MENS TRADITIONS REVISED

Women In Ancient Christianity: The New Discoveries
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A moderate 1-year reliability was expected Hypothesis 12 as well as a moderate predictive validity for the second measurement of gender-related features Hypothesis Overall German participants attended the study at the first measurement point. Based on their Kinsey-like scale scores, 15 participants who rated themselves as bisexual were excluded from further analyses because of the small group size. Among the remaining 96 participants, there were 24 lesbians Kinsey scores: 1—2 , 21 straight women 6—7 , 25 gay men 1—2 , and 26 straight men 6—7. A total of 37 men attended the post-test.

According to their Kinsey-like scale scores 18 identified as gay 1—2 and 19 as straight 6—7. Between those attending the post-test and those who did not, merely one difference was significant after adjusting the significance level for multiple tests. The same measures as in Study 1 were used in the following manner. Thus, the 6-item-version of the TMF was used. High values on CGRB indicated a high degree of gender conformity.

Moreover, we included the following measures. We used the German version Runge et al. It consists of two independent scales measuring gender-related personality traits. To describe participants' voice pitch i. Mean fundamental frequency f0 indicates the average voice pitch, f0 standard deviation is a measure for voice pitch variability, and f0 range is used to evaluate voice pitch range.

For computing f0 range, we computed the difference between the f0 Hence, higher scores indicate higher perceived straightness. At first measurement, participants filled out an online questionnaire in which all psychological and sociodemographic characteristics were collected.

In the second step, they were invited to a speech lab to provide recordings of spontaneous spoken speech and text reading as well as a photograph of their face. The sampling of women took place in a phonetic laboratory in the Center of General Linguistics in Berlin and was done by a female investigator, whereas the sampling of men took place at a phonetic laboratory of the University of Jena and was done by a male investigator.

Voice pitch characteristics were measured on the basis of spontaneous speech. In the last step we asked judges to rate speech recordings, facial photographs, and the combination of both dichotomously regarding sexual orientation for a randomly selected subset of 18 lesbians, gay men, straight women, and men, respectively Kachel et al. Male participants were re-invited after 1 year to the phonetic laboratory of the University of Jena. All results refer to the first measurement except for those that are explicitly indicated to belong to second measurement.

It replicated all findings of the pilot study. In detail, a KMO criterion of 0. An additional exploratory factor analysis with PAF of participants at second measurement replicated the findings indicating a one-dimensional factor structure. The one-factor solution was confirmed by graphical scree-plot analysis.

Which of the gender-related instruments are able to predict a person's gender and sexual orientation? Simple-effects tests with Bonferroni adjustment were added. Table 4 shows main and interaction effects as well as mean scores for all gender-related instruments separately for lesbians, straight women, gay, and straight men.

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Table 4. Both effects explained more variance in the TMF than in all other gender-related instruments in this study. Hence, comparing lesbians and gay men constituted a stricter test of all scales. In short, the TMF showed the expected mean differences between all groups, it was the only scale in this study that was able to detect differences between lesbians and gay men, and it showed the largest mean difference between straight women and men.

Furthermore, the TMF differentiated the groups as expected see Figure 4. Additionally, the TMF was best in predicting gender on the basis of scale scores as can be seen in Table 5 in which results of binary logistic regression models for all gender-related scales are shown. Almost identical percentages of women and men were correctly classified.

Compared to all other measures under investigation, the TMF seemed to be the most precise instrument to differentiate between women and men regardless of their sexual orientation. Figure 4. Mean TMF scores separately for gender and sexual orientation.

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These events are stored in the minds of the Elect that's why Satan can't tempt the Elect of God, because they know who he is. CGRB followed with 6 out of 16 possible significant correlations. The clothing that embodies the culture represents Japan's traditional values that remain in their community to this day. Table 1. In some cases, as with many other areas of mission influence, the local interpretation presents an exaggerated form of the behavior it emulates. Webster's Bible Translation For laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do. Jute Silk Jodhpuri Jacket in Black.

Error bars represent standard errors of means. Table 5. Regarding TMF, group differences in women's sample were already mentioned above. As in Study 1, straight women described themselves as more feminine compared to lesbians on the GRB-F. Means were particularly close together for adjective-based gender-related instruments such as the GEPAQ. Reliabilities and correlations on all gender-related instruments can be seen in Table 6. Three out of five correlations with the TMF were significant.

The correlations for the first two instruments were in the expected direction: The more feminine the women rated themselves on the TMF, the higher their scores on behavior-based femininity GRB-F and childhood gender-conformity CGRB. Moreover, after adjusting the significance level according to the Bonferroni formula, the correlation was not significant anymore. Table 6. Reliabilities and bivariate correlations of gender-related scales for women and men in Study 2 at first measurement.

Can the TMF predict women's sexual orientation better than other measures? We added the TMF in the last step of a binary regression model. Results can be seen in Table 7. In contrast to Study 1, the TMF did not outperform all other measures. Only the GRB-F was found to predict women's sexual orientation. Table 7. Stepwise, logistic regression analysis for predicting women's sexual orientation based on gender-related scales in study 2 at first measurement. As indicated in Table 4 , all differences in the male subsample were in the expected directions.

2. Feminist Critique of Traditional Philosophy of Religion

As for the female subsample, the TMF did not predict sexual orientation better than other measures when it was added in the last step of a binary regression model see Table 8. This could be interpreted as suggesting that TMF does not contribute at all to explaining sexual orientation. To answer these questions, in a supplementary binary regression model, only adjective-based scales were included as predictors.

Table 8. Stepwise, logistic regression analysis for predicting men's sexual orientation based on gender-related scales in study 2 at first measurement. We collected data on several psychological and acoustic criterion characteristics. We computed bivariate correlation coefficients for the TMF with these characteristics in order to test the criterion validity of TMF separately for women see Table 9 and men see Table Additionally, correlations for all other gender-related scales included in Study 2 were computed as a comparison.

Table 9. Bivariate correlations of gender-related instruments and criterion characteristics for women in study 2. Table Bivariate correlations of gender-related instruments and criterion characteristics for men in study 2. All correlations were in the expected direction: The higher women spoke on average and the higher their voice pitch range and variability, the more likely they rated themselves as feminine.

The TMF showed 9 out of 16 possible significant correlations which is more than any other gender-related scale. CGRB followed with 6 out of 16 possible significant correlations. Hence, the TMF showed higher convergent validity than the other gender-related scales. Table 11 contains findings regarding test-retest reliability and predictive validity. According to the intercorrelation of TMF scores at first and second measurement, 1-year reliability for the TMF was 0. Hypothesis 12 was confirmed. Reliabilities and correlations for gender-related measures between first columns and second rows Measurement in Study 3.

As can be seen in Table 11 , both correlations were significant, of moderate size, and in the expected directions, confirming Hypothesis In Study 2, we found that all TMF items loaded strongly on one single factor at first and second measurement, replicating the pilot study and confirming Hypothesis 1 again. The TMF showed sufficient reliabilities for women and men. Confirming Hypotheses 2, 3, and 4, the TMF turned out to be the best gender-related instrument for differentiating straight and gay men at first and second measurement and lesbians and straight women compared to all other scales used in Study 2 see Table 4.

The evidence for high incremental validity in predicting women's sexual orientation from Study 1 could not be replicated nor extended to men. We assume that the inclusion of GRB-F in the regression model reduced apparent error variance and thus changed the relation between GRB-M and sexual orientation from descriptive to statistically significant. However, as GRB-M was again non-significant in Step 3 of the regression model, we suggest that masculine everyday behavior was not strongly related to sexual orientation in our women's sample. However, when including adjective-based instruments only, TMF predicted sexual orientation in women and men better than established adjective -based instruments.

Partially confirming Hypothesis 7, the TMF showed moderate correlations with some other gender-related scales. Importantly, the TMF was connected to multiple criterion characteristics for women e. The TMF revealed moderate test-retest-reliability and predictive validity confirming Hypotheses 12 and Gender research has developed many instruments to measure different aspects of self-ascriptions of gender stereotypical features, including attributes, behaviors, interests, and attitudes Beere, The TMF was shown to reliably measure an underlying, one-dimensional construct, and it was found to be a valid instrument for assessing masculinity-femininity because it a successfully differentiated between groups that were expected to differ women vs.

Whereas, some well-established, adjective-based scales e. In line with Choi and Fuqua , high correlations between the separate TMF femininity and masculinity scales as shown in Study 1 suggest a bipolar, one-dimensional use of this instrument reflecting laypersons' ideas of masculinity and femininity as two extremes of one continuum. All items were shown to load on one factor and represent a one-dimensional construct masculinity-femininity.

Moreover, in spite of its brevity, the TMF showed high internal consistencies across all studies as well as satisfactory test-retest reliability in a sample of men. However, the one-dimensionality of the TMF was demonstrated with participants identifying themselves as women or men. Possibly, the two-dimensional TMF version is superior than the one-dimensional version for samples that comprise a larger number of participants transgressing or rejecting the binary gender system e. Future research is needed to clarify that question. One could object against using the bipolar TMF scale that its midpoint is ambiguous.

One could imagine that people scoring either high or low on both dimensions would erroneously be treated as one group. In terms of validity, using a known-groups approach as an established psychological method for validity tests e. With reference to sexual orientation, straight and bisexual women rated themselves higher on femininity and lower on masculinity than lesbians did Study 1. According to implicit gender inversion theory, gay men should have scored higher than lesbians on femininity and lower on masculinity, which was not the case in our sample.

It appears that gay men and lesbians rather self-stereotype as men and women, respectively, and thus construct their self-concept in line with their gender group.

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Based on these findings, we conclude that the TMF's ability for determining gender and sexual orientation was generally high, and higher than that of all other gender-related measures investigated in the present studies. Hence, the TMF was shown to be a valid scale for assessing gender-role self-concept. It was expected that the TMF would correlate moderately with other gender-related scales. That was the case for all gender-related scales in Study 1 where only a female sample was tested.

Only correlations with the Childhood Gender-Behavior Scale were high, which could be due to selective memory recall and hence reflect current gender-related self-assessment see Bailey and Zucker, measured with the TMF. Correlations between the TMF and gender-related scales were smaller for a second sample of women Study 2 which could be due to differences in sampling and substitutions of scales e.

Connected to that, the incremental validity of the TMF for predicting women's sexual orientation was demonstrated in Study 1 only. However, the male sample in Study 2 showed overall moderate correlations of the TMF and gender-related scales, but no additional ability of the TMF to predict sexual orientation.

The fact that the TMF did not always demonstrate additional predictive value for explaining differences between groups does not indicate that it is superfluous. And the TMF predicted sexual orientation still better than established adjective-based instruments in women and men in Study 2 which was demonstrated after excluding the most predictive scales.

To deal with a common critique that self-report instruments measure differences in social desirability rather than true differences, we used an implicit measure of women's self-feminine vs. Study 1 showed that the correlations of these associations were higher for the TMF than for self-ratings of traits or behaviors.

It is also a substantive finding of the present studies that goes beyond mere scale validation. Correlation analyses showed that gender-conformity on the TMF was significantly linked to perceived straightness for almost each presentation mode voice, face, and the combination of both for men and women. Moreover, higher femininity in women was associated with higher voice pitch features average, variability, and range and higher masculinity in men was connected to less contact to gay men.

Compared to other gender-related scales, the TMF was superior in convergent validity. In sum, this indicates that the TMF measures something fundamental regarding gender-related self-assessment. It is also another substantive finding of the present studies that goes beyond mere scale validation. A limitation is that patterns of findings partially differed between women and men, and which specific criteria mattered in which sub-sample appeared a bit arbitrary e.

However, in every case determining and predicting gender and sexual orientation, convergent, and criterion validity , as a rule the TMF was better than the one-item-measure e. The TMF is designed as a self-assessment instrument for masculinity-femininity on a rather global level with regard to two different respects. First, the TMF is based on a trait rather than a normative approach see Thompson and Bennet, and conceptualizes masculinity-femininity as a long-term characteristic varying between people.

However, it does not exclude variation on masculinity-femininity within a person depending on different social, temporal, or regional contexts. Its focus is on a trait-like global average score across contexts. Second, it is more global because it focuses on a higher-order masculinity-femininity construct which is beyond specific components such as traits, interests, physical characteristics, or attitudes, and asks for an aggregated self-assessment across these domains. The high test-retest reliability obtained over a 1-year period indicated stability rather than variance. However, it would be interesting to know which components mainly account for an individual's judgment of their own gender-related identity.

The TMF could be a valuable instrument for future research dealing with that question. However, the TMF does not measure if participants' conceptions of gender-role identity aspects correspond to traditional views. However, large differences are not likely because people within one culture know about traditional gender roles. Hence, it seems plausible that the problem of item aging is mitigated for the near future because of the more global wordings. Additionally, we are positive that the TMF can be used in different countries and cultures because of its global level of measurement.

They found that the TMF was moderately connected to different aspects of social identification with one's own gender in the expected directions for men and women. According to Leach et al. The TMF was shown to be linked to almost all of its different components individual self-stereotyping, in-group homogeneity, satisfaction, solidarity, and centrality for women and men except for in-group homogeneity for men.

Future research should provide evidence for the applicability in non-German samples. In a nutshell, as long as societies assume differences in interests, attitudes, clothing style, and behavior between women and men, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable addition to researchers' toolbox. For example, are self-ratings on the TMF related to biological markers of masculinity-femininity such as waist-to-hip ratio and finger length i.

Do self-ratings on the TMF predict behaviors in which large gender differences have been observed, such as socio-sexuality or animal cruelty?

MEN'S TRADITIONS REVISED

Are self-ratings on the TMF related to performance in domains where gender differences are reliable, such as mental rotation? Finally, are self-ratings on the TMF related to personality traits in which gender differences have been observed, such as self-esteem and social dominance orientation? Generally, we believe that many different research questions related to gender-related self-assessments could benefit from using the TMF. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved: SK, MS.

Additionally, we thank Julia Scholz and the reviewers for critical and valuable comments on earlier versions of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Abele, A. Eckes and H. Trautner Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum , — Agency and communion from the perspective of self versus others. Alvesson, M. Gender relations and identity at work: a case study gender relations and identity at work: a case study of masculinities and femininities in an advertising agency.

Athenstaedt, U. Normative geschlechtsrollenorientierung: entwicklung und validierung eines fragebogens [Normative Gender Role Attitudes: The Development and Validation of a New Questionnaire]. Zeitschrift Differentielle Diagnostische Psychologie 21, 91— CrossRef Full Text. On the content and structure of the gender role self-concept: including gender-stereotypical behaviors in addition to traits. Women Q. Baeck, H. Pitch characteristics of homosexual males.

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Voice 25, — Bailey, J. Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation. Banse, R. Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT. Zeitschrift Exp.

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Beere, C. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Google Scholar. Bem, S. The measurement of psychological androgyny. Theory and measurement of androgynity: a reply to the pedhazur-tetenbaum and locksley-colten critiques. Most denominations today are built on "Men's Traditions " that goes against God's Holy Bible, such as Easter being mixed with Passover. Their religious customs are so grounded in their traditions that people have lost sight of the truth that's recorded in the Bible. They have established their own laws and customs, which have been in their families for many generations, and if anyone departs from their traditions it causes stress among them.

Although their traditions have perverted God's pure word, they continue preaching them. The first tradition that God has warned us about in our final generation, is the Rapture Theory, which was mixed with Passover, and people today don't know the difference between them. Passover was one of God's most Holy Days; it was when the children of Israel had been in Egypt for the past years, every since Joseph was carried down into Egypt, and was sold by his brother's into slavery. God told Moses to go to the Pharaoh and tell him to, "Let My people go.

That night was the fourteenth day after the Spring Vernal Equinox, when the death angel passed over Egypt and claimed the lives of the first born of both mankind and animals. Passover was given to us by God as a reminder of His wrath upon the Pharaoh, and those who refused to do as He had said in Exodus Exodus "The Lord said unto Moses, "Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.

Moses listens to God's instruction, and prepared the people for the final plague that would come upon Egypt. Exodus ,5 And Moses said, "Thus said the Lord, about midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:" "And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sets upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maid servant that is behind the mill and all the firstborn of the beast.

Remember, the followers of Jesus Christ had to take the blood of an innocent lamb and spread it on the door posts of their front door, and over the top of the door, to prevent the death angel from entering their home. Just like the Pharisees of Jesus day, many pastors today are spiritual blind and have closed their minds to the instructions recorded in God's word.

Their heart is like the Pharaoh's heart was, so hardened that he couldn't see why God was so angry. People today are just like the Pharaoh was back then. The night of the fourteenth day after the first day of the year, God established the Spring Vernal Equinox; That was when the Death Angel passed over Egypt.

The next day when Pharaoh arose, all the first born, of both animal's and people were dead, even his own son. That's when the Pharaoh's heart was changed, and he forced the Israelites to get out of his land that same day. This established the first tradition in the scripture that God put upon His people, known through out the nation of Israel which included all ten tribes of Israel.

Exodus ,15 "And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever. This feast day is called Passover, not Easter. When the death angel passed over the Israelites, they were under the Law and also those who prepared the blood of the lamb for their homes.

We are to keep it, "for ever" until the end of this earth age which comes with the return of the true Jesus Christ. Today we use olive oil, prayer and faith in the Lord God who will keep us safe in these end times. When we read I Corinthians we see that Paul is reminding us to keep the time of Passover, not as they did under the law, but as required in the New Testament. I Corinthians ,8 "Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened, For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us:" "Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.

Under the traditions of the Old Testament, the Passover was when they sacrificed animals, however when Jesus Christ died on the cross, the animal sacrifice stopped. Today this feast time is celebrated in our churches, and is called, "The Communion Table of the Lord. Today we take wine and unleavened bread at the Communion table worthily. We think only about Jesus Christ. Because of the shed blood of Jesus Christ we can take the bread and wine which is symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, as we focus on His Sacrifice for our sins.

The reason this tradition is first, is that so many denominations have already accepted their Rapture doctrine. Their doctrine believe that their church will be taken out of this world, in these end times, before the sixth trumpet sounds.