klippingsberg.com/4896.php Nothing seemed to help him. And nothing comforted him. They did not want Job to suffer. And they did not think that Job deserved to suffer. Eliphaz spoke first. He was sure that God would help Job. So, Eliphaz tried to encourage Job. Eliphaz wanted to give hope to Job. He said:. But I want to say something. And this is an important matter. Eliphaz simply believed that a good person should have a good life. And Eliphaz thought that an evil person should have a terrible life.
Eliphaz was sure that Job was a good man. But Job was suffering the troubles that an evil person deserves. And Eliphaz did not realise that God permitted the devil to test Job. You have taught many people. You have helped weak people.
Paul's way of putting it is, "Absent from the body, present with the Lord" 2 Corinthians Wikimedia Commons Media. Category: Commentaries. So Job was still a good man. Farmer, Kathleen A. Our lives are a gift from God. He Brings Leanness into the Life.
And you have encouraged weak people. And you become weak. Troubles affect you. And your troubles upset you. So, you should be confident. And you are a good man. So, you should have hope. At first, Eliphaz believed that Job was a good man. Later, Eliphaz would change his opinion Job chapter Perhaps Job had even helped Eliphaz. And this speech upset Eliphaz. Eliphaz wanted Job to be happy. Christians are glad people, because we have good news Philippians But sometimes we cannot be happy Ecclesiastes ; Mark Eliphaz was a patient man Job But he spoke too soon.
Instead, Eliphaz told Job to be happy. In chapter 3, Job hardly thought about God. Job was only thinking about himself. So, Job had no hope. Instead, Job wanted to die. Job could be confident because he was a holy man. And Job could have hope, because God cares for good people. An innocent man does not suffer. A good man does not die. In fact, they suffer from the troubles that they themselves cause.
God is angry. So, he kills them. Such lions may roar. And the young lions will wander away. Eliphaz was partly right. God punishes evil people. And God protects good people. Job was suffering. But Job was an innocent man. Many good people suffer now, on this earth. But they will not suffer in heaven Revelation Some evil people are successful on this earth. But nobody will be successful in hell. God sees our secret plans. And God is a fair judge. God does not always punish evil people immediately, because God is kind.
God does not want anybody to suffer in hell. God sent Jesus to suffer the punishment for our evil deeds. And God will forgive us. So, we must confess our evil deeds to God. And we must trust God. God does not always rescue good people immediately. Sometimes a good person will suffer, like Job. That person should be patient James Perhaps God is testing that person. Or perhaps God is teaching that person.
God is like a father who teaches his children Hebrews God knows about all these things. God cares about us. And God is making us perfect Job ; 1 Corinthians Eliphaz argued that God punishes evil men. Eliphaz said that evil men are like angry lions.
These lions seem terrible. But really, they are hopeless, because they have no teeth. So evil men seem terrible, but really, they are hopeless. In Job , God reminded the men that he created lions. And God provides food, even for lions. The lions do not need to search for food.
The lions can wait in their home. God will provide their food. God even cares about evil people. God provides rain, so that their crops will grow Matthew And God sent Jesus to die for evil people, so that God can forgive their evil deeds Romans It happened by night, when men sleep deeply. Even my bones were shaking! My hairs stood up. But I could not recognise it. I saw its shape. And I heard its quiet voice. Nobody is better than God. Even strong men are not innocent. God, who made them, is their judge.
God even accuses his servants in heaven. The bodies of men are like mud huts. And their bodies belong in the earth. Men die like insects. Nobody notices their deaths. And they will not live again. And they die without wisdom. Eliphaz described a strange dream. This dream frightened him. We do not know whether the dream came from God. The dream taught an important lesson to Eliphaz. But the dream seems only partly correct. Many people have strange experiences. And these experiences may impress these people greatly. But such people should test their experiences 1 John Such people must not believe everything.
Some strange experiences come from God. Other experiences may come from our own minds. And some are from the devil. Our experiences should teach us to love God. They should encourage us to trust the Bible. And they should teach the truth about Jesus 1 John Good spirits come from God. They teach us the truth about God. God sends them to help us. Evil spirits come from the devil. They are also called demons. Like the devil, demons are enemies of God. Perhaps Eliphaz did see a spirit. But perhaps he imagined it. Most dreams mean nothing. This verse is correct.
God is the judge of everyone. A person may be weak or strong. But the good news is that God still loves us. God sent Jesus to die for us. We must confess our evil deeds to God. Then God will forgive us. Eliphaz heard the words in verses The spirit in his dream spoke these words. But this verse is wrong. God does trust his servants. God trusted Job in Job And God was proud that Job still served him Job See Genesis and Genesis And the body returns to the soil when the man dies.
This is wrong. God knows when a man dies. And God cares about his people Psalm God even notices when a little bird dies Matthew A dead man will live again. Death is not the end. The Bible teaches this lesson clearly. Everybody who trusts God will go to heaven. Heaven is a wonderful place John ; Revelation chapter Jesus became alive again after his death. And we will also live again in heaven, always 1 Corinthians chapter But people who refuse to obey God will also live after their death. God will be their judge. Their fate will be terrible Revelation See Luke This passage is important.
Trust God now! The Bible teaches that you must invite God into your life now. Do not delay! See whether a holy person will reply! But a stupid man dies because he is jealous. But his troubles came suddenly. They are in court, and nobody will help them. They even take the crops that grow between the weeds. Eliphaz heard when Job complained in Job chapter 3. An angel servant of God from heaven would not help Job. God does not listen if we merely complain to him Job Nobody should complain about God Job God is good! God is fair! We must respect God.
Daily, the angels work to protect us Psalm An evil man is angry because he hates God. So, God punishes the evil man for his behaviour. This is why the evil man dies. A stupid man might not hate God. This man does not really know about God. And this man has not learned to do the right things. But the stupid man is jealous of other people.
So, he copies their evil behaviour. Then God punishes the stupid man for his evil behaviour. This is why the stupid man dies. Eliphaz saw these events. Eliphaz was sure that this evil man deserved these troubles. Perhaps Eliphaz was right about this particular man. But perhaps Eliphaz was wrong. Some people, like Job, suffer although they are not evil. Even if the man was evil, God does not always punish evil men immediately. Eliphaz thought that every evil person would suffer like this man. The idea was wrong. Some evil people are successful for their whole lives. But God will punish them when they die.
The ground does not cause our troubles. He cannot choose to avoid trouble. A flame does not choose to burn upwards. Here, Eliphaz linked his dream Job with his story Job If nobody is innocent, then everybody deserves troubles! So, Job could not be an innocent man. And Job deserved his troubles. So Eliphaz felt ready to advise Job. He thought that God punishes every error immediately. So, Eliphaz thought that God was punishing Job for some evil deed. But God is not cruel. God does not watch us so that he can punish us.
God wants to forgive us. God loves us. We cannot count his wonderful deeds. He provides water for the fields. And he protects people who are very sad. And their plans fail. At midday, they will trip and fall like blind people. And he protects them from the evil schemes of powerful people. And cruelty must end.
This is true. These words are wonderful words. Verse 11 is like James and Luke These words are also true. Eliphaz did not realise that some evil plans succeed.
Volume 4 of Hawker's Old Testament commentary covers Job through Psalms. This sixth and final volume of the Poor Man's Old Testament Commentary covers passing chapter as Hawker presents the whole Bible as Christian Scripture. Robert Hawker () was a Devonian vicar of the Anglican Church and the most prominent of the vicars of Charles Church, Plymouth, Devon. His grandson was Cornish poet Robert Stephen Hawker. He also produced the "Poor Man's Morning and Evening Portions" that were used long.
And Eliphaz thought that God would punish these evil people immediately. God cares about poor people. Rich people might be cruel to poor people. But God defends poor people. And Christians should help poor people too Proverbs ; Galatians ; Matthew Job, do not hate the discipline that God is teaching to you. But he will also cure you. You will even be safe if you have 7 terrible troubles. And in a battle, God will protect you from the swords of your enemy. You will not be afraid when terrible things happen.
You will not be afraid of dangerous animals. And wild animals will not cause problems for you. You will not lose anything that you own. And your grandchildren will have so many children that you cannot count them. So, you will have a successful life, which will end at the right time. You will be like ripe grain at harvest. So, Job, listen to this advice! Do the things that I advise you. So, Eliphaz urged Job to learn discipline from God. Sometimes we might have problems for this reason Hebrews Job was a good man Job Job suffered because the devil opposed him.
This verse is right. God cares for the people who trust him. He will rescue them, even if they suffer many terrible troubles Psalm ; Psalm ; Proverbs Eliphaz promised many good things if Job would trust God.
And Eliphaz was right. God cares about his people. See Deuteronomy God promises us many wonderful things. But we may not receive all these things until we arrive in heaven Revelation In our lives on this earth, we may suffer many troubles Mark God will provide for us Matthew But we should not imagine that we must be wealthy to be successful Luke ; Proverbs ; James See Genesis ; Genesis ; Hebrews A farmer must collect his grain at the right time.
Then the grain will be useful and valuable. But grain is not useful if the farmer collects it too early. Eliphaz wanted Job to live until he was old. Job would achieve many good things. And Job would have a large family. So Job would be like the harvest. Eliphaz was not careful with his words in verses Job was probably already an old man.
Eliphaz wanted to encourage Job. Before these troubles, Job had a good life. Eliphaz thought that his advice was good. He made many mistakes. He upset Job. So Job was very sad. He even wanted to die. And Job was sure that his friends could not help him. My sad feelings seem like a terrible weight. So, forgive me if I spoke too soon. There is poison on the arrows. And the poison enters my spirit. God has caused me many troubles. You can put salt on food that has no flavour. It makes me sick. In chapter 3, Job described his feelings. His friends listened. But Eliphaz did not answer wisely. So, Job spoke again.
A heavy weight is a great strain for the person who must carry it. Job spoke because of this strain. And Job was not sure that his words were correct. Job did not realise that the devil caused these troubles. A farm animal might be noisy when it needs food. Such an animal is complaining because it is hungry. When Job spoke, he too made a noise. When he spoke, Job was complaining like the hungry animal. But Job was not hungry.
He was ill. And if he ate food, he was sick. And this is my prayer. I would be glad because I did not deny the words of God. So, I am hopeless. And I have no hopes for the future. Job was weak. Both his body and his spirit were weak see verse Job felt as if he could not even control his own words verse 3, verse 5. So, Job prayed a sad prayer. He prayed that he would die. Job did not want to die because of his pain. He totally trusted God to do the right things Job In fact, Job wanted to die because he was afraid about his own words. Job did not want to insult God Job Job could not control his words verse 3, verse 5.
So Job prayed that he would die. Job wanted to die so that he did not say an evil word about God. And then, Job would be glad. God is great. We should always respect God. We should be careful with our words James Job explained that his body and his spirit were weak.
Job used to be a great man, whom everybody respected Job ; Job ; Job He was a leader of his people. But now, Job needed help. And his friends were not helping him. They should even help a man who does not respect God. But I cannot trust you. You are like streams that are dry in hot weather. The weather is hot, and there is no water. People leave the roads to find the stream. These people wander.
And they will die because they cannot find any water. They search for the water. But they are sad when they cannot find any water. You cannot help me. You have seen my troubles. But you are afraid. I have not requested your money. And I have not asked you to save me from a cruel man. One way a church might reflect this was to have the relics of an apostle or an early martyr. There was a great trade in body parts of different religious notables. At least three churches claim to have the body of Mary Magdalene.
With the relics came beautiful reliquaries of ivory, gold and precious stones. Some saints' remains were reported to have healing powers. This fortunate phenomenon produced pilgrimage , which was very lucrative for the church involved and, if the saint was of sufficient renown, for all the churches and monasteries that sprang up along the pilgrimage route. Thomas of Canterbury is an example. This archbishop was murdered by King Henry II 's henchmen while praying at a side altar in the cathedral. The King himself made a penitent pilgrimage to the cathedral. Even though much of the stained glass has been lost over the years, there still remains two windows which show some of the many healings and miracles associated with St Thomas, both before and after his death.
In churches that are monastic, there is often an emphasis on the saints that belonged to that particular order. It is not uncommon to see religious paintings of the Blessed Virgin enthroned with the Christ Child and surrounded by numerous saints, including some of the 1st century, and some belonging to the particular Order who commissioned the work.
Another way for the church to confirm its role was through the administration of the rites. Some churches have decorative schemes which support this role of the church, illustrating the various rites and sacraments. The Crucifix is in general the most significant single narrative object in the decorative scheme of any church. During the medieval period the crucifix, called the Rood in England, from the Old Saxon roda , was a large crucifix placed conspicuously, often suspended in the Quire or standing on a screen separating either the Quire or the sanctuary from the rest of the church.
The suspended crucifix could either be painted or carved of wood. In England where rood screens have often survived without the rood itself, it was general for the crucifix to have accompanying figures of Mary the Mother of Christ and either John the Evangelist or John the Baptist carrying a banner bearing the inscription "Behold, the Lamb of God ". In Italy, roods were created by some of the most famous painters and sculptors, such as Giotto , Brunelleschi and Donatello.
In many Protestant churches the crucifix has been replaced by a simple cross without a figure, symbolically representing both the redeeming sacrifice and the resurrection to new life offered by Jesus. This may be related in a continuous sequence of pictures, either in paint, mosaic, wood sculpture or stained glass, and located either around the walls of a church or, particularly in French Cathedrals, in niches in a screen that surrounds the Sanctuary, so that they might be seen by people walking around the ambulatory.
Frequently only one aspect of Jesus' life is illustrated, most commonly his Death and Resurrection. But the theme may differ from church to church. A church located near a hospital might have windows that focus upon the miraculous healings. Another church might have aspects of Jesus' life that stress works of charity and service to others. These sort of themes are particularly prevalent in 19th- and 20th-century churches. An important form of visual narration is the so-called Stations of the Cross cycle, telling of the Passion trial and execution of Jesus.
These appear in almost all Roman Catholic churches and are used for devotional purposes as the prompts for a series of meditations and prayers. The Stations of the Cross usually take the form of oil paintings, moulded and painted plaster or carved wood set into frames and suspended on the aisle walls so that the sequence may be easily followed. Another form of biblical, and occasionally extra-canonical , narrative that is often illustrated is the Life of the Virgin , in earlier periods concentrating on her early life using additional apocryphal scenes drawn from books such as the "Infancy Gospel of James ", written about the middle of the 2nd century CE.
Cycles of Mary usually take the story up to the Birth of Christ, often including the visit of the Magi and the Flight to Egypt, and later usually cover later scenes from the life of Mary, especially her presence at the Crucifixion, Pentecost and her death, known as the Death of the Virgin , for which depictions of the Assumption of Mary began to be substituted from the late Middle Ages. The aspect of the Old Testament that appears most frequently in a continuous narrative form is the Creation and the Downfall of humankind through the actions of Adam and Eve.
Surviving large-scale extensive schemes of Old Testament stories are comparatively rare. There are two complete frescoed schemes in Italy, one painted by Giusto de Menabuoi in the Baptistery of the Cathedral of Padua in the 14th Century and another of about the same date by Bartolo di Fredi in the Collegiate Church in San Gimignano. There are some surviving schemes in stained glass, including that in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.
By far the best known of such schemes are the one painted by Michelangelo on the Sistine Chapel ceiling and that created in bronze for the doors of the Baptistery of Florence by Lorenzo Ghiberti , the so-called "Gates of Paradise". Many more schemes survive in similar small-scale carvings on portals or doors. Many churches and cathedrals are dedicated to a particular biblical or early Christian saint and bear the name of that saint. Other churches have been founded by or have been associated with some person who was later canonised.
These associations are often celebrated in the decoration of the church, to encourage worshippers to emulate the piety, good works, or steadfast faith of the saint. Sometimes saints are shown together in a sort of pictorial gallery, but the depiction of narratives is also common. This may take the form of a single incident, such as Saint Sebastian tied to a tree and bristling with arrows or St Christopher carrying the Christ Child across the river, or the saint's life may be shown in a narrative sequence, similar to the way in which the life of Jesus is depicted, such as the Life of St Augustine by Benozzo Gozzoli in the Church of Sant' Agostino, San Gimignano.
The stories of a saint's life may be based on highly reliable sources. On the other hand, some may contain fanciful elements and others may be entirely fictitious. Some of the stories are well known and the saints that they depict are easily recognised. There are many other saints whose recognition is highly localised. Among these is Santa Fina of San Gimignano , whose death and funeral were depicted in two frescoes by Domenico Ghirlandaio.
The depiction of prophets , apostles , saints , patriarchs and other people associated with the church often have a place in the decorative scheme. The thematic use of such figures may be a very obvious one. There may, for example, be a row of stained glass windows showing the prophets that predicted the coming of the Messiah. Or within a carved stone screen might stand statues of those monarchs who were particularly devoted to the church.
The apostles, usually twelve in number but sometimes accompanied by St Paul , John the Baptist , Mary Magdalene and others, are a frequent subject. Sometimes the selection is esoteric, the choice depending on the local tradition of the church or whim of the individual who commissioned the particular work of art. Sometimes the characters depicted are easily identified because they carry particular attributes or emblems- John the Baptist has a reed cross and banner and may wear a camel-skin, Mary Magdalene has an ointment pot, Peter carries the keys of Heaven, St Agatha has her breasts on a salver.
Martyrs frequently carry a palm leaf or the instrument of their death. St Denis of Paris carries his own head, with which he is claimed to have walked all around the town. In many of the decorative schemes that illustrate the life of Jesus , the narrative is set into the context of related stories drawn from the Old Testament and sometimes from the Acts of the Apostles.
Certain characters of the Old Testament, through particular incidents in their lives, are seen to prefigure Jesus in different ways. Often their actions or temperament is set in contrast to that of Jesus. For example, according to the Bible, Adam, created in purity and innocence by God, fell to temptation and led humankind into sin. Jesus, on the other hand, lived a blameless life and died for the redemption of the sin of Adam and all his descendants.
The way in which the cross-referencing is achieved is usually by a simple juxtaposition , particularly in mediaeval stained glass windows, where the narrative of Jesus occupies the central panels of a window and on either side are the related incidents from the Old Testament or Acts. In this, the windows have much in common with the Biblia Pauperum which were often arranged in this manner, and were sometimes used as a source of design.
In nineteenth- and early twentieth-century windows, the sections holding the major narrative are often larger and the Old Testament panels might be quite small. A similar arrangement is sometimes used in Early Renaissance panel painting. The nineteenth-century east window by William Wailes at Chilham , Kent, demonstrates a typical pairing of scenes such as had occurred from the medieval period. In some of the most sophisticated schemes, there is not only a reference to events of the Old Testament , but also a cross-referencing of New Testament events.
One such scheme is that painted by Giotto in Padua at the Scrovegni Chapel. At first appearance, the frescoed scenes of the birth and childhood of the Virgin and the life of Jesus seem simply to proceed around the walls in tiers, in a predictable sequence, with small painted panels of Old Testament motifs rather than detailed scenes between them.
Close examination shows a rich contextuality. Scenes have been skilfully placed so that they contrast with or inform upon another, either placed in the same vertical row, or in immediate opposition across the building. Such juxtapositions include the wise men kneeling before the Infant Christ with Jesus washing the feet of Peter kneeling before the apostle Peter washing his feet and the Raising of Lazarus from the Dead with the Resurrection of Christ.
A common theme in the art of many churches is to show the greatness of God through his creation and the order that he has placed upon it. God is often depicted in the act of creation as described in Genesis  - making the firmament or earth , placing the sun, stars and moon in the sky or creating mankind.
There are many symbolic representations of the earth, sometimes showing the four rivers that are described in Genesis as running out of Eden. In Baroque art , the globe is often represented, with varying degrees of accuracy. Just as Genesis  named four rivers that divided the ancient world, there were four writers upon whose books the Christian Church rested. Convention provided four compass points, four winds , four elements of Fire, Air, Earth and Water and four humours affecting the human nature. The number four appeared to be part of the way in which God organised his world.
It related to the fact that creatures have four limbs and buildings stand firm on four supports. Consequently, groups of four people or objects are common in Christian art, demonstrating that the Church is directly linked to the order of material and earthly things that God has put in place. Linked to the theme of God's creation is God's Order. The God of Genesis , who put the sun to brighten the day and the moon for the night also caused the stars to shift overhead in a particular pattern which coincided with the changing seasons and could be seen as God's guidance as to when sowing and harvesting was to take place.
The ancient identities of the Zodiacal signs continued in use and were often depicted in small carvings, particularly around arched doorways, and also in stained glass where, because the pattern is cyclic, they were particularly suited to small panels in rose windows. The Zodiac was intrinsically linked with the so-called Labours of the Months , the various tasks and activities that were performed at certain months of the year, the tending and harvesting, the hunting and feasting, and the sitting by the fire in the long cold month of February.
As most people lived in rural communities, the tasks that decked the arches and windows of the churches were all too familiar. God, who according to Genesis , made the Heaven and the Earth, also created man in his own likeness  and gave to humankind also the gift of creativity. His wife encourages him to curse God and to give up and die, but Job refuses, struggling to accept his circumstances.
Job curses the day he was born, comparing life and death to light and darkness. He wishes that his birth had been shrouded in darkness and longs to have never been born, feeling that light, or life, only intensifies his misery. Eliphaz responds that Job, who has comforted other people, now shows that he never really understood their pain. Even worse, Zophar implies that whatever wrong Job has done probably deserves greater punishment than what he has received. He wonders why God judges people by their actions if God can just as easily alter or forgive their behavior. God is unseen, and his ways are inscrutable and beyond human understanding.
Moreover, humans cannot possibly persuade God with their words. God cannot be deceived, and Job admits that he does not even understand himself well enough to effectively plead his case to God. Job wishes for someone who can mediate between himself and God, or for God to send him to Sheol, the deep place of the dead.