Was Könnten Affen So, Lebten Sie Nicht im Zoo. (German Edition)

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golfwabasca.ca/sites/default/pfiles/map4.php I would be the main point of contact for my location for all the German customers for anything relevant to my department, not just when things go wrong. Ich stelle mir das irgendwie "laufruhiger" vor als das, was in unserer Customer-Support-Abteilung vorgeht. Comment la. Hi, Advohannes! Komisch - genau die gleiche Kreditkartennummer habe ich auch!

Comment Good morning, snails. Congrats, Lara. You see, no need to be worried at all - everyone loves you. I must say I share hm's concerns a bit. Has this new job the tendency to become a customer support job only, and is this a direction you want to go? And after I see that you are time and again frustrated by answering certain phone calls there's the risk that this becomes worse, particularly if the saying is true about the difference between ENS and GNS. Germans usually don't call and start the conversation with "I'm sorry that I have to bother you, but Please don't understand this as attempt to talk you out of it.

I just think it's an important fact, but you certainly will consider that anyway. Welcome, Advohannes. Somehow I can't resist to think you share B. Comment Sachs : Darn! Comment Sachs: Somehow I can't resist to think you share B. Well, sometimes I think in the same way. Anyone familiar with this usage? Or is it an eastern Germany thingy? Comment Willkommen auch von mir, Advohannes. Tut mir leid, dass ich das gestern nicht schon gesagt habe. Ich war ziemlich gestresst und habe nur wenig mitgelesen. Hat sich erledigt. Heute morgen bin ich nicht mehr so sicher, ob ich den Job haben will.

Bei der Stelle von gestern, fange ich im Prinzip von null an. Ich glaube, ich sollte vielleicht auf was passenderes warten. In other news, ich glaube ich habe mich "ausgelesen". Also lege ich eine Pause ein. Comment Do I see that right? Although you had told the company about your interest in that other, better job 2 months ago, they didn't contact you about it, and now they offered you that new job which is so badly paid, although the other job is still vacant? If that is so, I would also be very suspicioius, about the whole company!! Comment Nein nein, es sind zwei verschiedene Firmen.

Tut mir leid, wenn das nicht klar war. Comment I don't think it's the same company, Goldammer. I was also more than puzzled why I should have become a doughnut, but thanks to Advohannes a hearty welcome from me as well! I now understand what Gibson had in mind.

Sorry, Gibson, I'm not a doughnut :- About reading: I had taken a couple of books on my trip to Nairobi but I had not read any of them while I was there. Yesterday and today on the train I took the chance and continued "A Guide to the Beasts of East Africa" not a guidebook on animals ;- by Nicholas Drayson. I assume that it's a very old and well-known way of describing people not so well versed in computer science, but it was new to me and I consider it funny, so I want to share this small episode from the book with you: They think a megabyte is what you get from a large mosquito.

Comment I all by myself would have said 'Is harambee a Danish pastry? So it's not my fault that it wasn't clear ; I don't know why the megabyte mosquito reminded me of this joke, but it did: How do crazy people get to work? They take the psycho path. Comment Back after some "special days" and surgery, but still rather slow.

Have to read a lot Comment Never heard of a nibble; a byte usually consists of eight bits.

Lately the IT told the boss that the bandwith needs to be enlarged. Comment Ja, ich habe bestimmt was durcheinander gebracht. Comment LEO says that a nibble is a half byte.

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Comment What, nibble is a serious term? I thought that was a joke, along the lines of 'I weigh 7 stones and a handful of pebbles'. That's quite sweet - who would've thought that IT people do sweet? Comment Walther!! Comment Good to see you back, waltherwithh! I hope you're well and will heal fast and thoroughly. What is a nibble good for? Wouldn't half a byte be kind of useless? I mean, I don't know much about computers, but it sounds like it was made up by programmers to make fun of laypeople, to be honest. Lara, I'm glad you've had some good news at last!

If I were you, I'd keep the option for that better-but-paid-worse job open as long as possible and defer the decision. You need to weigh the pros and cons carefully - what would the lower pay mean for your day-to-day life? How much is the expected gain in quality of life worth to you? How likely is it that the new job will be as much better than your current one as you think? Don't be overly pessimistic, but you also shouldn't sell yourself a castle in the air because you're fed up with your current job. But maybe it's just me who is overly pessimistic?

In any case, I hope your job situation will improve soon, in whatever way Comment Alles gut gelaufen, walther? Comment Well, read the "old" posts here in CC, have to be careful about giggling or even laughing. I just hope that nothing was left unintentionally. Read about pages some English some German during the hours when I was awake, but made also a mistake taking books to heavy to stand on my belly. Hospital trays are not a good book shelf.

Another client in the room was VERY old American gentleman who in spite of living in Germany for decades lacked sometimes of words with the nurses and even doctors. I had the impression that my interpreting was appreciated The staff in the hospital was amazing in some way: a very few were German, but I learned noisy asking that there were Turkish, Tunisian, Cameroon, Bulgarian, Spanish Next attempt will now be a slow shower to get rid of the nasty orange-red desinfectant stuff, which sticks very well, not only on skin but on clothes as well.

Are there any Leonides or more special CC snails in the area of Frankfurt? Was there ever a Frankfurt Stammtisch? I hope you get well soon, and I wish you a further speedy recovery, Walther!! Comment Test? Edit: Alles klar, antworten geht wieder. Comment Lara, I think you made the right decision! Normalerweise sagt man Personen oder einer Firma ab oder zu, man kann eventuell auch eine Einladung absagen.

Maybe not completely wrong, but normally you would expect a "desto" or an "umso" when a sentence starts with "Je mehr". Comment Danke, harambee. I wanted to write something yesterday - we had a public holiday in Germany and it was great to have a day off - but then I had too less time. I took a long walk in the autumn wood and wondered why most of the trees were still green and only some were autumn coloured.

In the evening I met some friends in a pub and so the day passed by quickly. Even if some of you will only follow the device of "Slime in and find out" it's pretty welcome, I think. Take your time to recover - I think this operation took a lot out of you, so take it slowly! Lara Chu: I think that you made the right decision, too. May be you could have gone to the second interview, but to drive 3 hours one way is way too much. Would the "new" company have paid for the costs for gas? Would there have been an opportunity to go there without taking a holiday? I assume you weren't the one to take a duvet day is this a common used expression?

I found it here - never heard before - in German we'd say "blau machen" but to say "make blue" would be a real strong 6g, I think. Unfortunately I'm no expert in grammar - I'd say because it's a passive construction. This sentence doesn't sound incomplete to my ears because the "es" refers to the taking a holiday and driving all day long.

And now I'll call it a day! Comment Hallo alle! Lara , auch ich denke, dass Du die richtige Entscheidung getroffen hast. Ich hoffe, dass Dir Deine "ideale Stelle" bald angeboten wird. Auf English haben wir nur eine Form. Das Zustandspassiv beschreibt eine Situation, nachdem der Vorgang zu Ende ist. Comment Wow, Robert , I learned something there! Never thought about our two kinds of passive!

How wonderful to have a German teacher aboard!! Die Eltern kommen zu der Schule und besuchen die Klassenzimmer je nach Unterrichtsstunde ihrer Kinder. Die Maus sieht die Katze. Die Maus hat Angst und rennt weg. Die Katze sieht die Maus und hat Hunger. Die Maus versteckt sich. Die Katze kommt und sagt: "Miau miau. And now you see how important a second language can be. Danke, Goldammer , :- - bin aber nicht der einzige. Welcome back to Walther, I hope he's feeling better now, and his streak on "not so great luck" is over.

Lara, I think you made the right decision Something good will come along for sure. I am telling myself the same every day. Verlaufsform, da das Aufwachen und das Stehen gleichzeitig stattfinden.

Full text of "Spixiana"

Meine Mutter arbeitete in einem Krankenhaus und ihre Kollegen waren eine ziemliche bunte Gruppe, aber so weit ich mich daran erinnern kann, in all den Jahren hat sie mit nur einem einzigen Krankenpfleger gearbeitet. Weitere Korrektur: Du warst nosy und hast nosily gefragt. Duvet day? Hoffentlich geht es dir bald wieder bestens. I can also offer IE. My colleagues wandered off to McD - this will be my first fast food this year Comment snap in nook? Dann und wann esse ich bei Wendy's, aber Mickey D's vermeide ich. Gestern habe ich das Abendessen von Subway abgeholt, denn meine Schwiegereltern wollten das schon lange probieren.

Und dann habe ich versucht, mir die Debatte bei Ihnen anzuschauen, aber ich konnte es nur ganz kurz aushalten. Comment Hello! I was a couple of times close to post something not content-free, but always too busy, and now sort of too leerhirnig again. And due to the leerhirnigness cautious not to post anything preposterously weird or potentially completely contents-free in response to previous comments. Despite things seeming to be slightly desperate down here, I'm already packing bags for another field trip to Formosa northern province with warm climate over the prolonged weekend.

So don't worry. Good luck to Lara, waltherwithh, and everybody else! Greetings to Amy-MiMi, Goldammer, hm -- us, and all the others. Good night! Comment Hallo Schnecken! Jetzt kannst du sicher wieder ruhiger schlafen. Es ist ja wirklich fantastisch international hier bei Leo. Comment Vielen lieben Dank, Robert. Ich rede und schreibe mehr vom Bauch heraus. Comment Today I am going to get the stitches out. Afterwards I will take it VERY easy as yesterday was a bit to much of "action", negotiations with craftsmen, bank business, GP delivery of the hospitals' report and flu shot , minor errands, ordering winter tires for my car Life can be tough being single!

It is Monday morning in the meantime, getting a little bit better every day. I hope that all snails are well as there has not been any entry since Saturday. I will try to have a little walk into town as the weather seems to be nice. Ich hoffe, es geht dir inzwischen ein bisschen besser. Du hast dir einen ruhigen Nachmittag verdient, finde ich. Am Wochenende waren Herr MiMi und ich unterwegs. Vielleicht schaue ich die ersten 15 Minuten an.

Besser als gar nichts, oder? Comment I never heard of such a key - does it revive snails? Apparently not. All the things you can learn in the CC. Gestern abend mussten wir wieder die Heizung anmachen. Walther : klappte es gut mit deinem Spaziergang? Weiterhin gute Besserung! I was wondering what all you snails were doing during the last few days, too! May be we need a key for reviving snails? I think the recovery will take some time and even a ten minute walk can be very exhausting.

Tomorrow - better: today! I will spend a week on an island in the North Sea and I'm really looking forward to. Dixie: Why do you think that Amy doesn't live in the country side? And yes: duvet day is BE as I saw it in Leo. I wondered if this is common use at all. And now I'm wondering whether I've produced any content at all - greetings to all snails anyway!

Well, now it's Tuesday morning, I should go to bed. Meiner Meinung nach sind in der Gegend, in der ich wohne, zu viele Leute, um echt auf dem Land zu sein. Und ich meine, wir habe hier Nachbarn. And now I'm wondering whether I've produced any content at all. Comment Lucy : Nordseeinsel! Aaah - ich liebe die Nordsee. Welche Insel besuchst du denn? Es ist ja auch gerade Zugvogelzeit, oder? Comment Ah, some snails still alive I am hoping for some wet weather that the painter will come and start working with plastering around the new doors etc.

I am far from the islands in the Northern sea, so Lucy's vacation would not be affected by bad weather in my area. I will have to "bastel" with some web of fibers for my heating elements to keep the air a bit moist in the winter months. Otherwise the air gets to dry. Seems that the prefabricated mats have the wrong format, some "silhouette"-work ;-. I also learned a nice American phrase for "klauen": "to get a five-finger discount" - is that really common?

I'm also interested in which island Lucy is going to. Mr Goldammer and I will be going to Amrum for a week in November - believe it or not, my first visit to the North Sea! I'm just such a hopeless 6-gear landrat. In German, "Landrat" is something quite different Somehow, using the word "Absatz" implies that there are several of them - you use it when you speak about a text which is divided into several paragraphs.

Any other ideas? Here, I would name the number of people belonging to a town or village - but of course, that is because we don't have these townships which spread over a huge area. Here, the villages lump together, and are usually described by giving the total number of inhabitants. Und jetzt muss ich dich auch noch beneiden. Comment Cookies!! Now we know how to wake up snails ;- The North Sea is nice, when I was a small child we went there several times for summer holidays, and I loved it. However, it's been a long time since I was there, and nowadays it's so fast and cheap to go to the Baltic Sea from Berlin that we go there nearly every year.

In fact, we will go to Usedom in between November and December! I'm really looking forward to that :- Goldammer, I've read about that exhibition. It's supposed to be really great, but Stuttgart is so far away, compared to Usedom After so many calamities, it's time that things finally go well for you! Comment Oh God, I didn't make the minimum! Good folks, I am alive and kicking, but very busy. I do hope everyone is fine, or, sensational, as Grace Kelly puts it in "High Society". Just put in a question in Sprachlabor and remembered to visit CC.

I promise to improve! Comment So. Jetzt gibt es Mittagessen: etwas Suppe. Comment Soup, Lara, that was a gorgeous idea! Just had a cup for dinner - before I'll continue soon with a roll and some cheese - well and maybe something sweet to finish? Comment Nick und pinch , beides leider BE. Obwohl, acht auf einmal, hmm, gut, dass niemand das gesehen hat. Aber egal ob Nordsee oder Ostsee -- im November? Sehr herbstlich. Leo, da musst du einfach wieder mal vorbeikommen. Bis zu den er gibt es noch Zeit. Hoffentlich hast du eine gute Reise nach Formosa gehabt.

Ich frage mich im Hinterkopf 6g? Gute Besserung, Lara. Comment Ja, das Wetter ist perfektes "Suppenwetter". Echt lecker! Heute gab's Suppe vom Chinesen -- die mit der Teigtaschen. Keine Ahnung. Oder Tortilla-Suppe beim Mexikanischen Sehe gerade ein paar nicht korrigierte Fehler oben, Entschuldigung, aber hoffentlich wusstet ihr, was ich meinte. Comment hm--us: Perhaps you got mixed up with the different types of mesh?

One mesh is now keeping my bowels inside - hopefully. On my heating elements in my house I hang plastic containers with water and a special type of "cloth" which sucks some water upwards to moisten the air. Otherwise the air in the heated rooms is getting to dry, bad for the nose, eyes and other tissue.

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I have to refill the water app. Unsere waren aus Keramik und hatten altmodische Blumenmuster. Das mit dem Stoff, der das Wasser nach oben saugt, ist sicher eine gute Idee. Danke, Sachs! Comment hm-us: Yes, Chinese restaurants in Germany serve wonton soup, but you should look for "Wan-Tan-Suppe" :- In fact this was the very first Chinese dish I ever ate, ca.

You have to at least watch around the 6 minute mark for something truly amazing. I have not every seen anything like it performed by a marching band. Comment Hi all, just very quickly, but I have to get my frustration out somewhere I have just proof-read a cover letter and a cv for a friend of a friend. Cover letter is in German, cv in English. And it is a disaster!!! Full of mistakes! And this is not a first application, this is from someone who in the past has been hired for a variety of positions.

How did it happen that she was even invited? I would never dare to send out such crap sorry! Why is there such a disregard for proper language? And why are these people so much better paid than I am??? Sorry for the rant! Will give my account on our moving soon This was also an experience Small correction for waltherwithh : I noticed that you hardly ever use too when you want so say something like Otherwise the air in the heated rooms is getting to dry. Comment I have this discussion about to and too very often.

I think it might be an entry into Sprachlabor, but I have a feeling that even natives do not have a very clear opinion or "grammar rule". I would usually put "too" at the very end of a sentence, separated by a comma; e. Comment My understanding is that there are two meanings and usages of "too" 1. At the end of a sentence, separated by a comma, in the sense of "auch", as in your first Death Valley example 2. In the sense of "zu", as in your second example.

This is what leo says, too [ ;- ]. Dictionary: too I agree with Abertawe and imo, your second sentence would need a "too" and not a "to". I'm curious if any native speaking snails confirm what your native speaking friends said, Walther. Maybe there's a change going on. Comment Well, I am trying to sound not too! The same is the case with there and their, which very often gets confused by native speakers. And they will believe they are right, which they are not Comment I, too , think it's too hot heating's already on in the office and I'm still sitting here in a short-sleeved shirt, even if it's really cool outside for some days now.

Let's see what our ENS say when they join us in the morning. It's just too bad, that too many native speakers don't know how to use to, two and too. Kein Sprachwandel, sondern einfach Probleme mit der Rechtschreibung. Comment Right Amy - they're - I knew there was a third one, but could not think of it!

Too much else going on in my head right now Comment I often try to avoid the to and too problem :- in writing. Tomorrow I'll start my holiday and I still have to pack my bags. Always the same - at the last minute. For all the curious ones: I'll go to Sylt. I've never been there before and am really curious, too!

The North Sea is my favourite for holiday but most of the times I've been on the coast and only for some day trips visited some of the islands - with the exception of Borkum where I was for a longer period. And I loved it! In German I often see the confusion about "seid" and "seit" in written language: "Seid Ihr alle da? Or some cookies? I'll take some and say "thanks" to the kind providers!

Re "to" vs "too", "there" vs "their", it's not just a problem for native speakers of English. In recent years I have caught myself making such mistakes a few time, while I am quite sure that this did not happen previously. There seems to be something about homophones that messes with the brain's spelling machinery. If anybody has a theory about that, I'd love to hear it. At least I haven't caught myself writing "should of" instead of "should've" yet, but I am afraid this may be just matter of time. Comment Hey there folks, long time no see : I have to agree with Lucy on that 'seid' and 'seit' issue so many Germans seem to have.

In our English classes back then in school, so many kids would apply this wrong way of thinking resulting in "Apples are bigger like grapes". That's when I was glad that my parents weren't Swabian. Back when I had a lot of written conversation with a lot of Brittish guys they wrote that aaaall the time, whereas I didn't really experience this a lot with Americans.

However, the reason might be that I first had written contact to the formers former? I know it's really lame to talk about the weather -- anyhow, I've been told that we'll have a pretty early and most likely even pretty harsh winter in Michigan this year. Can anybody confirm this? I don't want this to happen! And as if that could change my deep worship for to? Pliese halp, Natifes this place. Okay, this sounds way misty-eyed.

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To quote a relatively famous rapper: "Do I really have to graduate or can I just stay here for the rest of my life? We don't do it wrong , only differently. It is quite common to get that mixed up and tell us what we do "wrong" when we speak our language. Comment Hi again!

May be it's common use there so many times use of "use" in just two sentences As I mentioned before I live in the Ruhr area but wasn't born here. I usually reply "als" but having done this far too often I tend to give in. Another typical mixing up here in this area is the "nach" and "zu"-thing - for example you hear someone say: "Ich gehe nach Aldi" and you would reply "zu" and then he'd say: "Was - Aldi hat zu?

Nice discussion here - I'm afraid I can't take part when I'm on my way to Sylt. I never wrote a posting with my Smartphone but don't think I'd be very lucky with this - could be a bit too cumbersome. But I'll try to follow up with what all you other guys will write as long as the rechargeable battery will do Comment So many new old? Hi everyone. I know this all too well from Austria too. Not to mention how often you find dass and das confused in written language I'm not sure if I'm allowed to say that as a non-native of English, but I realized, Lucy, that you very often use "may be" when you, as I assume, would say "vielleicht" in German.

I guess as "mag sein" it's possible, but the standard writing in English is "maybe" in one word. And yes, there still is some choclate left, but I'm afraid it won't survive this evening ;-. Comment Hi Sachs, no problem! As long as you'll give me some more choc o late I'll try to think about the maybe-thing.

And now I really have to hurry up with my bags Comment Sorry, Lucy, I ate the "o" already myself, that's all that was left :-D Have a great holiday! Gerade habe ich das Festival of Lights in Berlin entdeckt. Laut einer Website kommen hunderttausende Lightseers nach Berlin, um das anzuschauen. Am Wochenende fliege ich nach Oakland - meine Nichte wird heiraten - aber vorher muss ich vieles erledigen.

Die Klasse musste eine Mail schreiben, in der sie sich beschrieben. Dann mussten sie der Klasse die Mail vorlesen. I would say: Es ist schon immer im Besitz derselben Familie. Comment dave--mi: My run-ins with "should of", "would of", etc have been in an AE context, mostly in writings by American college students. Just today I almost slipped up with "buy" vs "by" but noticed it in the nick of time, just before firing off the email and the "off" here would have almost wound up as an "of".

Comment Who are all these new snails? As an example, we had brought many letters from the kids for the sponsors and this time it was my task to sort them and send them to the sponsors. Sounds easy and isn't too difficult but the total number of letters, drawings and other nice things was close to and in some cases the students had forgotten to add their names.

That called for some detective work. Whatever, yesterday I brought all the letters to the post office and I hope that the sponsor will enjoy what they get. Still lying ahead is the completion of the accounting for the trip, but I hope to finish that this weekend. I don't mean that I dislike the situation, it just is a lot of work barring me from other activities like devising profound ;- lines of argument for the CC. If aftermath is somehow negative, what else could I say?

Can I join your club of Chinese soup lovers? I may have mentioned it before, but what can be better for breakfast than a good wonton soup! Not that I ever take it for breakfast here in Germany, but I can't resist the temptation when I am at the right place. Even a simple noodle soup in China or in China town of an American city can be great. A short comment on I agree with Goldammer's correction, but I wouldn't say that Robert's original sentence "Dieselbe Familie ist immer im Besitz.

So, the correction was not that nitpicky in my opinion. Norbert Man passt nicht mehr auf, weil es "second nature" geworden ist. Comment Danke, Goldammer und harambee. Tja, der Satz war wirklich schlampig. Ja, Pippa G , ich gehe wirklich seit mehr als 50 Jahren zu diesem Restaurant. An alle neuen Schnecken: Herzlich Willkommen. Comment A remark about "second nature" You know that I have been in hospital and had surgery.

My roommates told me one morning that I had been babbling in my dreams I recall some very strange dreams during my time in hospital, I guess because of the narcotics and such. Comment Maybe you dreamed of us snails?? I sometimes catch myself phrasing everyday incidents in English, as if I wanted to post them here Comment Das mache ich auch, Goldammer aber andersrum, versteht sich.

Comment Not really, Lara, because it is German practice, isn't it? Ich mache in einer Stunde endlich Feierabend und werde mich sofort ins Bett legen. Comment Although it looks like a bit of a silly request, I'm really interested in some native speakers' comments. I should have made it clearer in the title of the thread They promised to be at the door on Monday at am again.

Is there an equivalent to the German "auf der Matte stehen"? I will have to set my alarm clock! I do not have wrens to "offer", but today a hedgehog was walking through my yard at daylight which is a bit surprising. Usually they are active at night and switch on my beamer motion detection. I wish it will find a quiet safe place for hibernation! Ich habe noch nie einen Igel gesehen, denn in den USA leben sie nicht.

Allen Schnecken einen guten Rutsch ins neue Jahr. I read at Wiki that there are some in the US too, even kept as pets? Any confirmation? Which new year is starting right now? Painters are working since am Comment Hello from another boring morning at work I remember I promised a detailed account about our moving, but as it has been so much stress, I really don't feel like reliving it It really was very exhausting, even though we had hired a moving service, but they thought that we had already packed everything into boxes, and thought they just had to transport the boxes and the rest of the furniture.

A slight misunderstanding Then of course it was completely without a system, nobody knew where anything was, chaos But by now, we have nearly unpacked everything, the kitchen has arrived and everything is working. Just the usual stuff to be done, hanging lamps and pictures. Something that bothers me is that we just put all the many books into the shelves, but without a system, and I really don't like it. I prefer my books to be sorted a bit, according to size, subject, language, author, Once I feel I have the time and really nothing better to do, I will tackle that. A guy came and measured the empty kitchen to make sure that the new one was gonna fit , which is nice, because then I can just wander around there and just have a look at the many small, beautiful and useless things that they have Comment Abertawe, thanks for telling us about your move not "moving".

Ich hoffe, dass sich der Tag bzw. How do you plan to hang your lamps? With a noose? Comment Tut mi leid. Eigentlich wollte ich "Guten Rutsch in die neue Woche" schreiben. Comment I wondered too, Amy. But I thought it was meant to all the snails who plan to hibernate and won't come out again before next year ;- Plan a lot of time if you really should start to bring your book shelves in some sort of order, Abertawe. It took me over a week ok, including entering them into a computer list with at least the shelve where I can find them to get most of my books some in a proper order, and that was only in my study there'll be some more in my living room, but they'll have to wait.

I will try to remember! I was thinking, in fact, if to hang was correct or not Comment Good afternoon, my fellow snails! It's been awhile, but I'm finally back for good : The past few weeks were somewhat hectic I never really recovered from my vacation , but that's going to change real soon now, as they say. Not much else to say for the time being, got a lot of catching up to do Comment Hedgehog as pet? Amazing what's out there! I thought it illegal in Germany. Welcome back, Carullus! Comment Igel habe ich schon mehrmals in Deutschland gesehen.. Kein guter Anfang zu der Woche.

Comment harambee: I read about the hedgehog as a pet in the Wiki, not sure if it is true. But of course it is now the season when some "caretakers"? Comment Yes, this is the time of the year where you can see many hedgehogs in the evening. As a rule of thumb, one should just let them go. Many hedgehogs die in the hands of their "caretakers", not despite but because of the "help" they get. Comment Wir sind etwas nach unten gesunken Und Carullus -- steckst du also etwa mitten im Jobwechsel oder bekommst Vaterschaftsurlaub oder gehst in Ruhestand oder was?

Oder ist dein letztes Erscheinen vielleicht nur etwas lange her? Willkommen auf jeden Fall. Du bist wohl in derselben Altersgruppe wie Dave aus MI? Comment Ich bin auch da. Habe aber nicht viel zu berichten. Abertawe , gut, dass du den Umzug hinter dir hast. Es ist also Igelzeit in Deutschland. Sehr nett! Also gar nicht mal so falsch! Comment Pippa, funny you said that about "Ausmisten" as I was thinking the other day that I need to move again as I am accumulating clutter. A move is always a great way to part with things. It is for sure not a city but even for German standards it would be considered a town.

Comment Es ist also Igelzeit in Deutschland. Now I'm wondering why that actually is so. When I checked last time hedgehogs were no migratory animals. So, they will be in our gardens and parks not only in fall but also in summer and spring. But do we see any hedgehogs on a mild summer night? Not a sausage!

Can anybody explain that? Comment I think that is because in autumn, hedgehogs need to eat more to accumulate fat for the winter, so they are more active than in summer. I once did see a hedgehog in summer - we were staying on a farm for our summer holiday, and the hedgehog seemed to live under the porch of the visitors' house in which we stayed, so we saw it quite often in the evening when it left or returned to its home.

Comment I remember seeing hedgehogs quite often when I came back late in the evening back to my parents' house, but I've never seen them in the town where I now live. But here, the parks are overrun by rabbits. That is not fully correct, though, as they are in fact Kaninchen. I think both hedgehogs and Kaninchen are very cute, but the latter seem to be quite a problem, as there just are too many.

Your travel diary is an amazing photo book

Yes, Pippa G, it's an Altbauwohnung and I really love it, it's just that I'm quite sick of the move itself, and there's still a lot of small things that haven't found a place yet. So, all the time we're sitting on the sofa, there's always this feeling that we should still be doing something I just want to relax and enjoy Comment I, too, remember that I got aware of hedgehogs on cosy summer evenings. Many years ago, when we spent our holidays in South Tyrolia, the owners of the guesthouse where we had our apartment had a boxer.

One night he went crazy, was running to the garden door again and again and barking excitedly. After he repeated that behaviour for quite a while the owners went to find out what's outside the garden door. It wasn't fully open when the dog ran outside and the next we heard was his painful squeaking. Obviously the "ball" he found on the street outside and caused him so much excitement had quite a few quills.

Fortunately he wasn't hurt seriously neither the dog nor the hedgehog I assume. But he always was a very nosey dog.

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We took him on walks occasionally and once he found a stag beetle in the grass along the way we walked. It was not easy to convince him that it wouldn't be a good idea to come too close to this little animal with his nose. Comment At long last I have a time schedule for the last steps of remodeling! IF everything works as planned now, the week from Nov, 5, should be the last one for craftsmen, then a lot of dusting, wiping, cleaning Well, rabbits and rabbits' holes can be a plague; I see them often on the local cemetary where they eat many plants, one has to chose carefully the decoration.

Und im Bus heute Morgen gab es so etwas wie einen Hustenwettbewerb Ich war so lange nicht mehr in England - kann mir jemand sagen, ob die Busse da auch inzwischen Haltestellen anzeigen bzw ansagen? Da ist Deutschland deutlich fortgeschrittener, glaube ich Comment Correcturito for the young Englishman: Habe hier noch keine Igel gesehen, About the bus: I don't know about English busses, but the announcements in German busses can also be misleading. It happens occasionally that announcements and actual stops are out of phase and that can be very confusing for somebody new in town.

By the way: verschnupft is a nice Teekesselchen in my opinion.

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Comment Well, it was told that Sinti and Roma cooked hedgehog in a clayshell, but that is probably politically not correct anymore. I hear that the first flu wave is around in some area, is "verschnupft" always caused by a virus? But it spreads in busses public transport and in crowds. I have no idea if "Teekessel-Raten" is a popular competition in English at all Comment Hm, 'so lange nicht mehr in England', also 92 ist wohl doch nicht dein Geburtsjahr?

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Und wahrscheinlich auch nicht dein Alter. Ich geb schon auf und sterbe hier aufm Sofa. Das Jahr also, in dem du nach Deutschland umgezogen bist? Oder doch die letzten zwei Zahlen deiner Kreditkartennummer? Comment Proposal reject, hm ;- , we have our own squirrels; so there is no need to send you hedgehogs for that.

If you had offered the humming birds you had mentioned before I know, I know, humming birds won't like our climate. To cut a long story short, 92 ist schon mein Geburtsjahr und nicht mein Alter. Bei mir sind das Synonyme. Der Vater der Braut d. Beide sagten, das sei alles sehr surrealistisch. Comment Obwohl ich das Teekesselchenspiel kenne, war mir die andere Bedeutung von "verschnupft" ganz neu - danke! Bei uns gibt es dieses Spiel nicht.

Biete Schiffsladungen von Kaninchen. Comment So, hier ist die Geschichte von der Reise zur Hochzeit. G hat mich angerufen und gesagt, "Ich bin angekommen. Ich: "Ich sehe immer noch niemanden. Moment mal, ich gehe in die andere Halle und schaue dort. Ich: "Nein, ich sehe dich hier auch nicht.

Ich: "Um, ich sehe kein Bereich C. Bist du vielleicht in San Francisco statt Oakland? Ist da ein Schild mit SFO? Ich schaue nach einem Schild. Wo bist du? Hast du ein Schild gefunden? Hier steht ein Schild mit 'John Wayne Airport'. Was mache ich jetzt? Ich rufe dich nochmals an. Sprich mit einem Angestellten und ruf mich nochmals an. G hatte eine Flug von Chicago nach Oakland mit Zwischenlandung in Santa Ana und ist versehentlich einfach aus dem Flugzeug ausgestiegen.

K und S vermieteten ein Auto, und alle kamen zusammen in Concord gut an. Die Episode mit G war die Geschichte des Wochenendes. Comment Ha ha, oh nein! Comment Ich sehe Tippfehler in , aber ich korrigiere sie hier nicht. Goldammer braucht etwas zu tun. Buses seems to be much more common, but, according to those dictionaries, busses is not wrong. Do you disagree? Neuweltstachelschweine sound interesting, I will have to google, but I don't have time for that now.

Sie mieteten sich ein Auto nehme ich mal an. Oder sie nahmen sich einen Mietwagen But the story reminds me of an experience many years ago. I had to pick up somebody at Frankfurt airport for a funeral. No mobile phones at that time. This, in turn, might preclude historical analysis and could make accounts of the past limited and distorted. It is indeed one of the dangers public memory faces that it might become too far removed from individual experience to allow generations born long after the historical period, in particular, to relate to events in the past.

Yet there are also obvious contradictions in the notion of individual conscience. First, individual conscience is always influenced by social factors. Second, in the not so distant future everyone will have to depend on some form of contribution from public institutions and the media before the National Socialist 17 past can become an object of their conscience. Recent theories of collective memory have, consequently, described 18 the essential role of public, ritualised acts of memory in all societies. The manner in which public memory functions, however, needs to be analysed in a more differentiated way.

Da gibt es die politisch-symbolische Ebene. Da ist. Wir brauchen. This ignores the role of rational analysis as well as sympathy or grief, for instance — these are emotions that are not automatically linked to a guilty conscience. To insist, as Walser did, that public acts of remembrance simply function as an accusation, is clearly an exaggeration. Many commentators agreed with Walser that it is necessary to look at the ways in which the Nazi past is used in the present. The Berlin Republic had not ceased to describe itself in relation to the Nazi past, but Auschwitz was now used to justify the first participation of the German Bundeswehr in military action, which dissolves the traditional connection between anti-fascism and pacifism in left-liberal views.

From a theoretical point of view, it has been shown that public memory is always established or maintained because it serves a 25 purpose in the present. At the same time, it is indispensable for modern democratic societies to reflect on the content, forms and functions of their collective memories, on the way in which they construct and appropriate collective histories, that is, to reflect on how they instrumentalise the past.

Equally, the preponderance of people born after the Nazi period in present-day Germany was also frequently stressed. The fact that the Nazi past was still connected to their own experience meant that the tone of the debate often became very personal, perhaps sometimes to the detri28 ment of the quality of the arguments.

He focuses specifically on the planned Holocaust memorial in Berlin, the depiction of racist attacks in Germany today 10—11 , and on the negative nationalism of both leftwing intellectuals and left-wing media In the public discourse on remembering the Nazi period and on present-day German identity the term normal has distinct overtones. It was one of the central terms in the s Historikerstreit and was used in connection with attempts to historicise National Socialism.

During this debate, Historisierung was taken to mean the attempt to shift the focus of historiography away from the central Nazi crime, the extermination of the Jews of Europe, towards the normality of every-day life in Germany. As a result, it was argued, the Nazi period would be incorporated into a normal historical narrative and become simply another historical period. The foregrounding of the abnormal monstrosity of its crimes would thereby 29 cease.

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Nowadays, however, perhaps ironically after the election of an SPD-Green government in , the search for a new positive national identity is no longer restricted to the right of the political spectrum. The call for normality in Germany no longer necessarily 33 equates to reactionary views. At the same time, it does not seem appropriate to class Walser as a proponent of the 35 New Right, even though parallels can be drawn.

The Walser debate, therefore, cannot easily be described in the traditional categories of left 36 and right. Among left-liberal intellectuals, an anti-national stance based on arguments using Auschwitz, which had turned into an almost automatic reaction, is now being called into question. A more positive attitude towards patriotism and Heimat can be found, for instance, in the Kurs37 buch , Das gelobte Land, published in September These topics are now approached with fewer preconceptions. At the same time, negative German self-images are coming under scrutiny as being a form of national identity in them38 selves, rather than being the opposite of nationalism.

Foreign commentators in particular have also agreed that Germany today is normal in the sense of no longer having to prove that it is a functioning 40 democratic state much like other European countries. And should we indeed accept racist attacks as normal as Walser seems to suggest 10—11? Ein springender Brunnen In his Friedenspreisrede Walser describes literature as situated outside the sphere of Meinung and political machinations he criticises.

In order to achieve such a relation to the past Walser tries to free himself of all later judgements about the time of his childhood and youth, and attempts to recreate the perspective that would have been most natural to the boy at the time. Walser succeeds in showing, rather than explaining, the various ways in which National Socialism penetrated the life of a young boy in a small town as well as how he was immune to some of its ideological manipulations. In the protagonist and his family, Walser depicts what it means to live within a historical period apparently in ignorance of what would later be seen as the defining events of that period, and without knowing how it would end.

The narrative is, however, by no means free of present aims. Yet this is embedded in a more general aim: Walser fulfils in fiction what was demanded by conservatives for historiography in the Historikerstreit. Historicising the Nazi period meant depicting it not solely by describing the social and political developments that led to World War II and the mass exterminations, but by showing what is supposed to be German Alltagsgeschichte, the lives of ordinary people during the period without applying pre-established moral categories.

This allows new perspectives on different degrees of involvement and suffering in social groups that were neither the direct victims of Nazi crimes nor their perpetrators. In Ein springender Brunnen, therefore, characters are shown in their different relations to National Socialism. There are active members of the NSDAP as well as, for example, a clown who criticises the regime in a circus performance.

Such an emphasis on the normality of life under Hitler, in historiography or fiction, can serve a specific purpose. It can provide a version of the German past that allows a normal German identity in the present that is not based on having to come to terms with the catastrophic and criminal developments in German history, but can draw on the continuity of normal life.

While this aspect should not be neglected, it would be falsifying if it replaced one of the most important, and shocking, elements of the memory of the Third Reich today: the images and accounts of wide spread enthusiasm for Hitler. A sudden full realisation of what had happened, of the barbaric crimes the whole country had been complicit in, would have been impossible. In order to be free, Johann believes he has to be free of their fear and their possible accusations. Accordingly, the ending of Ein springender Brunnen touches on what was the most sensitive issue in the Walser debate: if a normal German identity is to be constructed through a normalisation of history, what happens to the memory of the victims?

Both Ein springender Brunnen and the Walser-Bubis debate showed how the attempt to normalise German national identity might involve a turning-away from the victims and their descendants, above all German Jews. The issue of German-Jewish relations is, quite understandably, still very sensitive, and the most damaging accusation levelled against Walser 50 and others was that of being anti-Semitic.

It was usually more subtle forms of exclusion that can be seen as discriminatory, and the line between important differentiations and discrimination proved to be very thin. Collective memory is important in the Jewish religion, but it is also a constituent part of every social group, as Fuhrmann himself stresses in the same article WBD, Both, National Socialism and the requirement to remember it, thus appear as outside forces subjugating Germans.

Such a concept of German identity is based on a one-sided, falsified version of history, as well as being in danger of creating anti-Jewish resentment and defining Germanness above all in opposition to, and indeed as threatened by, the victims of the Third Reich. It is to be hoped that a normal democratic society can exist without a national identity of this kind. Eine Dokumentation. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , 7— Further references to this volume appear as WBD. Duisburg: Diss. Examples of such letters can be found in WBD, 33, 41—42, 83, Munich: C. Vom Umgang mit deutschen Vergangenheiten nach Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, , 79— Formen der Erinnerung.

Geschichte, Philosophie, Literatur, Kunst. Munich: Fink, , 31—52, 38— Weitra: Bibliothek der Provinz, , —, Kursbuch : 1—4. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, , 66— Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , Further references to the novel appear as SB. They fall dead from the heav2 ens like insects or birds in a hostile climate. And similar, if less poetic, obituaries have been issued by a number of commentators in different fields. Modern angels have been debased as the result of a long process of vulgarised aesthetic humanisation, socialisation and sexualisation, which began perhaps with the painters of the Italian Renaissance.

Paradoxically, as angels became less substantial in eyes of theologians, they became more so in eyes of artists and writers, with the result that in representations they began to obey the laws of nature and science. That process has continued, with every age more or less producing the angels it needs.

And, as that has happened, the figure of the angel has fallen to earth — becoming more and more a reflection of the time it represents, and less a reflection of an immutable and divinely4 sponsored universe. The answer is complicated. And it would certainly be wrong to underestimate the power these icons have in contemporary times, even, or precisely, to diagnose their own decline. However, even as they have been marginalised and mechanised, it is clear that angels have invaded the structures and forms of our thinking — certainly at the level of popular culture. These manifestations may simply testify to the fact that the angel is no more invulnerable to domestication and trivialisation in the market place than any other remnant of cultural heritage.

This is neither a unique nor an entirely ephemeral manifestation. Historically, none of the monotheistic religions have constructed their narratives of divinity without the aid of the angel mediator. And in much the same way that modern physicists have reformulated models of the atomic orders, so in their very different ways, spiritual cartographers of sorts have refined our understandings of the angels and recast topographies of the angelic orders — from the author of the apocryphal book of Enoch, to Dionysius the Areopagite whose Celestial Hierarchies establishes the tiers of the angelic hierarchy, to literary formulations, which have been almost as influential: Dante, Milton, Blake, Klopstock and, in the twentieth century, Rilke.

The first point to make then, is that the vision, and the desire to interpret it, flourishes in some eras, and falls away in others, but at some level it abides. But why do artists and writers in a secular society find angels such a persuasive trope? And how are we to understand the continuities and shifts between the various sightings and citations? The question itself is a fashionable one: few major theorists have been without a pronouncement on angels: Foucault, Lacan, Derrida, Kristeva, Irigaray, Wittig, or Grosz.

They foreshadow, he claims, the extent to which vast interconnecting message systems govern contemporary understandings of 6 physics, communications theory, geography, society and language. The central figure of his polemical theology though is the angel. Different as they seem, both writers propose some kind of cross-pollination between information technology and ancient spirituality. But beyond arguments about the relevance of angels for the contemporary moment, there are more general reasons why this image remains so compelling.

Angelology then becomes the attempt to solve the crisis of proximity and distance. Der Engel ist etwas Fragli8 ches. But also, more specifically, angels exist not by dint of essence, but of function. Angels offer a way into a discussion of mediation, a philosophy of difference and relation, but also, in a more specifically literary vein, the function of metaphor in that they manifest the Logos and translation, in being the messenger between realms — ideas at the heart of the literary and artistic enterprise.

One might argue that, like significant mythological figures, the angel tends to appear in periods of transition and crisis. Dann braucht man solche Figuren. In the rest of this chapter I want to examine the particular function of a crop of angels which appeared in the late s and early s.

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However, first I shall look back briefly to the angels of Modernism. There are two reasons for this. Secondly, the poems to be discussed here are all responses to the most famous Modernist angel: the only truly new angel, a 10 very German angel, that is, the angel of history. The thought that there was a moment in the first two decades or so of this century which produced an extraordinary efflorescence of angels is not a new one. The corollary of this depletion of the public sphere was then a paradoxical animation of the private and ultimately aesthetic sphere.

The effect was to shift the balance of the relationship: in the face of such radical marginalisation, artists managed to turn historical necessity into a spiritual advantage, and became utopian. In the same way the social marginality of the artist was also converted to a spiritual centrality, and art became the mouthpiece of the infinite in that being no-where can be converted to being everywhere. Modernist angels have generally been interpreted in the light of this fiction — not as angels of theology; rather as secular angels, the functionaries, not of faith, but of the imagination.

The preoccupation with fictions has been regarded as one of the char14 acteristic hallmarks of Modernist literature. This does not quite do justice to the writers concerned, however; it would be more accurate to see this understanding as one half of the equation. They are better seen as part of a struggle between the transcendental and the earthly, sublime and secular, genetic fallacy and moment of artistic self-realisation — between fiction and conviction.

And angels of this period, both in the iconographic and literary manifestations, represent an acute agon between the authority of the old and the creation of the new. They stand somewhere between nostalgia for confident intermediaries of the divine voice and frustrated allegories of an emptied heaven. The figure of the angel is a means then of fixing the urgent dialectic at the heart of Modernism. It is unsurprising then that in the midst of this crisis, writers and artists should turn to perhaps the most famous symbol of the earlier crisis as a way of confronting history.

Er hat das Antlitz der Vergangenheit zugewendet. Das, was wir 17 den Fortschritt nennen ist dieser Sturm. Indeed many writers turned to the figure to explore and express their frustrations. As such they offer a seismograph of the historical development of the twentieth century. And of course he is speaking of official GDR notions of historical progress, really existing socialism and the idea of the future as a guarantee of utopia more generally. It does not seek to reach the future, nor look to messianic intervention in order to break through the petrified present.

The angel waits for a new movement of wings in the stone, though it is doubtful whether the logic of the poem would allow him any agency at all. At its best the very passivity of this blind and faceless angel might function as a kind of call to action on his behalf. Is the angel of history a whore? But the poem is difficult to pin down. It might suggest that angel had freed itself from the stone.

This is an angel that seems to have little in common with the one which once flew. It appears to have no face, which could suggest a continuation from the previous poem: the caved-in eyes and the gagged mouth. It could imply a hitherto unknown face of the angel; it could be addressed to an intimate, perhaps the self, and imply a face not no longer? Either way however, the end is tentative to say the least: the possibility of subversion or change in the present is deferred to a future which might be hoped for against hope , but which nothing in the poem guarantees.

Poems about the angel of history by Andreas Koziol, who was born in and is associated with the Prenzlauer Berg scene, and Thomas Martin, who was born in , also appeared during the period — 36 One of the dominant moods is that of irony. The poem thus describes a situation of historical limbo. Instead, once again, he is confronted with a kind of abyss. This is a time with no ideas, no ideals, no possibility of redemption, and certainly no message. However, it would be wrong to exaggerate the force of either of these lines of thought. The poem refuses to cohere to any message or meaning, or to open a historical perspective.

In one sense, they could be seen as representatives of that tradition which the angel must bear without having access to it: that is, a progressive critical vision. The result, however, is a text which refuses hierarchies of meaning and chooses instead to splice fragments together in a playful way. There is no message, just as the only movement is simply self-conscious movement between quotations. Aus dem versehentlich beigetretenen Insekt ist ein Engel mit den Augen Samsas geworden. Once again the potential threat of the creature rising from the earth and unsettling the foundations is played with, but then revealed at the end of the poem to be nothing.

In fact the text is full of potential threats which are cited but then almost immediately rendered harmless, random or banal. All of them open onto a void of sorts; all of them take catastrophe as a given. This is comprehensible. Nevertheless, these are narratives which do not go anywhere, deliberately undermining or evacuating themselves.

They are reading angels who are simultaneously read; and they speak of a very particular moment. But in the refusal of history and the turn to selfconscious fictions, they are symptomatic of broader tendencies in the literature of the first years of the new Germany. There is not sufficient space here to treat these angels in detail.

In the sequel, they are part of the dominant cycles of history in the recurring circular images and are also subject to the intervention of Time itself Emit Fletsi played by Willem Dafoe who will turn back the wheel of progress into a meaningless now. There is one important difference, however. But the final comments must return to the figure of the angel. All of these texts from Klee on produce a very human angel. Moreover it is an angel without a message, faceless, meaningless or dead, who acts as a comment on, or lament for, a lost history.

The narrator looks on as the down-and-out Harry reveals his true self, his body foul with putrescence, in a kind of living death. That paradox is compelling, and of course is very close to the struggle that the angel came to embody in texts from the beginning of the twentieth century. What is fascinating, however, is that so many writers still use the figure of this angel as a symbol for, or a fiction of, that struggle, particularly in those crisis years leading up to and after the 49 Wende.

Not so much angels of history; but angels of otherness. However, there are also new angels of the sublime. That too would seem to be a symptom of broader tendencies: which one might summarise as the shift from a concern with history to one with aesthetics in some modern German literature. While there might be many problems with such a shift — not least of which is the way political reticence can be deemed to be support for the status quo — as far as angels go it is perhaps no bad thing.

It is after all a very odd idea to take an angel — the quintessential being of timelessness — as a representative of history. And there is nothing that kills poetry so much as allegory. Also quoted in Cathrin Pichler, ed. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, , esp. I have been inspired by the excellent little anthology Erdmut Wizisla and Michael Opitz, eds. Berlin, Weimar, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, —98 , 12, An earlier, longer version appeared in ariadnefabrik 1 : 2.

Successful Failure? Thus it promoted sexual liberation, a tolerant multicultural society, equality, a sense of hope, and thriving subcultures. The student movement was seen to have failed because it was remarkably ineffective regarding any change in the political system, the economy, or the workplace. Moreover, it was, and still is, associated with allegedly disastrous antiauthoritarian education practices, terrorism, and drug abuse. Each side could claim victory: the 68ers for conquering the imagination, the conservatives for conquering reality.

In , this uneasy co-existence was shattered by a plethora of new books, essays and editorials. The battle for cultural hegemony and the exclusive right to interpret the past in the Federal Republic erupted again in full force, with the added spice that whilst for the first time historians attempted to argue that had indeed become history, a new government had been elected whose ministers had their roots in the radical politics of that period.

This government, according to some observers, at least, threatened to put the utopian dream back on the agenda. And 4 even though the Right have their own identity crisis, the position of the 68ers as founding fathers wider Willen is gradually eroding. The most obvious reason for this shift in perception is that the s have become a distant and increasingly incomprehensible era, one which fewer and fewer people can remember clearly.

We may vaguely feel that the era was of cultural significance in terms of a fundamental shift in 5 popular culture and changing attitudes to state authority. Yet its broader political significance is far more difficult to determine, particularly after the collapse of communism in the early s which ended the model of antagonism which the war and postwar generations had internalized so well. Today, the gulf between the 68ers and the modern observer seems almost unbridgeable.

Looking back to thirty years ago, Tariq Ali wrote: To those reading about it today, that world might appear to be like a submerged continent. However, it is difficult for us to believe that we live now in a world where hope is gone for ever and where selfcontemplation and self-interest have replaced the belief in a world of equality. Humanity still possesses all the facilities to effect such a change, but the system that has triumphed in the last years of this century would rather render our very being null and void than give up its 6 privileges.

Success Yet there are still many voices that claim that the German student 7 movement was successful, or at least that it had a significant impact on 8 German society. Lutz Schulenburg maintains that marks the beginning of an era of revolutionary rebellion against a capitalist system and consumer society which ignore the real needs and desires of the individual. In his view, what the student movement has taught all subsequent movements is that spontaneity and grass-roots democracy, however frustrating and slow, are the basis of an alternative political culture characterized by the transparency of the decision making process, the end of subordination, the practice of wide consultation, and the delegation of tasks and 10 authority.

Der tradierte Politikbegriff ist um entscheidende Dimensionen erweitert worden. Failure Critics of the student movement, predictably, continue to deny that it has any positive legacy at all. The 68ers are blamed for a significant fall in standards in the schools brought about by their antiauthoritarian ideas 12 on education. What is true is that the generation of has received a disproportionate amount of attention and is still seen as the decisive generation in the history of the Federal Republic.

A unique set of circumstances, ac21 cording to sociologist Heinz Bude, make it distinctive, effective, and so long lasting in its identity and consciousness. Machtwechsel The move of the seat of government to Berlin in the summer of was most certainly not a return to the protest tradition in that city. Rather, it freed the younger generation from the historical baggage of the Bonn Republic. By attacking their elders, they are compensating for their own lack of purpose. But he feels they have missed their target, since the 27 68ers are no longer a homogeneous group.

While it is a fact that some politicians who have taken over the key posts in the new German government are members of the 68 generation, they do not intend to follow the agenda of the German student movement. On the day after the election, Die Welt commented: Der September ist ein Tag des Siegs der 68er Generation. Die wurde still und leise entsorgt. Das gibt dem Generationensieg 29 etwas Hohles.

Die Generation, die zum Ende des Jahrzehnts in den Entscheidungszentren angelangt ist, ist zusammen mit dem Land erwachsen geworden. This is becoming increasingly difficult if we do not want to depend entirely on the unreliable and partisan memory of the greying 68ers. The era has received intense media attention, but, because of its anti-establishment attitude, its constantly changing agenda 32 and essentially ephemeral nature, the real debates and discussions within the student movement as opposed to its media image have until recently been poorly documented.

To help scholars, researchers and archivists are now locating and documenting the resources scattered around libraries and private collections. One of the first was a small guide 33 put together by Phillipp Gassert and Pavel A. There is no doubt about it — is facing historisation. Historians and sociologists feel it is time for closer investigation. Unfortunately, the sociologists offering their opinions in her book do not yet possess the instruments or methods of interpretation that would allow them to arrive at objective, specific conclusions.

What good, then, is a historical view of ? Robert Frank lists a number of myths about the German student movement which a closer his38 torical study, he claims, reveals as nonsense. One example of this is the myth that was anti-totalitarian in nature. He argues that almost the opposite was true, both in terms of individual and collective behaviour.

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Weitere Korrektur: Du warst nosy und hast nosily gefragt. These were designed for a rolling exhibition of commodities. Die Lust ist an den Wert gebunden und nie direkt, nur durch ihn erreichbar. This depends on his relationship to the ethical alone. Sign up for free on Tripmii. Das wurde abgelehnt. It would put our community under such an amount of stress if we introduce critearia such as "content" to the qualification for being mentioned in the next highlights.

This is not to say that a historical approach cannot yield any results. While also conceding that a final verdict on the impact of the movement is impossible as long as the diagnostic uncertainty remains, he believes there are some trends to be made out in the research: 1. Cultural interpretations of the impact of the movement have taken over from political, economic or social interpretations.

For the time being, there is agreement about the short-term political failure and long-term socio-cultural effects. However, these are difficult to determine. Even though there is no conclusive explanation for it, the global character of the phenomenon of is generally accepted. The disparity of influences and groupings which have converged in the movement is increasingly the object of research. There was no unity of purpose on the ideological or organisational level.

The symbolic significance of scenes, individuals and situations appears to have played a greater role than hitherto assumed. The activists were part of a media-led and informal self-stylisation. The metatheoretical coordinates for a discussion of the movement which existed in the first fifteen years after the events are no longer uncontested. New, postmodern interpretations compete with the old ones, but they have until now not been able to gain the upper hand.

This increases the uncertainty about the categorical framework within which a valid analysis 44 could be reached. The author of Lenz has over the last decade produced a number of seminal essays on German identity, German unification and, most recently, growing xenophobia in Ger46 many. We want to know more about this period because we may feel that our present is too safe and predictable, or because we can escape from reality in the accounts of the 60s: in them we find abandon, freedom, iconoclasm, challenge and intensity.

There is something about the unfulfilled promise which leaves us wondering what might have been. If so, was it successful in terms that the marchers can agree on, and in terms that we today could agree on? In other words, we need to decide whether we want to take the students at their word and 50 judge their impact by what they openly campaigned for, or whether we believe that their impact has to be seen in their collateral influence, which could be measured by examining collective memory, media attention, public discourse, and the political sphere.

Both strategies depend on whether we believe the 68ers, who have, until recently, held the monopoly on the interpretation on the German student movement, and whether we can disentangle myth and reality. It is fascinating to see how easy it is to redefine an entire era. Like the Greens, the students set out to do more than they could actually achieve, and in the process, they lost what cannot be regained: their youth, their innocence, their idealism, and their utopian dream.

This loss, in my opinion, has influenced the political and cultural climate for the last thirty years. The experiences of the German student movement led to a much more sober and focussed protest by the feminist movement, the green movement and the peace movement. None of these movements were on the agenda in , not even the support for Willy Brandt, his Ostpolitik, and eventually unification.

Judged by their own ideals, demands, plans and aspirations, the students have failed miserably. The economic system they despised now rules supreme, the one-dimensionality of mankind continues apace on television and the internet. So what can we say? Six Theses 1. The impact of the German student movement on the Federal Republic is contested. It is a struggle for Interpretationshoheit between the 68er generation, their critics, and the generations that followed. It is also a game with very few permanent players.

The impact of the German student movement is being reevaluated because generations post 68 seek to gain influence and power in the Berlin Republic. This includes, paradoxically, a number of former activists and participants of the movement. The impact of the German student movement is overstated by those who stand to gain from the cultural shift.

This includes, paradoxically, conservative voices, scaremongers, people who did not have anything to do with the events while they were happening, and those who simply wish that the German student movement had been successful. While we are trying to analyse the impact, we contribute to the impact. All the nostalgic accounts of the German student movement capture the mood of the time, and preserve it.

This in itself is an important legacy and demonstrates the impact on the public psyche, in that we may wish for a return of that intensity, even though its actualisation would be impractical and embarrassing in the present climate. He was accused of having beaten up a policeman at a demonstration and, more seriously, of supporting the RAF. The ensuing debate — held publicly and with surprising ferocity considering that the events in question took place almost thirty years ago — brought all the old antagonists into the ring again.

New accusations were made daily and were eagerly debated both in the sensationalist 54 as well as the serious press. While British voices analysed events with a certain detachment Lord Weidenfeld felt that the debate showed that Germany had learned from the past and that the debate itself was a good 55 thing for democracy; The Guardian described it as being ultimately 56 about the moral use of force , the debate in the German media especially Focus and Bild hit hysterical levels, but ran out of steam by the end of February The discussion, a minor Kulturkampf between proponents of Leitkultur and Subkultur, is still dominated by the continuing struggle for cultural hegemony — is the capitalist reality allowed to destroy the idealistic legacy of the 68ers?

Apparently not. At the same time, the debate, which may flare up again if new allegations are put forward in the run-up to the Federal elections in , has demonstrated that is far from history — it is still a presence in our political, social and cultural reality. Literatur um Marbach: Deutsche Schillergesellschaft, , — Hamburg: Nautilus, , 9. Bonn: Bibliothek der Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Wolfschlag, ed.

His anchor for the years —68 is a failed revolutionary turned academic, who fled the action in the city to study in peace in quiet Freiburg. Fischer Verlag, Karl Heinz Heinemann and Thomas Jaitner, eds. Keiner widerspricht. The event is lived as completely outside normal experience. It is unique, other, and immediate. It is therefore, by definition, ephemeral, a fact registered in the number of books gathering and preserving documents, the collection of photographs, the special issues with photographs and quotations.

The inscriptions would be effaced, the actions would not be repeated. DeGroot, ed. In one sentence the PDS is thus described as both neo-Stalinist and proto-fascist. These questions derive from the three-fold political reality of post Germany. Thus united Germany is a country which a is attempting to create a sense of national coherence, b is simultaneously seeking to build a post-national consensus, c has never even truly become a nation in the first place.

It also touches in very real terms upon one of the central issues of contemporary political debate, namely that of the socio-ideological rather than merely the more commonly addressed political character of PDS support. The debate about the nation within the PDS was initiated around the time of the election when the leadership, and in particular Lothar Bisky, raised the question of national identity in Germany and what the relationship between the Left and the national question should be.

Since then there have been further examples of an attempt to address the question which have caused deep divisions both within and outside the party. The cynic might argue that this is a political tactic designed to win over the socially conservative vote to the PDS rather than see it go to the hard-right and this issue will be dealt with extensively below. What is to be demonstrated here, however, is that the debate actually reflects a different social agenda in the ex-GDR which cannot be ignored and which contributes considerably to the continued division of Germany.

Liberalism, Collectivity and Identity The primary reason for the apparent difference in values between eastern and western Germany lies in the discrepancy between the fifty-year tradition of political liberalism and the more recent growth of economic liberalism in the west, on the one hand, and the tradition of social conservatism and collectivity in the east on the other. Equally, the propounders of totalitarian theory could equate the socially authoritarian nature of the GDR with the Nazi dictatorship. From here it is only a short step to equating all forms of collectivity and branding them all as reactionary.

Ich habe mich zu ihr als meinem Land bekannt. Jetzt, wo es sie nicht mehr gibt, bin ich ein bisschen auf der 6 Suche nach einem Ersatz. This one quotation demonstrates quite remarkably the changes in attitude in the GDR toward society and nation which took place within the space of two generations. It shows quite clearly that the older generation, growing up in an ideological framework of ideological monumentalism or high Stalinism, are still largely conditioned by those values, whereas the younger generation, socialised during the conservative and antiquarian period under Honecker, have a far more de-ideologised and non7 political attitude toward their own history.

As a result, her ability to come to terms with being German is far greater than that even of many west Germans. For her, and this is also the basis for much Ostalgie, it is a question of seeking an identity in place rather than ideology. Paradoxically, the collapse of Stalinism as an ideology has emptied the GDR of its political content and left a shell of memories of Heimat, order and stability. These are all concepts which the west German Left has spent many decades resisting in the name of socialist liberation.

However, the Wende is in fact itself merely a ripple: a symptom of a deeper and wider historical turning point which can be located in the shift to the re-economisation of society and the neo-liberal wave around the mids. In consequence the socio-economic situation in the exGDR is therefore primarily related not to the mechanisms of transition since in which the GDR has apparently been colonised by an unchanged West German society but to the nature of economic transition which has embraced the world economy for a quarter of a century and which itself gave rise to unification.

This means that East Germans demonstrated for unification with the auto-mythology rather than the changing reality of the Federal Republic. They imagined they would get the West Germany of the s, but got that of the s. They wished for the Wirtschaftswunder but got the Standortkrise instead. However, despite the attempts of the Gysi-Bisky-Brie group to reorientate the party toward the west, in general we can say that the PDS continues to represent a part of the Left historically anchored in the collectivist values of the five new states and that if it wishes to survive as a distinctive force it has no alternative.

This demonstrates that the basic values of the PDS, although still of the Left, are actually fundamentally different to those of the western Left. Its was primarily that of the Prague Spring rather than the Paris events and it did not grow up in the context of the Anglo-Saxon individualism which so characterises the mainstream western liberal Left.

For this reason its roots are in a more orthodox Marxism along with a regionalist nationalism in which values of order and community take precedence over individualism. In order to prosper in the west, the PDS will have to adapt to the very values which are so distant from its own traditions and yet at the same time try to bring its own eastern values of collective socialism into the political agenda of the Federal Republic. The success of this strategy depends as much on the objective development of the economy and society as on the subjective processes of party policy.

This means that the Stalinism debate within and about the PDS is not primarily about the past and culpability for the running of a Stalinist state but much more about political orientation for the future. The point is that the retrospectively imagined community of the GDR takes on different significance for different purposes.

There is a large constituency, in both east and west, which understands the term Modernisierungsdiskurs entirely negatively. What is shown here is that history has both uses and disadvantages which exist in a complicated dialectical relationship and, as Jarausch points out, the debate about their significance is clearly defined by the political preferences of the partici14 pants.

An example of this complex relationship can be found in Dieter Klein. He remains a reformist within the PDS and was, until the Cottbus conference in October , a member of its leadership as well as a member 15 of the Moderner Sozialismus group at the Humboldt University in Berlin. What these three points demonstrate is that even in somebody determined to push the PDS in a more social democratic direction and who is broadly in favour of the removal of pro-SED elements from the party, there is a need to emphasise the sense of continuity of a working class tradition and acknowledge the existence of the GDR as a social alternative to capitalism.

The main difference between the PDS and the other main parties in the present climate is that it is still predominantly a political party, whereas all of the others have become economic parties. This does not mean that the other parties have decided to control the economy but that they have, to a greater or lesser degree, allowed market economic considerations to control them. On the other hand a political party such as the PDS sees its role as that of attempting to control the economy in the name of social imperatives. In that sense Ostalgie and attachment to Heimat do not represent a call for the return to the authoritarianism of a Stalino-Prussian dictatorship but a desire for protection against the neo-liberal tides of recent times.

Regional defence of the ex-GDR can therefore be seen as synonymous not with conservatism but with a radical political opposition which may, at some point in the future, be extended to the whole of Germany. The Right has recognised this east German potential as well and campaigns there with slogans which are as anti-capitalist as they are 17 xenophobic. It is this recognition, I believe, which lies behind the policies developed by the new Zimmer leadership to attract support in the west and the paradoxical though concomitant emphasis on German national identity.

If so, what sort of problems does this cause for the PDS in its relationships with a predominantly libertarian western Left and an increasingly neo-liberal SPD? The PDS is increasingly described as a nationalist and socialist party, if not yet a National Socialist one. The PDS tends to represent those who have a memory false or not of social cohesion or those who feel that one should be regained against the tide of individualism sweeping in from the west.

Too often though, this desire for a Menschengemeinschaft is misidentified as a desire for a Nazi Volksgemein20 schaft. Community or Society? Neo-liberalism rests ideologically on an absolute delinking of economics and culture. The sense of social isolation and confusion which is now undoubtedly present in the ex-GDR is therefore clearly represented in opinion poll and survey data conducted in the east. With this presentation of data it is also apparently easy to show that in terms of social values, PDS voters can hardly be distin22 guished from those of the Republikaner.

Again however, this sort of interpretation of raw data fundamentally distorts the thinking and motivation behind the apparent overlap of superficial responses to public opinion surveys. The social psychology of the average east German is not determined by some Prussian-fascist authoritarian personality trait but by their experience of unification, conflated with their ever-fading memories of the reality of the GDR. In a sort of mirror image of west Germany, east German identification with the GDR is with its socio-economic structures, with its collectivist and non-market orientated values and not with the political dictatorship of the party elite.

If the West Germans had the economic miracle and a form of patriotism rooted in the strength of the German mark as a substitute identity then the East Germans had their antiquarian so-called niche existence. What both had in common was a propensity not to examine the underlying geo-strategic and historical conditions for their social and economic systems.

However, another reason for the perception of the PDS as an authoritarian party is more to do with the political heritage of those doing the analysis than with the subjects of that analysis. In this case the typical western post anti-authoritarian perspective is applied to a society which had no and which — for good or ill — is not obsessed with retrospective anti-Nazism and abstract anti-nationalism in the same way as its western counterpart.

The view, therefore, that the PDS is close to right-wing values is based in a criticism of its adherence in eastern Germany to what are seen as values traditionally associated with the Right in western Germany. But again, what are seen as negative values in a capitalist society — discipline, law and order, thrift and an 23 identification with Heimat — are not necessarily negative when felt by those socialised in a society which considered itself a sozialistische Menschengemeinschaft with a high degree of collective identification and social cohesion.

Of course it can be argued that values such as these, in themselves and regardless of their socio-historical context, tend toward exclusivist or xenophobic attitudes. The rise of neo-Nazi movements and anti24 foreigner attacks are often pointed to as prime examples of this. And yet every study shows that those engaged in such activities are not of the generation which is traditionally associated with the above values but are carried out by the young disaffected generation socialised in the closing years of the GDR and the ten years since the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Hubertus Schmold, a prominent member of the DGB, in recognising the trend toward increasing instability of employment and its political consequences, has called for a more prominent role for social security as a necessary corrective to flexibility. In this sense the political change of direction of the midseventies was of far greater significance than the Wende of , and, moreover, the latter issued directly out of the former.

Kommt jetzt das 26 Gegenteil? The point, however, is that globalisation and the reunification of Germany are intimately intertwined. The former gave rise to the latter and the latter in turn accelerated the former. What people look back to is the antiquarian, somewhat cosy nature of the GDR. The problem for the PDS is that in these post-modern days of neo-liberal individualism, all totalising theories are automatically seen as authoritarian.

We all experience disunity within our own lives and societies, whether it is between class or race or nation or region or gender but the disunity is one of a socio-historical rather than an essentialist one. Truth is not in that sense decentred but merely disrupted. Class, racial, national, regional or gender disunification is a characteristic of the modern age and its possible transcendence is therefore to be located in much larger questions than simply those of problems of com30 munication between east and west Germans.

This is a hopeless task though, for the PDS is a party which is, by its very nature, rooted in the past and, in eastern Germany survives largely on a diet of identificatory nostalgia only washed down with small drafts of policies for the future. The difficult task facing the PDS is that it has to appeal to the past and the future at the same time and yet still have a presence in contemporary political activity. This is both its strength and its weakness.

This identification has a pre-eminently contemporary purpose and cannot be seen simply as nostalgia. We can conclude from this that the preoccupation with the past has a basis in unresolved social questions. Leadership attempts to move it away from a Marxist approach must, by definition then, start with an attack on the historical context and analytical approach of major parts of the Party.

On the other hand, what is disadvantageous about the antiquarian values of many PDS voters and members is that the conditions which created the social cohesion, namely productivist models with clear class boundaries and social structures, were produced not out of the exigencies of the socio-economic development of a socialist society and economy but out of the political inflexibility and social stagnation of Stalinist political hegemony. The question we are left with in the end, therefore, is if there ever was a Marxist baby, has it not long since drowned in the Stalinist bathwater of instrumentalised historical analysis?

To continue the metaphor, is there any point in trying to resuscitate the baby at all? The answer, of course, is that if the PDS were to do this, as some in the leadership seem to wish, then there would be no reason for its continued existence alongside the SPD. Alternatively, there is the scenario in which it becomes a purely regional party, such as the CSU in Bavaria in which it would gradually lose its critical ideological edge in favour of a regionalist-nationalist conservatism.

The parties of the Right such as the CSU have the advantage that they can explicitly base their whole programme on conservative concepts of nation, religion and tradition, i. The Left, however, must always apologise for doing the same. For that reason Stalinism tended to fall back on concepts of nationalism transmuted into Greater-Russian chauvinism, of religion transmuted into Marxist-Leninist dogma, and of tradition transmuted into the functional manipulation of history.

Yet Stalinism also had to rest on the collective ownership — if not control — of the means of production. Stalinism minus economic control equals right-wing social authoritarianism, a development seen all too clearly in post-Soviet Russia. Separating out the positive defensive elements of Ostalgie from the negative and reactionary elements of Stalinist thinking is therefore the major problem facing the leadership. Of an abstract collectivism over forced collectivisation. To arrive without that alternative would be to arrive with no luggage — or no rucksack, as Yvonne Kaufmann put it — and be, therefore, at the mercy of others and the vagaries of western political beauty contests.

Despite all of the problems of Stalinism in the Long Cold War, the PDS tends still to hold to the view that socialism remains the only viable alternative to the rule of capital. What is necessary, however, is a rejection of deideologised Stalinist monumentalism and antiquarianism in favour of a repoliticised critical praxis. What is often misunderstood is that — especially in the period of antiquarian neo-Stalinism after the s — emphasis was not only placed on ideological training and indoctrination but primarily on social security and communality.

Retrospective identification with the GDR is therefore an identification with the social and economic stability of that antiquarian and depoliticised reality and not with the agitation and ideological propaganda of the monumentalist years. Western observers often ignore this distinction. They believe that PDS voters are looking back nostalgically to some revolutionary communism when in fact they are looking back to a relatively conservative communalism.

What the West judges to have been a stagnated society is often seen by those who experienced it as a stable one. On the one hand a return to the deideologised politics of the Long Cold War in which dogma replaced critique cannot be desired.