education, racial acceptance, and industry during the Reconstruction Era.
Those conditions brought slaves, Europeans, and American settlers into Explorations - Volume 9 The historic African American Camptown Cemetery holds some of the most influential people of color who resided in Brenham before the development of new African American cemeteries at the turn of the century. The multiracial population and pervasive German culture helped normalize education for all races.
The rare establishment of a normal school, an African American public education institution, created an environment in which blacks could learn trades such as brickmaking, food handling, blacksmithing, and bridge building. The emphasis on education led Brenham to establish the first Texas public school system in Named after a settlement of federal troops in the area in the wake of emancipation in , Camptown Cemetery was active until the s.
Census data indicate that people are buried there, the first being Waltman Bynum in personal communication. As a result of inconsistent recordkeeping, unmarked graves probably exist. Today, only 81 headstones remain in the cemetery. Rose Missionary Church to lead restoration efforts. Over the last decade, members of the congregation and local historians have worked to clear the overgrown cemetery and conduct extensive ancestral research to preserve the history buried there.
Our research helps in obtaining recognition of the area as a historic district while also uncovering the stories of individual African American figures during Reconstruction. That survey consisted of acquiring magnetic data 51 Explorations - Volume 9. Signs of neglect at Camptown Cemetery were evident by knocked-over and misplaced grave markers.
Thus, we conducted further geophysical tests by using a different technique to determine whether areas of subsidence could indicate potential unmarked graves. Methods To map the features in the cemetery, we used a total station, a traditional surveying technique that consists of a laser theodolite mounted on a tripod. Once the theodolite is calibrated so that it is level over a determined location and the prism is positioned at the feature to be surveyed, the theodolite transmits a laser beam that the prism then reflects, calculating the distance and angle between the reflector and a reference point.
The determined locations are then arranged on a local coordinate grid to centimeter-scale accuracy. Because many obstacles in the cemetery prevented consistent lines of sight, we created a horizontal control polygon—an octagon with strategically selected ground points so that direct lines of sight existed between adjacent polygon vertices. Each cemetery feature needed a direct line of sight to at least one of those polygon vertices so that nothing blocks the laser while collecting data. We moved the transmitter.
To enhance accuracy, we repeated the polygonal traverse and took the mean of the two results. Once we established the control polygon, we set up the theodolite at an arbitrary vertex and determined the local coordinates for each tree, stump, gravestone, fence, and family plot boundary in the cemetery. We imported those points into the geographic information system software, ArcMap That approach allows irregular gravestones and disturbed plot boundaries to be realistically represented on the map.
To identify potential sites of unmarked graves, we identified a m path through a series of seemingly grave-sized depressions. We hypothesized that this series of depressions could indicate a row of unmarked graves, marked by soil subsidence. We analyzed that m transect with GPR. We conducted the subsurface survey by emitting MHz radar pulses into the ground every 10 cm. We then processed. Cemetery features, including grave markers, family plot boundaries, rose bushes donated by the Antique Rose Emporium, trees, stumps, and other features were mapped using traditional surveying techniques to show their relative locations within the property.
The processed image in Figure 3 shows soil disturbances, which could indicate unmarked graves. Results Figure 2 shows the aboveground map of the cemetery features: trees and stumps, 47 grave markers, several family plot boundaries, and 33 rose bushes planted as part of the restoration process. Because of inaccessible areas of overgrowth, additional grave markers and plot boundaries are probably located along the periphery of the surveyed area.
The map offers a comprehensive view of the artifacts preserved in the cemetery and will visually represent its history. The GPR cross-section image Figure 3 shows bright patches indicating a large disturbed zone. Those anomalies appear at depths of 2. That location lies between ground depressions but does not match precisely with one, so whether those signatures indicate potential unmarked graves is unclear. Figure 3 also shows two large concave hyperbola at a depth of roughly 1. Conclusion Unmarked graves in Camptown Cemetery are hard to find with GPR because of the presence of clay-rich soils and a humid subtropical environment that accelerates the decay of human remains.
Because the potential burials along the surveyed transect may not have involved a casket, few remains probably exist for the GPR to detect. The approach outlined here could be performed at other important historic cemeteries across the country. Different climate conditions and sandy soils would probably yield more definitive GPR indications of unmarked graves. The human analysis of this region helps uncover the significance of education, racial acceptance, and industry in Brenham during Reconstruction. Our research helps memorialize people buried in this cemetery and the contributions of African Americans to local history.
We hope that our work will help the restoration team in gaining legal ownership of the land so that their progress can continue. Future Work The map will continue to be used with additional geophysical work that is planned to further explore potential sites of unmarked graves. Ground-penetrating radar was used to create a profile image of subsurface anomalies along the m transect in the Camptown Cemetery that showed an evident series of depressions.
We thank the team that worked tirelessly for a decade to restore the Camptown Cemetery—in particular, Rev. Eddie E. We also thank geophysics faculty member, Dr. Mark Everett, for guidance throughout the project and geophysics graduate student, Potpreecha Pondtha,. Harrison, Eddie. September 4. Christian, Carole E. Meehan, Tate G. Camptown Cemetery, Brenham,.
Colored Cemetery, Brenham, TX. March Opportunities are open to all undergraduate students. Be part of a leadership and learning community through Explorations as a board member, an author, or an artist. Faculty and staff can also register to review submissions for Explorations. The review process begins each spring semester. In order to continue to showcase the best and most vibrant student work, Explorations seeks outside support to sustain our publication.
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Explorations is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to fostering undergraduate research and scholarly work in all fields. The journal wel See More. Spiraling Through Color 23 A computer program that lets users create new color harmonies. The Joint Motion Simulator part of the animal testing, then time, money, and patient stress can be saved. Integrating the JMS into their curriculum will enable surgeons to get more useful performance feedback through the Explorations - Volume 9 2 measurement and testing tools available, thus better equipping surgeons to operate on live animals.
Therefore, a study comparing surgical procedures for canines was performed, using the simulator to test 3 Explorations - Volume 9 the system under experimental conditions. A crisp morning sunshine, Like all other bluebirds, But your beak did not warble, The dew covers all. With anthem display. To complete our duet. Now as I remember But you left without word. So, as I lay feathers, Our days of yore, No time left to spend My mourning drags on. And so made us an end.
Without your antiphon. In general, however, the postal system served to ease Explorations - Volume 9 12 the United States. Washington, DC: Department of the Army. Krammer, Arnold P. Nazi Prisoners of War in America, New York: Scarborough House. Stokesbury, James L. Weinberg, Gerhard L. College hpi at l;d fasjd fa ; s l k jdlfkaj ; irwa q u f k u j dhfkwlejae b al as Stalag: German Prisoners of War f;a j s d Waters, Michael R.