go to site Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Thus, agriculture is the foundation of the Indian economy. The maximum share of Indian exports is also from the agriculture sector. As the population of the country is increasing trem- dously, approximately at the rate of 19 million every year over the existing popu- tion of more than 1 billion approximately 1.
This can be done by increasing crop production to match the population growth rate of 2. There is no doubt that the Green Revolution in India during the late s brought self-sufficiency in food grain production, mainly through the increase in rice and wheat crop yields - the two main crops of the country which play an important role from food security point of view. However, the excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides, and the neglect of organic manures for these crops, has resulted in the deterioration of physical, chemical and biological health of the ri- and wheat-growing soils.
Can I get a copy? The use of urea as a sole N-source brought about a decrease of INM advocates the use of both inorganic and organic plant nutrients and is gaining growing recognition. The microbial biomass carbon was estimated following chloroform fumigation extraction method The latter further accelerated erosion, depletion of soil organic matter SOM and soil fertility as well as the disruption of the nutrient cycle 15 ,
Owing to the deterioration of the health of these soils, the productivity of the rice-wheat cropping system has now either got reduced or in some places has become constant for the last decade. Country of Publication: US Dimensions cm : Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Mani b , A. Kundu b and D. Abstract Soil organic C SOC pools under long-term management practices provide information on C sequestration pathways, soil quality maintenance, and crop productivity. Search Publications Advanced Search. Member Login Email Address. Create Account.
Can sustainability of maize-mustard cropping system be achieved through balanced nutrient management? Read More. A proper tillage can alleviate soil-related constraints whereas an improper tillage leads to a deterioration in soil structure. The latter further accelerated erosion, depletion of soil organic matter SOM and soil fertility as well as the disruption of the nutrient cycle 15 , The conservation and addition of SOM are crucial for biological, chemical and physical soil functionality and nutrient cycling particularly of N.
The N-cycling largely depends on the microbial activities in the soil 9. The conservation tillage improves soil organic carbon SOC concentration, water storage and reduces soil erosion, and subsequently enhances soil quality and resilience It also increases SMBC 18 , activities of several soil enzymes 20 , 23 as well as the soil respiration Microbial activities affect nutrient cycling and the availability of inorganic nutrients. The improved nutrient cycling leads to soil fertility and subsequently enhance plant growth and the crop yield 4.
Soil enzymes and microbial biomass have been considered as the major indicators of soil quality due to their relationship to soil fertility, ease of measurement, and high sensitivity to changes originated by the management and environmental factors 7. Experiments have revealed a positive correlation between soil management systems and agriculturally beneficial microorganisms Many factors affect the sustainability of wheat production under the RWCS.
Some important factors are SOM content, indigenous nutrient supply 14 , the micronutrient, ground water, percolation 1 etc. In order to overcome these limitations and to sustain crop productivity and soil fertility, a system multicomponent approach involving INM practices, i. Erenstein et al. Though, an integrated approach for tillage, water and nutrient management for wheat crop has not been reported. Therefore, experiments were undertaken to study the combined effect of integrated nitrogen application, water regimes, and tillage practices on soil micro biological indices during wheat cultivation.
Experimental Location : The field experiments were conducted at the research farm of Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi, during the winter Rabi season of and It had pH 7. Experimental Design : The experiments were laid out in split-plot design.
Two main plots were divided for two tillage treatments i. The sub-plots were further divided in sub-sub plots for different nutrient treatments as mentioned in Table 1. The treatments comprised of two tillage i. Water management consisting of three water regimes; 2-irrigations sub-optimal , 3- irrigation optimal and 5-irrigations supra-optimal were allocated in the sub-plots each at a gap of 20 days.
The eight nitrogen sources applied to the wheat plots are as in Table 1. Details of various nutrient combination used under integrated nutrient management practices. The three replicates i.
The recommended dose of N in this region for wheat is kg ha -1 The wheat cultivar cv. A uniform dose of 33 kg ha -1 P was made available through single superphosphate and 37 kg ha -1 of K made available through muriate of potash. Both single superphosphate and muriate of potash applied to the plots before sowing. The chemical N fertilizer urea , was applied in three split doses, i. The quantity of well decomposed FYM containing 0.
Similarly, Sesbania aculeate was applied at Dobereiner, Brazil. The coating of seeds with biofertilizer has been achieved by dipping the seeds in aqueous suspension culture of the biofertilizer. The inoculums density was 10 8 cells ml -1 A measured quantity of water through a 7. During the crop period, a total rainfall of While relative humidity was 71 and Six sub-samples per treatment were composited.
The field moist samples were sieved to 2 mm and analyzed for: respiration, dehydrogenase activity and microbial biomass carbon content in the soil. The microbial biomass carbon was estimated following chloroform fumigation extraction method The soil respiration was measured by the method prescribed by Stotzky The soil dehydrogenase enzyme DH activity was estimated by the method given by using Casida et al. All equipments used were of Borosil Company. Borosil is certified by ISO Manufacturing unit of Borosil is situated in Worli, Mumbai — India.
Statistical Analysis : All the data recorded were analysed by using the standard procedure of statistical analysis for split-plot design Analysis of variance ANOVA was used to determine the effect of each treatment, when the F-ratio was significant; a multiple mean comparison was performed using C.
Critical Difference 0. The data presented in Table 2 indicate that a significant soil respiration Zero tillage condition has brought about significant soil respiration compared to conventional tillage.
Among the integrated nitrogen management treatments, the highest rate of soil respiration was recorded in treatments where the N requirement has been made available through a sole organic source of N i. For a given nutrient management practice, the three different water regimes significantly affected the soil respiration activity. Soil receiving sole organic source during 3-irrigation recorded The use of urea as a sole N-source brought about a decrease of Effects of tillage, water regimes and integrated N management practices on soil biological properties in wheat cultivated under the contrasting agronomic practices.
Interaction of tillage, water regimes and integrated nutrient nitrogen management on soil respiration mg CO2 g -1 soil per 24 h-1 in wheat cultivated under contrasting agronomic practices. The most important parameter influencing the soil respiration has been tillage regime, however, the treatment where the sole organic source has been used as N-source along with optimum irrigation provide better results as compared to other nutrient treatments and irrigation regimes respectively.
The zero tillage conservation tillage soil has brought about significant soil dehydrogenase activity i. The frequency of irrigation has also affected soil dehydrogenase activity.
The maximum soil dehydrogenase activity 1. Among the nutrient treatment sole organic source is found to be most effective. It brought about The next higher value has been observed with T 5 treatment Table 2.
Other plots having RDN in various forms also had higher soil dehydrogenase activity compared to control plots. The conservation tillage plots with 3-irrigations have brought about significantly higher soil dehydrogenase activity over the conventional tillage plots in all the studies Table 4. The maximum soil DH has been, however, observed in the plots applied with conservation tillage, 3- irrigation and sole N supply through the organic sources i. Integrated nutrient treatments, where the RDN has been substituted with sole organic source under zero tillage registered The 2- irrigation and 5- irrigation has been slightly less favorable for enzyme activity as it resulted in a decrease of DH activity by Similar, results have been obtained under remaining organic treatments where 3- irrigations brought about better DH activities than 2- irrigation and 5- irrigations.
The most important parameter influencing the soil DH activity has been tillage regime. However, the treatment where the sole organic source has been used as N-source along with 3- irrigation provide better results as compared to other nutrient treatments and irrigation regimes respectively. The soils subjected to the 3- irrigation has shown the This may be due to the low redox conditions existing under zero tillage soils. The partial or complete substitution of the RDN by organic sources favored SMBC significantly in zero tillage soils compared to conventional tillage soil.
The magnitude of increase recorded under conventional tillage soil with sole organic source For a given N management treatment, the irrigation treatments played a significant role in determining SMBC status. The sole organic source substitution has shown the highest The 3- irrigation as a whole has shown highest SMBC values under all treatments applied followed by 2- irrigation and then 5- irrigation.
Thus among the three different water regimes 3-irrigation supported significantly higher SMBC than 2-irrigation and 5- irrigation. The magnitude of decrease has been The most important parameter influencing the SMBC activity is tillage regime. However, the treatment where the sole organic source has been used as N-source along with optimum irrigation provide better results as compared to other nutrient treatments and irrigation regimes respectively.
The data presented in table 2 to 5 indicate that the conservation tillage i.