SUBTLETY TO THE SIMPLE

SUBTLETY TO THE SIMPLE
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But is this consistent with the rest of Holy Scripture? Six days you shall labor and do all your work. But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. You shall not do any work, you nor your son, nor your daughter, your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger within your gates. For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and sanctified it.

This obviously opposes any non-literal interpretation of Genesis 1, especially since this passage is the basis for our seven-day week—six days of work, followed by the seventh day of rest. We are not supposed to rest for millions of years, but for one day! The New Testament confirms the accuracy and authority of the Old Testament in all matters. Perhaps even mythical? He affirms their literal reading and verity, for example in Luke — In Mark —8 cf. Not only is this a reference to the literal event the creation of Adam and Eve described in Genesis , our Lord makes it clear that there were no long time-spans preceding Adam.

The first couple was there from the beginning , not billions of years later. Christ the Lord has thus put His stamp of affirmation on the literal, historical nature of these events. While rest never goes out of style, the role of the bed is evolving—and that means bedding must evolve with it. Shanahan said that, above all else, owners look for platform beds.

It requires less effort and maintenance while looking fresh and clean all the time. Owners are looking to the bed to lead the story of luxury. Appearance matters almost as much as comfort. The poor underwater visual acuity of these birds, electronic supplementary material, table S1 that differ both and their flush foraging technique in which prey is disturbed in their ecology and in their evolutionary origins.

In all of and grabbed only at short range rather than pursued through these birds, there is a blind area behind the head. The width the water, may not allow the identification of prey items of this blind area differs between species, and it may extend before they are captured [11]. Items are brought above the to above the head and even into the frontal hemisphere e.

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However, the topographies before they can be swallowed and this is facilitated by their of the frontal binocular fields are very similar in all species ability to see between their opened mandibles [68]. New which use vision to guide bill or feet position, reaching a Caledonian crows Corvus moneduloides are among the small maximum width in the horizontal plane in non-passerines group of birds which forage using stick tools that are used species of between and see electronic supplementary for the extractive foraging of grubs from cavities [69].

Their material, table S1. Such visual field arrangements are found visual field allows the birds to see along the line of their in birds that feed in many different ways. For example, in stick tools which are held in the tips of the bill and usually species which peck at small mainly immobile items e. Their broad binocu- ostriches Struthio camelus, Eurasian stone-curlew Burhinus lar field which is the widest so far recorded in any bird oedicnemus, rock doves Columba livia, Eurasian wigeons species allows these crows to see what is held between the A.

The vertical extent of frontal binocular fields differs between This similarity in binocular field configuration across such species see electronic supplementary material, table S1. This has consequences structures which are unique to owls and are part of the mech- for the extent to which the birds can see above and below anism underlying their enhanced sound localization abilities them. Thus, a heron standing with its bill horizontal and the [73,74]. These large outer ear structures may prevent more head slightly forward can see what is at its feet.

It is worth lateral placement of the eyes. Put simply, more extensive noting that the visual field of herons is very similar to those visual coverage laterally would not be possible because of the tactile feeding ducks, such as mallards, but with the these ear structures would get in the way. Seeing what lies perpendicularly tive explanation that is associated with prey capture rather beneath the bill clearly has the advantage that a foraging than with nocturnal habit and enhanced visual sensitivity.

Because these directly into the binocular field, and directly into the flight prey have evolved rapid escape responses herons may get path of the bird. It seems likely that the binocular field is only a one-strike chance to catch each item. Therefore, monitor- used in conjunction with accurate sound localization to ing what is going on below, without having to move the head guide the feet in the final stages of prey capture.

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In the or body, and waiting for a prey item, is clearly a significant final approach towards a prey item, the feet are raised, and advantage for a heron. On the other hand, such comprehensive the talons spread wide to fill the visual field in front of the coverage of the frontal hemisphere would appear not to have head, which is also the region where sound localization is an advantage for the majority of bird species which pursue most accurate.

However, many birds conduct as iii Binocular field widths, nocturnality and predation least some of their activities at night [19]. For example, The widest binocular fields in birds are not found in owls many species migrate at night, some enter and leave nest Strigidae or diurnal raptors Accipitridae as is commonly sup- sites only at night, some may forage at night when following posed and was asserted by both Walls [1] and Rochon- a tidal cycle, some may feed at night on a more seasonal Duvigneaud [2].

It is not clear at what date the idea that a cycle, and some penguin species may forage at such depths link between nocturnality and broad binocularity arose, and that they regularly search for prey at the equivalent of it seems to be based upon casual observations of owls with night-time light levels [75]. Furthermore, not all owls are noc- the assumption that the eyes of owls are frontally placed turnal hunters. The nocturnal owls are mainly perch and and have a binocular field of similar width to that of pounce hunters, who can use accurate sound location as humans The eyes of owls are in fact laterally placed well as vision in prey capture [76].

On the other hand, nightjars in the skull although they are more frontal than in other feed mainly by trawling for insects in the open air space, birds. However, in tawny owls Strix aluco which are highly although the frogmouths Podargidae and potoos Nyctibii- nocturnal , the optic axes diverge by , and the binocular dae also perch and pounce, but without the apparent use of field has a maximum width of It has been argued that hearing [77].

It is clear see electronic supplementary material, the advantage of binocularity with respect to sensitivity is table S1 that the visual fields of bird species which forage at probably marginal, especially in the context of the extreme nocturnal light levels, or are nocturnally active during key range of light levels up to one million fold which can parts of their annual cycle e. In humans, using two eyes instead of Nycticorax nycticorax, paraques Nyctidromus albicollis, oilbirds one to view a scene provides an increase in sensitivity of Steatornis caripensis, Manx shearwaters Puffinus puffinus, wood- only 0.

This suggests that increased sensi- cocks, golden plovers Pluvialis apricaria, red knot C. Apteryx mantelli, black skimmers Rynchops niger show no evi- The maximum binocular field width of tawny owls dence that nocturnality is associated with wide binocularity.

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The LXX. Conflicts in the information required their visual world, rather than move into it [49]. The visual field defines the event [51 —53]. Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible. Enchanting 8. David Weinberger , on February 7th, at am Said:.

As noted above, at night. They roost and breed colonially in caves, is likely that this degree of binocular overlap is associated only emerging after dusk and flying within the forest with tool use [70]. However, the binocular fields of owls canopy, and returning before dawn. Their eyes appear to are broader than those found in all other non-passerine show a great deal of adaption in both their optics and their bird species examined to date see electronic supplementary retina, aimed towards increased photic sensitivity, yet their material, table S1 , but this width of binocular field may binocular field width is similar to those of other non-passerine not in fact be associated with the visual challenges of noctur- species which are typically active only during day light [78,79].

These include brow ridges and thick and Yet, their visual fields show the same narrow and vertically elongated eye lashes. Such structures are absent in other long binocular field characteristic of other birds whose bill birds.

The reasons for this dichotomy may lie in the reasons for Phil. B 6. Visual fields, eye size and imaging the sun having a large eye in the first place. Large eyes have probably Systematic data on eye size eye axial length in all of the evolved primarily to give high visual acuity, and, in general, species listed in the electronic supplementary material, table the resolution of the retina matches the level of detail that can S1 are not available.

However, eye size data are available be produced by the larger image [18]. However, a large eye for some species and it seems clear that a relationship does also has a large entrance aperture and will produce a rela- exist between eye size and the width of the blind region tively bright retinal image. In humans, the image of the sun above the head. However, in the same species, there is no on the retina is, in fact, sufficiently bright that it acts as a sec- simple relationship between eye size and the width of the ondary light source within the eye, scattering light and frontal binocular field.

It may be concluded therefore that degrading the rest of the retinal image [84]. Clearly, if selec- these two key parameters of visual fields have been selected tive pressure has been to evolve a large eye to maximize independently of each other. It has an image of the sun.

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Smaller eyes, on the other hand, can only been argued [49] that the principal selection pressure driving ever have lower acuity and, so veiling glare produced by light visual field configuration in birds, and which has led to scattered from a retinal image of the sun may do relatively subtle variations even within genera, is a trade-off between little to degrade the image generally and lower acuity the perceptual demands for control of bill positioning in the across the visual field.

With the latter driving the total extent of between eye axial length and the maximum width of the the visual field the width of the cyclopean field; electronic frontal binocular field in the same species. This provides supplementary material, table S1 in the majority of species.

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Comprehensive visual coverage of intersection of the visual fields of the two eyes. Rather, it the world about the head must mean that when the sun is reinforces the idea that within a species, the characteristics in the sky its image will always fall upon the retina. In of the frontal binocular field and the width of blind area humans, the problems of imaging the sun are generally above the head have evolved independently in response to recognized to be threefold: there can be temporary or per- different perceptual challenges.

In larger-eyed species, the requirement for the for much of their waking time seems inevitable [82]. How- detection of predators, which drives the extent of the cyclo- ever, it could be that birds can position themselves such pean field, is subjected to a constraint imposed by the need that the sun is always imaged at the periphery of the visual to avoid imaging the sun upon the retina.

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to give subtlety to the simple, and to the young man knowledge and discretion. SUBTLETY TO THE SIMPLE is a collection of philosophical verses written in the style of Eastern poetry “rubayat”. They open for a reader the manifold range of.

So, the problem may not be as 7. The informational function of binocular vision great as it first appears, although lifetime exposure of the cornea and lens is potentially a major problem, but perhaps in birds most birds do not live long enough for the damaging effects That some bird species, such as woodcocks and mallards to accumulate. However, that some have sunshade devices have frontal binocular fields as narrow as and are still which help reduce the possibility that the sun is imaged on capable of taking off, flying and landing safely, in structurally the retina is clear [82].

In fact, a significant linear relationship complex habitats, supports the argument that extensive has been found between the size of the blind area above binocularity is not a prerequisite for the control of flight.

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Fur- the head and eye size axial length of the eye [66]. It has further been argued 8. Binocular vision, optic flow-fields and 9 that the function of binocular vision in birds does not lie in contralateral vision rstb. This latter argument has been presented in some detail object is the accurate identification of its position and, if [62], and it is not appropriate to rehearse all of the arguments there is relative speed between the object and the observer, here.

However, it is worth noting the following points: to gain information on time to contact. The actual distance of an object from a bird may be of little importance compared with knowing its direction and the time it may take to make — in birds and any other vertebrates with eyes placed later- contact with it. Such information is available from optic flow- ally in the skull binocular vision is, in fact, served by fields [88,89].

Furthermore, it has been shown that northern peripheral vision in each eye. This is quite unlike the situ- gannets Morus bassanus and hummingbirds Tochilidae Phil. B ation in animals with frontal eyes, such as humans where when carrying out manoeuvres that require accurate visual the central optics of each eye project forward and serve information regarding speed of approach to a target, the binocular region.

There is an important consequence appear to use flow-field information [90,91]. In mammals, of this use of the peripheral field of each eye to provide for- optic flow-field information is analysed in the accessory ward binocular vision; the question of corresponding optic system [92] and pretectum [93], and a similar accessory points. Neural pathways that could potentially link points system has been identified in birds [94,95]. This is because an image point in the far retinal associated with binocular portions of a visual field.

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However, periphery of one eye will correspond with one that is more information on direction of travel towards a target and time centrally placed in the retina of the other eye [62]. Further- to contact a target can be derived most efficiently when more, in bird species in which eye movements are present travel is directly towards a target. This will result in an optical they are non-conjugate with each eye able to make different flow-field which expands symmetrically about the image of rotations independently of the other, and it has also been the target.

This would seem to be the situation in the key shown that some bird species spontaneously abolished tasks described above.

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For example, when pecking or lunging their binocular field, e. The essential consideration, however, is of the retina, and hence its projection through the optic that a flow-field which symmetrically expands about an nerve to higher centres, is not fixed; object directly ahead of the bird can only be achieved if the — the behaviours with which binocularity seems most clo- visual field of each eye extends contralaterally, i.

Thus, the important items would seem to require information that identifies consideration is contralateral vision, not binocular vision. Binocular vision is perhaps irrelevant in cant cognitive component especially with respect to food birds; what is important is contralateral vision. There is evidence It can be concluded that binocularity in birds functions to that such targets are identified primarily through lateral provide information on the direction of travel and time to rather than through frontal vision [85]. Target location, contact a target. However, this information can be provided however, requires more generic information.

Much of the evi- associated. Thus, in the majority of birds, the function of dence argues against the assertion that birds have either binocularity would seem to lie in what each eye does inde- global or local stereopsis. In particular, the finding that pendently i. Conclusion: the subtlety of visual fields dently and indeed the left and right eyes may process information differently [85] , and that higher-order infor- in birds mation is not extracted from the simultaneous view of the — The above discussions have shown that there is much subtle same object by the two eyes.

Thus, rather than trying to variation in the parameters of visual fields in birds. These find evidence of binocular fusion and stereopsis, it might variations seem to be functional and it has been argued be more parsimonious to consider what the function of that they are driven primarily by the perceptual challenges binocularity could be if birds viewed objects diplopically associated with foraging, and the simultaneous perceptual within their binocular fields. The overall driver of frontal visual field charac- — Among birds, there is a strong phylogenetic signal with 10 teristics is the demand for the accurate positioning of the bill.

The fine characteristics of fields are found among the Corvidae. However, sample the frontal binocular field may also be driven by the require- size with respect to the total number of passerines is ment to visually inspect items held between the mandibles. Therefore, it is advisable to be same objects from which higher-order depth information Phil. B cautious when making interspecific generalizations about is extracted but in the contralateral projection of the visual fields in birds, each species may show subtle visual field of each eye.

This ensures that each eye receives adaptations to quite specific perceptual demands. Reducing these to the single can be extracted. In birds, and in many other vertebrate values of key parameters as in the electronic supplementary taxa, the eyes are placed laterally in the skull. The functions and evolutionary drivers of The neurophysiology of contralateral vision in birds these variations are likely to be worth investigating. References 1.

Walls GL. B , — Gould SJ. In Dance of the tiger: a 2. Rochon-Duvigneaud A. Paris, France: Masson. NY: Random House. Warrant E, Nilsson D-E. Naturwissenschaften 92, — Felsenstein J. Brain Behav. A , 33 — Oxford, UK: Oxford — Gill F, Donsker D.