Under the One Company corporate initiative in , the Nashville-based publisher removed more than 20 imprints from its branding structure. However, we have also realized the importance of having distinct imprint identities for our large and growing nonfiction groups. Under the leadership of Matt Baugher, senior vice president. More than 3, churches and hundreds of thousands of people have participated in campaign since it first launched in , company officials said. Releasing in October, it includes new slow-cooker recipes. In May, Good Books brings to market another cookbook, which has stove-top and oven recipes rather than slow-cooker selections for diabetics.
Fix-It and Enjoy-It! American Diabetes Association. Kaufman and L. Kit includes videos, games, object lessons and Bible stories. Customers love these fast-paced, easy-to-follow sessions that only require one leader. Based on the book of Acts. Includes Live Dead Journal. Kids investigate with Mr. Trench and the Commissioner to discover 16 fundamental truths. Includes Bible Doctrines by P.
Kids team up with the Commissioner and her best agent, Super Agent Man, to see what living for God looks like. Includes The Beatitudes by George O. Kids join Faith Case agent Regina and Mr. The buyout was a year in the making. While some changes are readily apparent to Christian retailers, others were internal and have improved efficiency, Bailey said. Financially, he was pleased to report. In addition, Send The Light established an exclusive partnership with Blue Ridge Church Furniture and expanded its proprietary product line, Lumen, featuring jewelry, plush toys, wristbands, e-reader covers, branded Bibles and Bible organizers.
Recent changes at the company include the implementation of Simply 42, a discount program for retailers; a new Loyalty Program; and the Church Supply Source program. Plans also are under way to launch Premier Partners in While we are unveiling a new name, our vision and mission remains unchanged—to impact the culture and resource the church.
In this new series he follows the same dynamic format to share his teaching on covenant. JEnny swindall shares her unique testimony and personal understanding of the harmful effects of depression and anxiety. Her integration of emotional, spiritual, and conventional medical recommendations provides a lifeline to those drowning in the lies that depression whispers into the mind and soul.
Pastor karEn JEnsEn knows firsthand what it is like to experience personal tragedy. Publishers release books on the newly named pontiff and emphasize titles on namesake Francis of Assisi Publishers, retailers and authors are responding to the March 13 election of Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio to the papacy, taking the name Francis I.
With his new name, the pope—a Jesuit from Buenos Aires, Argentina—seems to signal a desire to care for the poor and for rebuilding the church, commentators say. Chosen by the cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church, year-old Francis is the first Latin American pope and the only pope in history from the Jesuit order.
Ignatius Press announced it will release its first book on the pope April A man of Old World heritage who is part of the New World. His model is the obedience of Ignatius and the poverty of Francis. How blessed we Catholics are in our popes! God is a God of surprises!
The Spanish version of the book will ship to stores April 10 and the English on April Known for his book Saints Behaving Badly Doubleday , Craughwell gives a first look at the life and journey of the first pope from the New World. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing is set to p o p e , p a g e Featuring monthly and weekly calendars, a year-at-a-glance section, and much more! Orders must be received by July 1, to ensure delivery.
The first two offerings—from authors Melody Carlson and Barbara Cameron—use storytelling as an entry point into Bible study. During the performing rights orgalection and music licensing. The Christian Publisher of the Year award went to Sony. C a p i t o l , from 6 the Capitol Studios.
It also recently distributed another Billboard No. Jossey-Bass also won in three categories. Several publishers won two categories. Sister company Thomas Nelson won two categories. Publishers and organizations submitted nearly entries, which the editorial staff pared to resources and placed into 16 categories.
First title by Mark Driscoll reflects name change and will release this fall Tyndale House Publishers and Mars Hill Church have forged a partnership to create a new imprint. Since Re:Lit launched in , the brand has released nearly 30 titles, selling more than , copies. Backlist titles will remain with the original publishers. I pray that our work together results in many useful tools that help Christians everywhere grow in relationship with Jesus, live for Him and lead others to Him.
In the book, Driscoll explains how the death of cultural Christianity in the U. Materials will include books, study guides and curriculum. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop, who worked with noted author Francis Schaeffer on a pro-life book and video series, died Feb. Koop, who had been ill for several months and suffered kidney failure, was Known for his trademark bow ties, suspenders and gray beard, Koop served as surgeon general for eight years from , taking sometimes controversial stands on abortion, AIDS, fatty foods, drugs and cigarettes—calling for warning labels on tobacco packaging.
Crossway, with Schaeffer. Koop, and it was a privilege to be his publisher for Whatever Happened to the Human Race? Koop is survived by his wife, Cora, three children and eight grandchildren. His first wife of 69 years, Elizabeth, died in Ralph P.
Martin, Bible scholar and author of numerous studies and commentaries on the New Testament, died Feb. He was Martin was professor of New Testament at Fuller Theological Seminary and associate professor in biblical studies at the University of Sheffield. Anyone can apply these time-honored principles in their life to create wealth, live in health, build faith, raise successful children, pass on generational blessings, and more!
Capitalizing on the plus Spanish media representatives who usually attend Expolit, the Hispanic Media Summit will be held May 1, a day before the event starts. The keynote speaker for the summit will be veteran TV and film producer Phil Cooke. In an effort to boost attendance from the general public, discounts and product giveaways will be offered to all attendees. Grupo Nelson recently launched—and sold out—of the Spanish version of the award-winning Glo Bible, a first for the Thomas Nelson Spanish imprint.
In addition to five Bible translations and an atlas, Glo features more than 7, encyclopedia articles, 2, highresolution photos, approximately virtual tours of ancient biblical sites and maps of the Holy Land. Grupo Nelson realized that the Spanish Bible market also had shown a digital shift and partnering with Immersion Digital ensured that we would be the first to meet the consumer demand. The kingdom of God is within you. The only thing you need to do is to demonstrate it here and now!
Apostle Maldonado will encourage you with these powerful testimonies, and more! Immediately, he started to move, walk, and even run without any problem. The kingdom of God is His will and dominion exercised on earth as it is in heaven. It expands its influence in the world through the supernatural work of the Holy Spirit as He works through our humanity.
Jesus manifested the power of the kingdom with miracles, signs, healing, and deliverance. Each time He announced the good news of the kingdom, sin, sickness, demons, and death were defeated. Penelope Quluba had been diagnosed with colon cancer three years earlier, and her doctors had told her that the cancer was aggressive and could not be surgically removed. But, Penelope regularly spoke healing over her body, declaring the Word of God and telling her body that it was the temple of the Holy Spirit and had not been created with cancer.
Two weeks later, her doctors could find no trace of the disease in her! Penelope is now cancer-free and full of vitality. Seven-year-old Oliver Inchausti of Argentina had been deaf in his right ear since birth because his ear was deformed and barely had an orifice. This young boy had spent years yearning for a miracle, so he was expecting something to happen.
As soon as the next word was spoken, Oliver repeated it clearly and without hesitation. He heard perfectly! When his ear was examined later by a doctor, he saw that the small orifice had miraculously increased in size. We look forward to continuing to spread the good news of the gospel in the U. He is a man concerned with justice issues and has identified with the ordinary folk. His writings include Francis of Assisi Image and St. His interest in Francis of Assisi began before he joined. Mike Dellosso. When a nineyear-old girl with a special gift mysteriously appears in the lives of Jim and Amy Spencer, they must find a way to overcome the anger and hurt of the past to save their.
And, that is why I find the new pope inspiring. He is making all the right moves so far, following in the path of humility and respect that Francis of Assisi showed through his life. And boy, oh boy, could the Catholic church use that sort of leadership right about now! Eerdmans Publishing Co. With the rise of the new pope, the publisher added two additional Eerdmans titles to the list: Francis of Assisi: Performing the Gospel of Life by Lawrence S.
Cunningham and An Outline of New Testament Spirituality by Cardinal Prosper Grech, who gave the meditation before the official opening of the conclave. Francis of Assisi. By choosing to be named after St. We had a customer looking for a statue within an hour of his appearance on the balcony. Live events produced by Abingdon Women are bringing Bible teachers to key markets. Hundreds attended the Houston and Plano, Texas, events in , and this spring and fall, events are slated for cities in Georgia, Texas, Indiana and Tennessee. Boultinghouse, who has been with the company since its beginnings in West Monroe, knew the Robertson family well.
Phil Robertson had been her Sunday school teacher for 25 years. But now there have been times we struggle to keep it in stock. Co-author Mark Schlabach helped the Robertsons write the books. Some are doing in-store displays, some are planning Duck Commander events. New Day offers 42 different SKUs with more to come, including mugs, key chains and duck calls. West, North or South.
The excitement of independent stores as well as chains and marketing groups such as LifeWay and Parable is palpable. Parable stores stocked The Duck Commander Family when it released, averaging 15 units sold per store in November and December, which is about 1, units in two months. The key is going to be the ancillary products, the gift products around the books.
Before the show, the most popular products were duck calls and DVDs, sold primarily through hunting stores. Maricle is quick to say Parable Group is in for the long haul. When believers Grappling with tough isknow this deeply, Martin sues one night concernsays, it affects their every ing the bride of Christ, decision, and they become Pastor Jonathan Martin more like Jesus. It refers to the unfinished mission Jesus gave His disciples: to preach the gospel to the whole world.
With award-winning author Lisa Wysocky, Chapman recounts how she emerged from a nightmare of molestation, violence and teen pregnancy to a rewarding, positive life. Chapman seeks to inspire others to break the cycle of abuse and rise from extreme adversity. The author uses the format of wisdom literature—blending fiction, nonfiction and historical teaching—with a semi-autobiographical narrative.
Zondervan releases Chasing Francis on May 7. He aims to help readers increase in power and effectiveness in their walk with God by ending repetitive sins and vicious cycles without fear and guilt. Hagee combines scripture and teaching from his best-seller The Power of the Prophetic Blessing and includes more than 75 prophetic blessings for a variety of circumstances. Distributed by Advocate Distribution Solutions, a division of Send The Light, this collection of 42 daily readings presents a self-guided, inspirational tour toward achieving their potential, addressing such issues as uncovering true worth, confronting damaging thinking and habits and developing the tools to rebound from setbacks.
Worthy Publishing. Why did you choose to write Killing Jesus? It is the central event of our faith. Everything that leads to the death of Jesus was redemptive. I wanted to tell this story beyond what can be said in an Easter sermon or the usual Bible study. What research did you conduct? I relied on scholars in Israel, Turkey and at major universities here in the United States. Of course, any book of this kind has to involve Josephus and Tacitus—all the classical writers who shine light on the pages of Scripture.
You did not write this book in your office, as you typically do. Where did you write? I found it too gritty and disturbing. I know this sounds odd, perhaps even contrived, but I did genuinely write in public places. It seemed fitting. I wrote. To order, call Tyndale at or visit www. I just had to be among crowds and human drama to get this on the page. It has made a profound difference in my orientation to the Bible. By Peter Kimani. By Margaret Drabble. This masterly novel follows its something heroine on a road trip through England.
By Joshua Ferris. Anxiety, self-consciousness and humiliation are the default inner states of the characters in these 11 stories. By Sarah Perry. By Mohsin Hamid. By Jorie Graham. Graham created these poems against a backdrop of personal and political trauma — her parents are dying, she is undergoing cancer treatment, the nation is mired in war and ecological crisis. By James McBride. By Nicole Krauss. Tracing the lives of two Americans in Israel, this restless novel explores the mysteries of disconnection and the divided self.
By Paul Auster. By Jeffrey Eugenides. By Louise Erdrich. What if human beings are neither inevitable nor ultimate? By Dylan Krieger. By Emily Fridlund. By Kamila Shamsie. By Ottessa Moshfegh. By David Grossman. Translated by Jessica Cohen. By Elif Batuman. By Dan Chaon. By Margaret Wilkerson Sexton. This assured first novel shines an unflinching, compassionate light on three generations of a black family in New Orleans. By Andrew Sean Greer. By George Saunders. In this Man Booker Prize-winning first novel by a master of the short story, Abraham Lincoln visits the grave of his son Willie in , and is surrounded by ghosts in purgatory.
By Jennifer Egan. By John Banville. By Gabriel Tallent. The heroine of this debut novel is Turtle, a year-old who grows up feral in the forests and hills of Northern California. By Danzy Senna. By Alice McDermott. By Min Jin Lee. This stunning novel chronicling four generations of an ethnic Korean family in Japan is about outsiders and much more.
By Naomi Alderman. In this fierce and unsettling novel, the ability to generate a dangerous electrical force from their bodies lets women take control, resulting in a vast, systemic upheaval of gender dynamics across the globe. By Viet Thanh Nguyen. This superb collection of stories concerns men and women displaced from wartime Saigon and mostly settled in California. By Aravind Adiga. It revolves around two teenage brothers groomed by their father to be cricket stars. By Katie Kitamura. Deceptions pile on deceptions in this coolly unsettling postmodern mystery, in which a British woman travels to a Greek fishing village to search for her estranged husband, who has disappeared.
By Jesmyn Ward. By Hideo Yokoyama. Translated by Jonathan Lloyd-Davies. By Ayobami Adebayo. This debut novel is a portrait of a marriage in Nigeria beginning in the politically tumultous s. Jemisin won a Hugo Award for each of the first two novels in her Broken Earth trilogy. In the extraordinary conclusion, a mother and daughter do geologic battle for the fate of the earth.
By Domenico Starnone. Translated by Jhumpa Lahiri. The husband of the woman who has been identified as Elena Ferrante offers a powerful novel about a fraying marriage. By Rachel Cusk. He spent much of his ministry by the Sea of Galilee, preaching in such towns as Capernaum John , Bethsaida Mark , and Magdala Matthew , and surrounding places such as Cana John and Tyre Mark When his hour came near, he headed toward Jerusalem Luke Jesus often taught in parables , an ancient Eastern literary genre.
A parable is a narrative that presents comparisons to teach an important moral lesson. Some parables are common to all three Synoptic Gospels, such as the Parable of the Sower Matthew , Mark , and Luke Jesus performs many miracles , demonstrating his power over nature and spirits, and thus confirming that the Kingdom of God is at hand Mark In a physical miracle, such as making the blind see, or walking on water, or calming a storm, the laws of the universe are suspended through divine intervention.
In a moral miracle, such as forgiveness of sins or driving out demons, the blessing of Jesus purifies the spirit. In Mark , Jesus performed a physical miracle, healing the paralytic, to demonstrate a moral miracle, the forgiveness of sins. Only three miracles appear in all four Gospels - the Resurrection of Christ, the greatest miracle of them all, the healing of the blind, and the feeding of the through the multiplication of the loaves.
His public ministry lasted about three years Jesus taught transformation of the inner person. His mission was one of love, mercy, and peace John Christ Jesus is the fulfillment of salvation history and the mediator and fullness of all revelation. See our home page Jesus Christ for further discussion.
Following the Resurrection, Matthias was chosen to replace Judas Iscariot. Prior to his Ascension, Jesus commissioned his disciples to be his witnesses to the ends of the earth Acts This strengthened the Apostles to spread the word of Christ Jesus. The Acts of the Apostles describes the infancy period of the Church, a time following the Pentecost when Christianity spread like wildfire.
The Apostles all gathered in Jerusalem Acts 15 to discuss whether Gentiles who had been converted to Christianity had to observe all the ceremonial precepts of the Mosaic Law. This gathering of the Apostles became known as the Council of Jerusalem , and set the pattern of future Councils to resolve issues that arose within the Church. To the question of Jesus, "Who do you say that I am? Whereupon Jesus responded, "You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven" Matthew Peter became the first Patriarch of Antioch and ultimately Bishop of Rome.
Saul persecuted the Church and consented to the death of the first martyr Stephen. He had men and women who lived the Way thrown into prison. But while going to Damascus, Saul was struck from his horse by a great light and a voice asked "Why do you persecute me? Christ identified himself with his Church: "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting. Paul, as Apostle to the Gentiles, became just as passionate spreading Christianity as he was in persecuting Christians before his conversion.
Peter was crucified upside down and St. Paul was beheaded, both probably in AD. In fact, all of the Apostles were martyred for having preached the Gospel, except for St. John the Evangelist. Heeding the message of Jesus Christ to Go therefore and make disciples of all nations Matthew , the Apostles traveled East and West to all parts of the known world to spread Christianity. Andrew , Peter's brother, was the first to be called to follow Jesus, and is called by the Byzantine Church the Protoclete , meaning the first called.
Andrew evangelized Byzantium, appointed Stachys Romans the first Bishop there, and was crucified in Patras, Greece. James , the son of Zebedee and brother of John, is believed to have preached in Spain; he is the only Apostle to have his martyrdom recorded in the Bible Acts John , the son of Zebedee and the brother of James, was the "one Jesus loved. Christ on the Cross entrusted his mother Mary to John , who took her with him to Ephesus; he was later exiled to the island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation in his elderly years Revelation He stayed in Jerusalem and is believed to be the writer of the Letter of James in the Bible.
But when he put his hand in the Lord's side, he reacted with a beautiful profession of faith: "My Lord and My God" John Thomas traveled through Chaldea and Persia all the way to India!
Little is known about Simon the Zealot or Matthias. The early Christian Church was faced with spreading the teachings of Jesus Christ throughout the world, often during a time of martyrdom and intense persecution. The Apostolic Fathers were a group of early Christian writers who knew one of the Apostles and lived about AD, and sought to define, organize, and defend the faith, such as Ignatius of Antioch, Clement of Rome, Polycarp of Smyrna, and the author s of the Didache. Ignatius of Antioch was designated Bishop of Syria by St.
Peter on his trip to Antioch to meet St. Ignatius was the first to use the term Catholic Church in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans. The word catholic means universal and refers to the universal Church of Jesus Christ. Ignatius of Antioch would not worship the Emperor Trajan, and thus was placed in chains and martyred in Rome when thrown to the lions in the Coliseum.
He wrote seven letters on his trip to Rome, which proved to be a unifying event for all of the early Churches. He established the Church hierarchy of bishop, priest, and deacon for the early Churches, the pattern which still exists today. In his First Apology written in , he described the Memorial of the Last Supper on Sunday, one that would be called the Divine Liturgy in the East and the Mass in the West, an event which has remained essentially the same for nearly years.
For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these, but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Savior, having been made flesh by the Word of God Christianity spread throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. The Eastern Christian Churches are characterized by a rich heritage with Apostolic origin, and are treasured by the universal Church, for the East was the home of Jesus Christ our Redeemer!
Jerusalem is the birthplace to all of Christianity throughout the world. The Levant, the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, served as the cradle of Christianity. Antioch, Syria became an early center for Christianity, especially following the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.
Indeed, followers of Christ were first called Christians in Antioch Acts They also became known as Nazarenes Acts , particularly in the East. Mark the Evangelist founded the Church of Alexandria, Egypt. Eusebius of Caesarea in his Ecclesiastical History reported that King Abgar of Edessa was afflicted with illness and contacted Jesus in the hope of a cure. Upon his healing by St. Jude Thaddeus , King Abgar converted to Christianity.
Edessa became home to such writers as St. Ephrem wrote his beautiful hymns and religious poetry in Syriac, a dialect of the Semitic language of Aramaic, the language of Jesus. Syriac became the biblical and liturgical language of early Christian Churches in the East. The theology of Eastern Churches often developed independently, outside the sway of Roman and Byzantine thought.
Eastern Christian Churches allow clerical marriage , for they accept the gift of human sexuality given by God, who said, "It is not good for the man to be alone" Genesis Christians were severely persecuted through three centuries of the Roman Empire, especially at the hands of Nero 64 AD , Trajan , right up to Diocletian But their powerful witness through martyrdom only served to spread Christianity!
Constantine became Emperor of the West in As he was in Gaul at the time, he still had to capture Rome where Maxentius held sway. Welcome relief from Christian martyrdom came with the Edict of Milan in , through which Constantine and Licinius, the Emperor of the East, granted Christianity complete religious tolerance. His defeat of Licinius in made him sole Emperor of the entire Roman Empire, and he moved the seat of the Empire to Byzantium in and renamed it Constantinople.
Constantine considered himself Christian and did much to protect and support Christianity. Sunday as the Lord's Day was made a day of rest, and December 25 was celebrated as the birthday of Jesus. He restored property that once belonged to Christians. Peter in Rome. Christianity remain undivided until mankind sought to define the hidden nature of God and the mystery of Christ. A dispute concerning the relation of the Father and the Son arose in Egypt known as the Arian controversy. The Nicene Creed was expanded and finalized at the Council of Constantinople in to include homoousios for the Holy Spirit as well, by quoting John , "the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father," to form the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed still called the Nicene Creed.
Constantine considered himself both head of state and father of the Christian Churches. There were three stages in the formation of the Gospels: the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, the oral tradition of the Apostles, and the written word. The Tradition of the Fathers of the Church was important to early Christianity, for they were the ones who chose those inspired books which best reflected the life and teachings of Jesus Christ in the formation of the canon of the New Testament, and were also involved in the interpretation of Scripture.
Jerome that "Matthew put together the sayings of the Lord in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as best he could" Papias, in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History , III, 39, Catherine's Monastery on Mt. Jerome was commissioned by Pope Damasus in to produce a new Latin translation of the Bible. Jerome completed the translation of the New Testament Gospels into Latin in , and finished his translation from both Greek and Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament by In view of his work, St.
Jerome was named the Father of Biblical Scholars. The Latin Vulgate Bible published by St. Jerome served as the standard Bible for Western Christian civilization for over years. He was born in Tagaste, near Hippo, in north Africa. His mother St. Monica was a devout Christian and taught him the faith. However, when he studied rhetoric in Carthage, he began living a worldly life. He obtained a post as master of rhetoric in Milan, accompanied by an unnamed woman and child Adeodatus, born out of wedlock in The woman soon left him and their son, and Monica joined them in Milan.
Under the incessant prayers of his mother, and the influence of St. Ambrose of Milan, he eventually converted at age 32 in AD. Perhaps the most eloquent examination of conscience is found in The Confessions of St. Augustine , where he describes his moment of conversion in the garden reading St.
Paul to the Romans , But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provisions for the desires of the flesh. Both his mother and son died soon afterwards and he returned in to his home in Tagaste. He was ordained a priest in , and became Bishop of Hippo in Augustine was people-oriented and preached every day. Many of his followers lived an ascetic life. He had a great love for Christ, and believed that our goal on earth was God through Christ himself, "to see his face evermore. Augustine was one of the most prolific writers in history, and his writings show an evolution of thought and at times a reversal of ideas, as seen in his Retractations.
His Scriptural essays on Genesis and Psalms remain starting points for modern Biblical scholars. His commentary on the Sermon on the Mount is still read today. Perhaps most debated are his views on predestination. Augustine is the doctor of grace. In his book Grace and Free Will , he explained simply why he believed in free will. If there was no free will, then why did God give us the Ten Commandments, and why did he tell us to love our neighbor? Augustine's arguments against the Pelagian heresy set the doctrine of grace for the Catholic Church to the present day.
Pelagius thought that man could achieve virtue and salvation on his own without the gift of grace, that Jesus was simply a model of virtue. This of course attacks the Redemption of man by Christ! If man could make it on his own, then the Cross of Christ becomes meaningless!
But Augustine saw man's utter sinfulness and the blessing and efficacy of grace, disposing man to accept his moment of grace, and hopefully ultimate salvation. Grace raises us to a life of virtue, and is the ground of human freedom. Perhaps one of his greatest works was The City of God, which took 13 years to complete, from to History can only be understood as a continued struggle between two cities, the City of God, comprised of those men who pursue God, and the City of Man, composed of those who pursue earthly goods and pleasures.
He refers to Cain and Abel as the earliest examples of the two types of man. The Roman Empire was an example of the city of man which had just been sacked by Alaric in and was the occasion of the book. Augustine was a living example of God's grace that transformed nature. He died August 28, , during the sack of Hippo by the Vandals. August 28 is celebrated as his Feast Day in the liturgical calendar. Pope Leo entered the Papacy at a difficult time. Alaric had sacked Rome in , and the Huns and the Visigoths were gaining strength.
However the Pope proved to be a master statesman and history has deservedly accorded him the title of Pope Leo the Great. One of his first actions in was to bless the missionary efforts of St. Patrick and to ordain him as Bishop of Ireland. A tension in Church authority between papal leadership and collegiality of the bishops was developing over theological questions.
Rome was the place of martyrdom for Saints Peter and Paul. Rome's position as the capital of the Roman Empire was also supportive of a leadership role for the Bishop of Rome. The Bishop of Rome as successor to St. Peter was the Pastor and Shepherd of the whole Church, as seen with St. The independent Church of the East in Persia believed in two distinct natures dyophysite in Christ and did not accept the wording.
Pope Leo synthesized the thought of the differing Schools of Antioch and Alexandria in a letter known as the Tome. The Council of Chalcedon in was the Fourth Ecumenical Council, which supported Leo's stance that Christ had two natures, Divine and human in perfect harmony, in one Person or hypostasis. This set the theology for Roman and Byzantine theology and was important for European unity.
Just one year later , Attila and the Huns were threatening outside the walls of Rome. Pope Leo met Attila, who decided to call off the invasion! The Monastic Orders have been a premium influence on the formation of Christian culture. For not only have they been islands of asceticism and holiness that have served as ideals to a secular world, but also they have provided many if not most of the religious leaders within each historic age, especially during times of renewal and reform. The word monos is the Greek word for one or alone. Monasticism began in the East and spread throughout Europe and saved European civilization.
The practice of leaving the ambitions of daily life and retreating to the solitude of the desert was seen throughout Palestine, Syria, and Egypt, St. John the Baptist Mark an early example. The father of Christian monasticism was St. Antony of the Desert , the first of the Desert Fathers. Antony of Egypt took to heart the words of Christ to the rich young man, " Go sell what you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven" Matthew He headed across the Nile to a mountain near Pispir to live a life of solitude, prayer, and poverty.
Soon many gathered around him to imitate his life, living as hermits in nearby caves in the mountain, and in he emerged from solitude to teach his followers the way of the ascetic. He then moved further into the desert by Mount Kolzim near the Red Sea, where a second group of hermits gathered and later formed a monastery.
He lived there for 45 years until his death in Maron , a contemporary of St.
John Chrysostom, was a monk in the fourth century who left Antioch for the Orontes River to lead a life of holiness and prayer. As he was given the gift of healing, his life of solitude was short-lived, and soon he had many followers that adopted his monastic way. Following the death of St.
Maron in , his disciples built a monastery in his memory, which would form the nucleus of the Eastern Catholic Maronite Church of Lebanon. The fall of the Roman Empire to the barbarian invasions left European civilization in disarray, for the social structure under one ruler in Rome was destroyed. The preservation of culture and the conversion of the barbarians to Christianity was left to an unlikely group: the monastics of Europe. Their missionary efforts converted one tribe after another, so that eventually all of Europe was united in the worship of the one Christian God. Patrick as Apostle to Ireland founded the monastery of Armagh in and other monasteries throughout Ireland.
As the social unit in Ireland and much of Europe at the time was the tribe in the countryside, the monastery was the center of Church life and learning. The Irish monks that followed him converted much of northern Europe. The lasting legacy of the Irish monks has been the present-day form of confession. In early times, penance was in public and severe, often lasting for years, such that Baptism was generally postponed until one's deathbed. The Irish monks began private confession and allowed one to repeat confession as necessary.
The monk St. Benedict was born in Nursia of nobility but chose a life of solitude in Subiaco outside of Rome. Soon he moved nearby to build a monastery at Monte Cassino in and there wrote the Rule of Benedict. Monte Cassino placed all of the monks in one monastery under an abbot. The guiding principle for the monastery was ora et labora , or pray and work. The monastery provided adequate food and a place to sleep and served as a center of conversion and learning.
Known for its moderation, Monte Cassino and Benedict's rule became the standard for monasteries throughout Europe and the pattern for Western civilization.
Understandably, we. America, the richest and most powerful nation in the world, can well lead the way in this revolution of values. In , fresh out of college, Gilman and her friend Claire yearned to do something daring and original that did not involve getting a job. By Hideo Yokoyama. Hunter S. Womack describes, in great detail, the s Harlem that many like to pretend still exists today.
The first monk to become Pope was St. Gregory the Great Born to Roman nobility, Gregory at first pursued a political career and became Prefect of Rome. However he gave up position and wealth and retreated to his home to lead a monastic life. He was recalled to Rome and soon was elected Pope in and served until his death in A man of great energy, he is known for four historic achievements. His theological and spiritual writings shaped the thought of the Middle Ages ; he made the Pope the de facto ruler of central Italy; his charisma strengthened the Papacy in the West; and he was dedicated to the conversion of England to Christianity.
Gregory sent the monk Augustine to England in The conversion of King Aethelbert of Kent led St. Augustine to be named the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Soon English Benedictine monks were being sent to convert the rest of Europe, such as the English monk Winfrid, better known as St. Boniface , who served from as the Apostle to Germany.
Boniface in his conversion of Germany. His son Pepin and the Papacy formed an historic alliance. Pepin needed the blessing of the Pope in his seizure of leadership of Gaul from the Merovingians.
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Pepin died in and divided his realm between his two sons, Carloman and Charles. Charles, known as Charlemagne , took over all of Gaul upon the death of his brother in , and soon conquered most of mainland Europe. He was a vigorous leader and ruled until Charlemagne was a strong supporter of Christianity. During his reign, Christianity became the guiding principle of the Carolingian Empire, as the Church established a powerful presence throughout Europe.
He instituted a school of learning in his palace at Aachen. In the Middle Ages there was in theory a division between temporal power and spiritual authority, but in practice one saw a strong Emperor take control of some spiritual affairs and a strong Pope take control of some affairs of state. Charlemagne, as Constantine, considered himself the leader of Christendom as political head of state and protector of the Church.
The historian Christopher Dawson called this the beginning of medieval Christendom. The Byzantine Empire of the East, with its capital in Constantinople, flourished for a thousand years. The Empire reached its zenith under Emperor Justinian, the author of the Justinian Code of Law, who ruled from to Justinian built the beautiful Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople in , which became a center of religious thought.
The Byzantine or Greek liturgy is based on the tradition of St. Basil and the subsequent reform of St. John Chrysostom. The Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius brought Christianity to Moravia, and Cyril created the Cyrillic alphabet for their liturgy, which became the basis of the Slavic languages, including Russian. Kiev was once the capital of the country of Kievan Rus, which comprised the modern nations of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. In the sixteenth century, a Russian mystic Philotheus of Pskof noted that Rome and Constantinople, the second Rome, had fallen, but "Moscow, the third Rome," stands.
The Russian Orthodox Church today is the largest Eastern Orthodox faith with over million members. One of the most tragic events in Church history has been the Schism of between what is now the Catholic Church in Rome and the Byzantine or Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople. The actual event occurred on July 16,