He was playing a double game, being just as much in contact with the Jewish authorities as with the Arab League.
In preparation for the offensive, Haganah successfully launched Operations Yiftah and Ben Ami to secure the Jewish settlements of Galilee, and Operation Kilshon, which created a united front around Jerusalem. Golda Meir and Abdullah I met on 10 May to discuss the situation, but the meeting was inconclusive and their former agreements were not confirmed.
On 13 May, the Arab Legion, backed by irregulars, attacked and took Kfar Etzion, killing of the Jewish defenders and massacring the prisoners. On 14 May , David Ben-Gurion declared the independence of the state of Israel, notifying the International Community and the war entered its second phase, with the intervention of several Arab states' armies the following day. Initially, the aim was "simple and modest": to survive the assaults of the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states. As the war progressed, the aim of expanding the Jewish state beyond the UN partition borders appeared: first to incorporate clusters of isolated Jewish settlements and later to add more territories to the state and give it defensible borders.
A third and further aim that emerged among the political and military leaders after four or five months was to "reduce the size of Israel's prospective large and hostile Arab minority, seen as a potential powerful fifth column, by belligerency and expulsion. I say that this is not what this is about.
I have for many years looked at these two books and tried to reconcile them to something tangible and understandable that coincides with scripture, and unless you get very creative it just isn't going to happen. I don't believe in trying to make the bible fit my theology but wrap my mind around the text. Ezekiel 38 and 39 is very specific about the weapons used and there is no way to turn a horse into a tank or a jeep no matter how creative you get. This being said the above battle for the creation of Israel perfectly fits the story of Ezekiel 38 and 39 Now this is not to say that there will be another battle in Megido, aka the valley of Jehosephat, I am saying stretching your mind to try to fit this story in with the rest of the end time prophecy is not going to happen, and that if one is looking for those who are looking to destroy Israel are to be found in Psalms 83, and that those in this ten nation confederation will try to recreate the ancient Caliphate for which they already have, and in fact Israel is in their plans for extermination for that creation.
The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory. World opinions are divided on whether Israel's attack was an act of aggression or a preemptive strike of a defensive nature, much depends if you believe that Arab aggression, was nothing, or if you believe that Israel has a God given right to her promised lands as foretold. I will further state that Ezekiel 38 and 39 has been fulfilled in this creation to a tee and no matter who tries to corrupt the story this truth has played out.
Now as I have pointed out earlier, with this battle of Megiddo and the countdown to Armageddon as we have come to call it, and the reason for this writing is to make clear that the fulfilling of Ezekiel 38 and 39 has been done! I have struggled and prayed over this for years and could never truly find a reconciliation over prophecy as a whole, because the Ezekiel 38 and 38 never quite fit with the rest of the larger picture, and now I know why. That is not to say that the conflict to the final battle is over, just that this particular part of prophecy dealing with Ezekiel, is and was fulfilled so that we can open up the next chapter.
The status of the territories captured by Israel during the war and the concurrent so called refugee problem are central concerns in the ongoing Israeli—Palestinian conflict, raising issues in international law, and having far-reaching consequences in global affairs. Those who now call themselves Palestinians claim to be the ancient Philistines but historically and archeologically this is proven to be untrue as it is proven that the philistines were driven off and long since gone, and never related to the Arabs whereas those currently calling themselves Palestinians as Syrian Arabs.
The use of the word Palestinian is to cast an ancient attachment to the Holy land in such a way as to make it seem an entitlement of sorts to the Arabs with Syria. I further would like to point out that Palestine never existed! Yes you read this right! This attachment to what many are calling Palestine never existed until after the Roman conquest when as an insult to the Jews of the Nation of Israel, it was renamed Agusta Palistinia, In ancient times Philistia was the land of the Philistines, and according to Biblical accounts not only were the Philistines giants they are said to be those who were related to Mizraim the son of Ham.
Today, the region comprises the country of Israel and what some claim are the Palestinian territories. Today, the term Palestine is also used to refer to either the Palestinian territories or the State of Israel taking away its legitimacy and to create a less than positive image of the Jewish state. Israel is the proper name for the area given to his people by Yahweh, and it should never be forgotten that if those of the Islamic faith who claim to worship the same God as the Jews, ie if Allah is Yahweh, they would not be trying to destroy those of whom are called by the name given as Israel, by divine command.
The earliest known mention as such is thought to be in Ancient Egyptian texts of the temple at Medinet Habu which record a people called the P-r-s-t conventionally Peleset listed among the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III's reign. Those sea peoples are not really known exactly their origins, and many have speculated and even to this day many are making claims to rewrite history that they are the original Hebrews taking the focus off of those who are now living in Israel, and making such claims as to put the focus on the sons of Ham who was Khem in Egypt meaning Black due to its fertile soil.
By doing so this takes the focus off of all those 6 million who died during the extermination of the Jews by Germany, and the little well known 12 million Christians as well. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty.
The Late Bronze Age in the Aegean was characterized by the raiding of migratory peoples and their subsequent resettlement. The identity of the Sea Peoples has remained enigmatic to modern scholars, who have only the scattered records of ancient civilizations and archaeological analysis to inform them. Evidence shows that the identities and motives of these peoples were not unknown to the Egyptians. In fact, many had been subordinate to the Egyptians or in a diplomatic relationship with them, in one form or another for at least as long as the few centuries covered by the records.
The main problem is that the records fall short to give much of an accurate account of what we truly know and from what we do have depending on the beliefs of the scholars depends on who is whom. Some groups were not included in the Egyptian list of Sea Peoples, as they operated primarily on land.
Among them were some called the 'prw Habiru of Egyptian inscriptions, or 'apiru of cuneiform "bandits". Sandars uses the analogous name "land peoples. Some people, such as the Lukka, were included in both categories. It has been suggested that one of the groups of Habiru were the Hebrews. Select groups, or members of groups, were used as mercenaries by the Egyptians. The earliest ethnic group later considered among the Sea Peoples is believed to be attested in Egyptian hieroglyphics on the Byblos obelisk found in the Obelisk Temple at Byblos.
The inscription mentions kwkwn son of rwqq- or kukun son of luqq , transliterated as Kukunnis, son of Lukka, "the Lycian. If one traces out many of these concoctions they are lead on a journey down a path of replacement theology and belief that will find its way back to north Africa, Spain, South America, North America and finally to the belief that the Spanish and Berber factions are the original Hebrews of the Bible making the proclamation of Isaiah 14; come to vivid life and the replacement of Yahweh for Allah complete.
Modern Syria under today's standards. Lighter areas show direct control, darker areas represent spheres of influence. These people had a large city called Cadytis, identified as Jerusalem. Not the old map and not that of the new. According to Moshe Sharon, Palaestina was commonly used to refer to the coastal region and shortly thereafter, the whole of the area inland to the west of the Jordan River.
The latter extension occurred when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt in the 2nd century AD, renamed "Provincia Judea" Iudaea Province; originally derived from the name "Judah" to "Syria Palaestina" Syria Palaestina , in order to complete the dissociation with Judaea. Robinson, writing in when travel by Europeans to the Ottoman Empire became common asserts that, "Palestine, or Palestina, now the most common name for the Holy Land, occurs three times in the English version of the Old Testament; and is rendered Philistia.
As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines in the southwest corner of the land, who according to the biblical genealogy are all from the lineage of Ham and his son Mizraim. But both Josephus who wrote antiquity of the Jews and Philo apply the name to the whole land of the Hebrews ; and Greek and Roman writers employed it in the like extent.
Moshe Sharon writes that when the Arabs took over Greater Syria in the 7th century, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration before them, generally continued to be used. Hence, he traces the emergence of the Arabic form Filastin to this adoption, with Arabic inflection, of Roman and Hebrew Semitic names. Jacob Lassner and Selwyn Ilan Troen offer a different view, writing that Jund Filastin, the full name for the administrative province under the rule of the Arab caliphates, was traced by Muslim geographers back to the Philistines of the Bible, and here you have the slanted view of researchers and those that make up those who are trying to rewrite history.
The use of the name "Palestine" in English became more common after the European renaissance. The name was not used in Ottoman times — Most of Christian Europe referred to the area as the Holy Land. It was officially revived by the British after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and applied to the territory that was placed under The Palestine Mandate.
Keep in mind that the British Empire is the continuation and a part of the old Roman Empire who even dates Wales to those who were called Moors in Welsh and can be followed by looking up the validity of the claims that an obscure Welsh prince landed in Mobile Bay in in America and established a settlement that resulted in a tribe of Welsh-speaking Indians, look up the price of Rosh or Rhos in the Septuagint.
Rhos means 'moor' or 'moorland' in Welsh. It is a region to the east of the River Conwy in north Wales. The most famous monarch was perhaps Cynlas Goch, the son of Owain Ddanwyn, who lived in the early 6th century and was denounced by the monk, Gildas.
This is cleary what was written about in the Septuagint in its many revisions up to the 9th century AD. This event is recorded by a plaque on one of the properties on the sea-front Madoc or Madog ab Owain Gwynedd , according to folklore, a Welsh prince who sailed to America According to the story, he was a son of Owain Gwynedd who took to the sea to flee internecine violence at home. The legend evolved out of a medieval tradition about a Welsh hero's sea voyage, only allusions to which survive. The story remained popular in later centuries and continues on by many today, and a later development asserted that Madoc's voyagers had intermarried with local Native Americans, and that their Welsh-speaking descendants still lived somewhere on the American frontier.
These "Welsh Indians" were accredited with the construction of a number of natural and man-made landmarks throughout the American Midwest, and a number of white travelers were inspired to go look for them from time to time.
The Madoc story has been the subject of much speculation in the context of possible pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. Madoc's said father, Owain Gwynedd, was a real known prince of Gwynedd during the 12th century and is widely considered one of the greatest Welsh rulers of the Middle Ages. His reign was fraught with battles with other Welsh princes and with Henry II of England as the power struggles of the country continues to hash out territory.
At his death in , a bloody dispute broke out between his heirs Dafydd, Maelgwn, and Rhodri. Owain had at least 13 children from his two wives and several more children born out of wedlock but legally acknowledged under Welsh tradition. According to the legends, Madoc and his brother Rhirid were among them, though no contemporary records to date found attests to this. The story claims that Madoc was disheartened by this fighting, and he and Rhirid set sail from Llandrillo Called Rhos-on-Sea in the cantref of Rhos to explore the western ocean with a small fleet of boats.
They discovered a distant and abundant land where one hundred men disembarked to form a colony, and Madoc and some others returned to Wales to recruit more settlers. After gathering ten ships of men and women the prince sailed west a second time, only this time to never to return. Although the folklore tradition acknowledges that no witness ever returned from the second colonial expedition to report this legends during the time of the founding of America much later persisted and did coincide to Indian tradition, the story continues that Madoc's colonists traveled up the vast river systems of North America, raising structures and encountering friendly and unfriendly tribes of Native Americans before finally settling down somewhere in the Midwest or the Great Plains reigons.
A later development combined the story of Madoc's voyage with a colonial legend that an Indian tribe speaking a European language existed somewhere on the American frontier. In the early tales, the white Indians' specific language ranged from Irish to Portuguese, and the tribe's name varied from teller to teller often, the name was unattested elsewhere. However, later versions settled on Welsh, and connected the tribe to the descendants of Madoc's settlers.
On November 26, , Peter Wynne, a member of Captain Christopher Newport's exploration party to the villages of the Eastern Siouan Monacan above the falls of the James River in Virginia, wrote a letter to John Egerton, informing him that some members of Newport's party believed the pronunciation of the Monacans' language resembled "Welch", which Wynne spoke, and asked Wynne to act as interpreter. The Monacan were among those non-Algonquian tribes collectively referred to by the Algonquians as "Mandoag" and many have interpreted this to be a convoluted form of the name Madog.
Another early settler to claim an encounter with a Welsh-speaking Indian was the Reverend Morgan Jones, who told Thomas Lloyd, William Penn's deputy, that he had been captured in by a tribe of Tuscarora called the Doeg. According to Jones, the chief spared his life when he heard Jones speak Welsh, a tongue he understood. Jones' report says that he then lived with the Doeg for several months preaching the Gospel in Welsh and then returned to the British Colonies where he recorded his adventure in Several later travelers claimed to have found the Welsh Indians, and one even claimed the tribe he visited venerated a copy of the Gospel written in Welsh.
Stories of Welsh Indians became popular enough that even Lewis and Clark were ordered to look out for them.
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Folk tradition has long claimed that a site now called "Devil's Backbone" about fourteen miles upstream from Louisville, Kentucky, was once home to a colony of Welsh-speaking Indians. Eighteenth-century Missouri River explorer John Evans of Waunfawr in Wales took up his journey in part to find the Welsh-descended "Padoucas" or "Madogwys" tribes There have been suggestions that the wall of Fort Mountain in Georgia owes its construction to a race of what the Cherokee termed "moon-eyed people" because they could see better at night than by day.
A competing tradition claims that the wall was built by Hernando de Soto to defend against the Creek Indians around Archaeologists believe the stones were placed there by Native Americans. These "moon-eyed people," who were said to have fair skin, blonde hair and opalescent eyes, have often been associated with Prince Madoc and his Welsh band. Benjamin Smith Barton proposed that these "moon-eyed people" who "could not see in the day-time" may have been an albino race.
John Haywood also mentioned the legend in his The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee although the latter work was an effort to prove that the native tribes of Tennessee were descendants of ancient Hebrews. And some have claimed that the Cherokee language is related to Hebrew.
There is also a theory that the "Welsh Caves" in Desoto State Park, northeastern Alabama, were built by Madoc's party, since local native tribes were not known to have ever practiced such stonework or excavation as was found on the site. In , John Sevier, the first governor of Tennessee, wrote to his friend Major Amos Stoddard about a conversation he had had in with the old Cherokee chief Oconostota concerning ancient fortifications built along the Alabama River.
The chief told him that the forts had been built by a white people called "Welsh", as protection against the ancestors of the Cherokee, who eventually drove them from the region to parts unknown. Sevier had also written in of the alleged discovery of six skeletons in brass armor bearing the Welsh coat-of-arms. In all, at least thirteen real tribes, five unidentified tribes, and three unnamed tribes have been identified as Welsh Indians.
Eventually, the legend settled on identifying the Welsh Indians with the Mandan people, who were said to differ from their neighbors in culture, language, and appearance. The painter George Catlin suggested the Mandans were descendants of Madoc and his fellow voyagers in North American Indians ; he found the round Mandan Bull Boat similar to the Welsh coracle, and he thought the advanced architecture of Mandan villages must have been learned from Europeans advanced North American societies such as the Mississippian and Hopewell cultures were not well known in Catlin's time.
Supporters of this claim have drawn links between Madoc and the Mandan mythological figure Lone Man, who, according to one tale, protected some villagers from a flooding river with a wooden corral By the 11th century, Rhos was part of Gwynedd an administrative unit known as a cantref. Along with its three adjoining cantrefi, the area was known as Y Berfeddwlad or the 'Middle Country' lying between Gwynedd and Powys and often changing hands between those two powerful kingdoms.
With the loss of Welsh independence in , Rhos became part of the lordship of Denbigh, as granted to the English Earl of Lincoln. The cantrefi were abolished in with the creation of Denbighshire, but the name of Rhos survives today in places such as Llandrillo-yn-Rhos Rhos-on-Sea , Llanelian-yn-Rhos, and Penmaen Rhos. One must only trace out the history of this linage to see that the present Monarchs of Britain are nothing more than the continuation of old Roman rule and now we know where the roots of the prince of Wales comes from.
Is it not ironic that it has been Britain who was the most instrumental in the creation of the Israeli state? Is it ironic that Barack H Obama Sr. No matter where you stand in the controversy it can never be said that the rebirth of the nation of Israel is nothing less than spectacular, and a gift by divine providence. In the following years there were numerous minor border clashes between Israel and its Arab neighbors, particularly Syria of which most of those who claim to be Palistinians came from as pointed out above.
In early November, , Syria signed a mutual defense agreement with Egypt. Jordanian units that engaged the Israelis were quickly beaten back by a superiorly trained Israeli force. In May , Nasser received false reports from the Soviet Union that Israel was massing on the Syrian border an act than many in the Jewish community say was an act of God. Israel reiterated declarations made in that any closure of the Straits would be considered an act of war, or justification for war.
Nasser foolishly declared the Straits closed to Israeli shipping on May 22— On May 30, Jordan and Egypt signed a defense pact thinking they had sign the means to defeat Israeli forced in hopes of extricating them once and for all from the areas. The following day, at Jordan's invitation, the Iraqi army began deploying troops and armored units in Jordan.
They were later reinforced by an Egyptian contingent. On June 1, Israel formed a National Unity Government by widening its cabinet, and on June 4 the decision was made to go to war. The next morning, Israel launched Operation Focus, a large-scale surprise air strike that was the opening of the Six-Day War, that was to be the black eye to the Middle East and their alliance, that on a national scale those surrounding nations we sent spanked and licking their wounds from a superior force guided by the hand of their Hebrew God.
For this reason even to this day the ancient hatred by the surrounding nations sees Israel as the bane of their shame. On the eve of the war, Egypt massed approximately , of its , troops in the Sinai, including all of its seven divisions four infantry, two armored and one mechanized , as well as four independent infantry and four independent armored brigades.
No less than a third of them were veterans of Egypt's intervention into the Yemen Civil War and another third were reservists. These forces had tanks, 1, APCs and more than 1, artillery pieces, judgment was on the way to the infidels in the mostly Islamic region. At the same time some Egyptian troops 15,—20, were still fighting in Yemen. Nasser's ambivalence about his goals and objectives was reflected in his orders to the military. The general staff changed the operational plan four times in May , each change requiring the redeployment of troops, with the inevitable toll on both men and vehicles.
Towards the end of May, Nasser finally forbade the general staff from proceeding with the Qahir "Victory" plan, which called for a light infantry screen in the forward fortifications with the bulk of the forces held back to conduct a massive counterattack against the main Israeli advance when identified, and ordered a forward defense of the Sinai. In the meantime, he continued to take actions intended to increase the level of mobilization of Egypt, Syria and Jordan, in order to bring pressure on Israel. Syria's army had a total strength of 75, and amassed them along the Syrian border.
Jordan's army had 55, troops, including tanks along the Jordanian border, of which were US M48 Patton, sizable amounts of M APCs, a new battalion of mechanized infantry, and a paratrooper battalion trained in the new US-built school. They also had 12 battalions of artillery and six batteries of 81 mm and mm mortars.
Documents captured by the Israelis from various Jordanian command posts record orders from the end of May for the Hashemite Brigade to capture Ramot Burj Bir Mai'in in a night raid, codenamed "Operation Khaled". The aim was to establish a bridgehead together with positions in Latrun for an armored capture of Lod and Ramle. The "go" codeword was Sa'ek and end was Nasser. The Jordanians also planned for the capture of Motza and Sha'alvim in the strategic Jerusalem Corridor.
Motza was tasked to Infantry Brigade 27 camped near Ma'ale Adummim: "The reserve brigade will commence a nighttime infiltration onto Motza, will destroy it to the foundation, and won't leave a remnant or refugee from among its residents". Two squadrons of fighter-aircraft, Hawker Hunters and MiG 21 respectively, were rebased adjacent to the Jordanian border. On June 2, Jordan called up all reserve officers, and the West Bank commander met with community leaders in Ramallah to request assistance and cooperation for his troops during the war, assuring them that "in 3 days we'll be in Tel-Aviv" assured of their victory and military supremacy they were eager to extinguish those of whom they saw as the occupiers of their lands.
The Arab air forces themselves were aided by volunteer pilots from the Pakistan Air Force acting in independent capacity, as well as some aircraft from Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia to make up for the massive losses suffered on the first day of the war. You will note with the above named countries they are the same names of those for which we see fighting and realigning today under the banner of the Muslim brotherhood.
Those same countries and peoples help to make up those listed in the Psalms 83 prophecy of those who come to destroy Israel. Before the war, Israeli pilots and ground crews had trained extensively in rapid refitting of aircraft returning from sorties, enabling a single aircraft to sortie up to four times a day as opposed to the norm in Arab air forces of one or two sorties per day. This enabled the IAF to send several attack waves against Egyptian airfields on the first day of the war, overwhelming the Egyptian Air Force, and also allowed it to knock out other Arab air forces on the same day.
This also has contributed to the Arab belief that the IAF was helped by foreign air forces Pilots were also extensively schooled about their targets, and were forced to memorize every single detail. They also rehearsed the attack numerous times on dummy runways. There can be no doubt these men were well trained and for good reason, failure means extermination.
The Egyptians had constructed fortified defenses in the Sinai. These designs were based on the assumption that an attack would come from the few roads leading through the desert, rather than the difficult desert terrain. The Israelis chose not to risk attacking the Egyptian defenses head-on, and instead to surprise them from an unexpected direction. They had practiced driving vehicles through soft dunes in the Negev, and discovered that vehicles would get greater maneuverability in desert terrain if tires were partially deflated.
As a result, they could choose their angle of attack, and advance through areas the Egyptians least expected. In order to keep the performance of Israeli soldiers high in the heat of the Sinai desert, the Israeli army ordered that soldiers be supplied with one liter of water every hour, rather than the previous one liter per day.
As a result, soldiers were able to perform better than their Egyptian counterparts. Leaving nothing to chance and advancing every advantage. In order to strike the Golan Heights, the Mossad Israeli secret service had sent agent Eli Cohen to infiltrate the Syrian government, where he exploited his high-ranking position to provide crucial intelligence to his homeland. Feigning sympathy for Syrian soldiers, he ordered trees planted by every Syrian emplacement to shade them.
These trees were later used as targeting markers by the Israelis, this again taking advantage of ever tool available at their disposal. Intelligence had also revealed where the most difficult terrain was, so a route of attack was chosen that would both avoid natural tank traps and surprise the Syrians. In order to successfully storm the Syrian bunkers, the Israelis utilized the Uzi submachine gun, which was more suitable for close combat than the AK, the standard weapon of the Syrian Army.
The Israeli army had a total strength, including reservists, of ,, though this number could not be sustained, as the reservists were vital to civilian life. James Reston, writing in the New York Times on May 23, , noted, "In discipline, training, morale, equipment and general competence his [Nasser's] army and the other Arab forces, without the direct assistance of the Soviet Union, are no match for the Israelis Even with 50, troops and the best of his generals and air force in Yemen, he has not been able to work his way in that small and primitive country, and even his effort to help the Congo rebels was a flop.
Rabin had formulated a plan in which Southern Command would fight its way to the Gaza Strip and then hold the territory and its people hostage until Egypt agreed to reopen the Straits of Tiran; while Gavish had a more comprehensive plan that called for the destruction of Egyptian forces in the Sinai. Rabin favored Gavish's plan, which was then endorsed by Dayan with the caution that a simultaneous offensive against Syria should be avoided Israel's first and most critical move was a surprise attack on the Egyptian Air Force.
Egypt had by far the largest and the most modern of all the Arab air forces, consisting of about combat aircraft, all of them Soviet-built and with a heavy quota of top-of-the line MiG capable of attaining Mach 2 speed. Initially, both Egypt and Israel announced that they had been attacked by the other country. All but 12 of its nearly operational jets left the skies of Israel in a mass attack against Egypt's airfields.
The Egyptian defensive infrastructure was extremely poor, and no airfields were yet equipped with hardened aircraft shelters capable of protecting Egypt's warplanes. Most of the Israeli warplanes headed out over the Mediterranean Sea, flying low to avoid radar detection, before turning toward Egypt. Others flew over the Red Sea. Meanwhile, the Egyptians hindered their own defense by effectively shutting down their entire air defense system: they were worried that rebel Egyptian forces would shoot down the plane carrying Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer and Lt-Gen.
Sidqi Mahmoud, who were en route from al Maza to Bir Tamada in the Sinai to meet the commanders of the troops stationed there. In any event, it did not make a great deal of difference as the Israeli pilots came in below Egyptian radar cover and well below the lowest point at which its SA-2 surface-to-air missile batteries could bring down an aircraft. Although the powerful Jordanian radar facility at Ajlun detected waves of aircraft approaching Egypt and reported the code word for "war" up the Egyptian command chain, Egyptian command and communications problems prevented the warning from reaching the targeted airfields.
The Israelis employed a mixed attack strategy: bombing and strafing runs against planes parked on the ground, themselves, and bombing the runways with special tarmac-shredding penetration bombs developed jointly with France to disable them and leave surviving aircraft unable to take off. The runway at the El Arish airfield was spared, as the Israelis expected to turn it into a military airport for their transports after the war. The surviving aircraft were later taken out by several more attack waves.
The operation was more successful than expected, catching the Egyptians by surprise and destroying virtually all of the Egyptian Air Force on the ground, with few Israeli losses. A total of Egyptian aircraft were destroyed and pilots were killed, although the number of aircraft actually lost by the Egyptians is disputed by the opposing side.
Among the Egyptian planes lost were all 30 Tu bombers, as well as 27 out of 40 Il bombers, 12 Su-7 fighter-bombers, over 90 MiGs, 20 MiGs, 25 MiG fighters, and around 32 assorted transport planes and helicopters. The Israelis lost 19 planes, including two destroyed in air-to-air combat and 13 downed by anti-aircraft artillery. The attack guaranteed Israeli air superiority for the rest of the war. Following the success of the initial attack waves against the major Egyptian airfields and subsequent air raids, attacks were carried out that afternoon against Israel by the Jordanian, Syrian, and Iraqi air forces.
Subsequent attacks against Egyptian, Jordanian, Syrian, and Iraqi fields destroyed most of their air forces. By the evening of the first day, the Jordanian air force was wiped out, losing over 20 Hawker Hunter fighters, as well as six transport aircraft and two helicopters. A lone Iraqi Tu bomber was shot down earlier that day by Israeli anti-aircraft fire while attempting to bomb Tel Aviv. By nightfall, Israel said it destroyed Arab aircraft, while losing 26 of its own in the first two days of the war.
Twelve Israeli pilots were killed, five wounded, and four captured. The numbers of Arab aircraft claimed destroyed by Israel were at first regarded as "greatly exaggerated" by the Western press. However, the fact that the Egyptian, Jordanian, and other Arab air forces made practically no appearance for the remaining days of the conflict proved that the numbers were most likely authentic. Throughout the war, Israeli aircraft continued strafing Arab airfield runways to prevent their return to usability.
Meanwhile, Egyptian state-run radio had reported an Egyptian victory, falsely claiming that 70 Israeli planes had been downed on the first day of fighting. The Egyptian forces consisted of seven divisions: four armored, two infantry, and one mechanized infantry. Overall, Egypt had around , troops and tanks in the Sinai, backed by 1, APCs and 1, artillery pieces.
This arrangement was thought to be based on the Soviet doctrine, where mobile armor units at strategic depth provide a dynamic defense while infantry units engage in defensive battles. Israeli forces concentrated on the border with Egypt included six armored brigades, one infantry brigade, one mechanized infantry brigade, three paratrooper brigades, giving a total of around 70, men and tanks, who were organized in three armored divisions.
The Israeli plan was to surprise the Egyptian forces in both timing the attack exactly coinciding with the IAF strike on Egyptian airfields , location attacking via northern and central Sinai routes, as opposed to the Egyptian expectations of a repeat of the war, when the IDF attacked via the central and southern routes and method using a combined-force flanking approach, rather than direct tank assaults.
The northernmost Israeli division, consisting of three brigades and commanded by Major General Israel Tal, one of Israel's most prominent armor commanders, advanced slowly through the Gaza Strip and El-Arish. Egyptian forces in Gaza fiercely tried to resist the Israeli advance, with some of the fiercest resistance coming from the 20th Palestinian Division, commanded by Gaza's Egyptian military governor. The Israelis methodically dislodged the Egyptians from their positions, and an airstrike wiped out their high command. The Israelis captured the territory after two days of breakthrough battles, having suffered few casualties and vehicle losses.
Egyptian casualties totalled 2, dead. The Israelis then penetrated into the Sinai towards El-Arish, which was captured after a fierce battle took place along the approaches to the city, in which all Egyptian forces were destroyed, dispersed, or captured but methodically driven from their strongholds for which they dug in. The central division Maj. Avraham Yoffe and the southern division Maj. Sharon initiated his brilliant plan of an attack, precisely planned, coordinated and carried out. He sent two of his brigades to the north of Um-Katef, the first one to break through the defenses at Abu-Ageila to the south, and the second to block the road to El-Arish and to encircle Abu-Ageila from the east.
At the same time, a paratrooper force was airlifted by helicopter to the rear of the defensive positions and attacked the Egyptian artillery. Although the paratroopers' plans quickly fell apart, the confusion sown among the artillery crews helped to slow but not quite stop artillery fire. Combined forces of armor, paratroopers, infantry, artillery, and combat engineers then attacked the Egyptian positions from the front, flanks and rear, cutting the enemy off and isolating them.
The breakthrough battles, which were in sandy areas and minefields, continued for three and a half days until Abu-Ageila fell. About 4, Egyptian soldiers were killed, and losses in military hardware were heavy, including 40 tanks. The Israelis lost a total of 33 men and 19 tanks. They met resistance and took losses, but inflicted heavy material losses and casualties on the Egyptians disheartening them and the opposing armies.
As well as numerous armored battles which saw Israeli armor defeat numerically superior Egyptian armored forces, many Egyptian tanks were also knocked out by Israeli infantry carrying anti-tank weapons. An independent Israeli armored brigade also captured an Egyptian outpost at Kunitla. During the ground fighting, remnants of the Egyptian Air Force attacked Israeli ground forces, but took losses from the Israeli Air Force and from Israeli anti-aircraft units.
Throughout the last four days, Egyptian aircraft flew sorties against Israeli units in the Sinai. Many of the Egyptian units remained intact and could have tried to prevent the Israelis from reaching the Suez Canal or engaged in combat in the attempt to reach the canal.
This order effectively meant the defeat of Egypt. Israeli aircraft attacked, using napalm bombs. The attacks destroyed hundreds of vehicles and caused heavy casualties. Due to the Egyptians' retreat, the Israeli High Command decided not to pursue the Egyptian units but rather to bypass and destroy them in the mountainous passes of West Sinai. Therefore, in the following two days June 6 and 7 , all three Israeli divisions Sharon and Tal were reinforced by an armored brigade each rushed westwards and reached the passes.
Sharon's division first went southward then westward to Mitla Pass with air support. It was joined there by parts of Yoffe's division, while its other units blocked the Gidi Pass. These passes became killing grounds for the Egyptians, who ran right into waiting Israeli positions and suffered heavy losses.
Tal's units stopped at various points to the length of the Suez Canal. The Israeli Navy landed six combat divers to infiltrate Alexandria harbor. The divers sank an Egyptian minesweeper before being taken prisoner. Israel's blocking action was partially successful. Only the Gidi pass was captured before the Egyptians approached it, but at other places, Egyptian units managed to pass through and cross the canal to safety. Due to the haste of the Egyptian retreat, soldiers often abandoned weapons or military equipment, as well as hundreds of vehicles.
Many Egyptian soldiers were cut off from their units had to walk through by foot before reaching the Suez Canal with limited supplies of food and water and were exposed to intense heat. Many Egyptian soldiers chose instead to surrender to the Israelis. On June 8, Israel had completed the capture of the Sinai by sending infantry units to Ras-Sudar on the western coast of the peninsula. Sharm El-Sheikh, at its southern tip, had already been taken a day earlier when light boats of the Israeli Navy landed paratroopers.
Several tactical elements made the swift Israeli advance possible: first, the surprise attack that quickly gave the Israeli Air Force complete air superiority over its Egyptian counterpart; second, the determined implementation of an innovative battle plan; third, the lack of coordination among Egyptian troops. These factors would prove to be decisive elements on Israel's other fronts as well. Jordan was reluctant to enter the war. Nasser used the obscurity of the first hours of the conflict to convince Hussein that he was victorious; he claimed as evidence a radar sighting of a squadron of Israeli aircraft returning from bombing raids in Egypt which he said was an Egyptian aircraft en route to attacking Israel.
One of the Jordanian brigades stationed in the West Bank was sent to the Hebron area in order to link with the Egyptians. Hussein decided to attack. The Jordanian Armed Forces included 11 brigades totalling some 55, troops, equipped with some modern Western tanks. Of these, nine brigades 45, troops, tanks, artillery pieces were deployed in the West Bank, including elite armored 40th, and two in the Jordan Valley. The Jordanian Army, then known as the Arab Legion, was a long-term-service, professional army, relatively well-equipped and well-trained.
Furthermore, Israeli post-war briefings said that the Jordanian staff acted professionally as well, but was always left "half a step" behind by the Israeli moves. Against Jordan's forces on the West Bank, Israel deployed about 40, troops and tanks 8 brigades. Israeli Central Command forces consisted of five brigades. The first two were permanently stationed near Jerusalem and were called the Jerusalem Brigade and the mechanized Harel Brigade.
Mordechai Gur's 55th paratrooper brigade was summoned from the Sinai front. An armored brigade was allocated from the General Staff reserve and advanced toward Ramallah, capturing Latrun in the process. The 10th armored brigade was stationed north of the West Bank Region. The Israeli Northern Command provided a division 3 brigades led by Maj. The IDF's strategic plan was to remain on the defensive along the Jordanian front, to enable focus in the expected campaign against Egypt.
Several Jordanian planes and an Iraqi Tupolev Tu bomber were shot down. The attacks killed one person and wounded seven, and destroyed a transport plane. Israel sent a message promising not to initiate any action against Jordan if it stayed out of the war. King Hussein replied that it was too late, "the die was cast".
On the evening of June 5, the Israeli cabinet convened to decide what to do; Yigal Allon and Menahem Begin argued that this was an opportunity to take the Old City of Jerusalem, but Eshkol decided to defer any decision until Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin could be consulted. Uzi Narkis made a number of proposals for military action, including the capture of Latrun, but the cabinet turned him down.
The Israeli military only commenced action after Jordanian forces made thrusts in the area of Jerusalem, by this they were right, the die was cast to extricate them from Jerusalem. Jordanian troops seized the Government House compound, used as the headquarters for the UN observers in a Demilitarized zone since the Armistice Agreements.
In addition, the Jordanians opened a heavy artillery barrage on western Jerusalem, as well as targeting the center of the country, using American-made Long Tom guns. Israeli civilian casualties reached a total of 20 killed and 1, wounded, and over buildings were damaged.
Firing was continuing and mortar shells were now landing within the Government House compound. On the basis of a review of events and a checking with the Chief of Staff of UNTSO, it was later determined that the actual facts as regards the reported entry of Jordanian troops into Government House on 5 June were as follows: at approximately hours local time, three Jordanian soldiers entered Government House over the protest of UNTSO, but were persuaded by UNTSO staff to leave the building after about ten minutes.
Jordan's remaining Hawker Hunter fighters, as well as its six transports and two helicopters, were destroyed, while the Israelis lost a Mystere to anti-aircraft fire. By the evening of that day, Jordanian forces had been pushed back by Israeli armored and infantry assaults and airstrikes after hours of heavy fighting. The Jerusalem Brigade moved south of Jerusalem, while the mechanized Harel Brigade and Mordechai Gur's paratroopers encircled it from the north.
The reserve paratroop brigade completed the Jerusalem encirclement in the Battle of Ammunition Hill, in which 71 Jordanian and 37 Israeli soldiers were killed, and the strategic hill was captured. To the north of the city, Israeli searchlights located Jordanian artillery and mortar positions, which were hit one by one.
Fearing damage to holy places and having to fight in built-up areas, Dayan ordered his troops not to enter the city itself. On June 7, heavy fighting ensued. The Israeli infantry brigade attacked the fortress at Latrun, capturing it at daybreak, and advanced through Beit Horon towards Ramallah. The Harel brigade continued its push to the mountainous area of northwest Jerusalem, linking the Mount Scopus campus of Hebrew University with the city of Jerusalem.
Radar Hill was captured by the Harel Brigade in a fierce battle which left eight Jordanians and one Israeli dead. By the evening, the brigade arrived in Ramallah. In the north, one battalion from Peled's division was sent to check Jordanian defenses in the Jordan Valley. Dayan had ordered his troops not to enter East Jerusalem; he changed his mind, and without cabinet clearance, decided to capture it. The intense battle for the Old City was fought mostly by paratroopers, who fought the Jordanian defenders street-by-street. After the city fell, the Jerusalem Brigade reinforced the paratroopers, and continued to the south, capturing Judea and Gush Etzion.
Hebron was taken without any resistance, and Arab residents, afraid of retaliation for the Hebron massacre, flew white sheets from the windows and rooftops. The Harel Brigade proceeded eastward, descending to the Jordan River. Israeli forces also attacked Bethlehem, with infantry moving behind tanks. The city was captured after a brief battle which left some 40 Jordanian soldiers dead, with the remainder fleeing. Care was exercised so as not to damage holy sites. And as prophetic as it were I am sure the words of the Jordanian leader stuck in his throat after their extraction from the old city and the dust all settled.
In the West Bank, one of Peled's brigades seized Nablus; then it joined one of Central Command's armored brigades to fight the Jordanian forces; as the Jordanians held the advantage of superior equipment and were equal in numbers to the Israelis. Again, the air superiority of the IAF proved paramount as it immobilized the enemy, leading to its defeat. One of Peled's brigades joined with its Central Command counterparts coming from Ramallah, and the remaining two blocked the Jordan river crossings together with the Central Command's 10th. The 10th crossed the Jordan river onto the East Bank to provide cover for Israeli combat engineers while they blew the Abdullah and Hussein bridges, but quickly pulled back due to American pressure.
No specific decision had been made to capture any other territories controlled by Jordan. After the Old City was captured, Dayan told his troops to dig in to hold it. When an armored brigade commander entered the West Bank on his own initiative, and stated that he could see Jericho, Dayan ordered him back.
First, the Israeli government had no intention of capturing the West Bank. On the contrary, it was opposed to it. Second, there was not any provocation on the part of the IDF. Third, the rein was only loosened when a real threat to Jerusalem's security emerged. Be sure to check Biblical Archaeology Review , a bi-monthly publication which the library receives.
It is a great way to introduce yourself to the field. In addition, there are many resources on the Internet. For very helpful comments and direction, see Dr. For a good presentation regarding faith integration issues especially although not exclusively with the natural sciences, see www. Aharoni, Avi-Yonah, Rainey, Safrai. The MacMillan Bible Atlas. Beitzel, Barry. The Moody Bible Atlas. NIV Atlas of the Bible , revised edition. Course Requirements and procedures. You will be responsible for completing the readings as assigned on the course outline.
I recommend that readings be completed in advance of the class session. As you might expect, that procedure will enhance your appreciation of the lecture. Let me encourage you to read in groups and discuss what you are reading. It will make the process much more enjoyable and profitable. Toward that end, please see the additional material on optional group discussion under the section on Evaluation. Readings as well as lecture material will be the subjects of the exams.
Lecture outlines are available prior to lectures on the Blackboard site for this class. The latter may be downloaded to facilitate your taking notes. Four unit exams are scheduled as follows:. Please do not ask me for permission as I do not have the authority to reschedule the exam. Memorizing Scripture is a wonderful way to develop for yourself a treasury of encouraging truths on which you can call when the going gets tough.
For each unit of study, you will commit to memory five brief passages or several longer ones. I will ask you to recall one of them selected by me for each exam. All students will write a one-page paper. Information on the procedures and subject may be found under Course Documents on the Blackboard site. The paper will be due on 5 November. Optional Review Sessions. The Teaching Assistants for the course will conduct weekly review sessions. Please take advantage of them. Maps - As we study geography and then impose the events of history upon that geography, you will want to have a means of making that information part of your memory.
It will serve you well as you follow the contemporary events in the Middle East. Working with maps is a good way to start. Use the materials on-line and access the holylandphotos. At least once during the term, I will meet with each student individually. This is not intended to intimidate you! Means of Evaluation. Your base line grade will be determined as follows. There is no extra credit bail-out offered in this class this year. Please do not ask for that option at the end of the semester when your grade has gone south.
However , if you do participate faithfully, consistently, and productively on a weekly basis in a discussion group, you may earn up to five 5 extra points on your final grade. Questions for each unit are posted on Blackboard. You are expected to have read through and thought about them prior to coming to the discussion session.
Participation is optional but highly recommended. The leaders are from the seminary community and they have selected times that fit into their schedules. These times are posted on Blackboard. You will sign up for a discussion group and be expected to continue in that group through the entire semester. Group size will be capped at Leaders will both take attendance and evaluate quality of participation.
In order to earn any credit, you must be present for at least ten of the discussion sessions. The maximum credit to be earned is five points added to final grade. Please be aware that you do not automatically earn five points for this. It could be less if your participation does not demonstrate thoughtful reflection. Attendance Policy. I expect all students to attend class sessions. To help you develop your own sense of responsibility in that regard, attendance will be taken — for the first time ever in this class!
Missing more than five classes, for whatever reason, will affect your grade — two percentage points for each class absence over five. If you miss an exam, for whatever reason, please be aware that all make-up exams will be essay format and will be administered on reading day, Friday, 9 December. Time and location will be announced later. I know that some students take excellent notes on their laptops and these notes serve them well in the future.
I have also sadly observed that other students enjoy the cornucopia of diversions on the internet during class, distracting not only themselves but those who are stuck sitting behind and around them. What to do? I do not want to ban laptops — sounds juvenile and hurts students. Please help each other in this regard. Although I would rather not have to raise the related issues of cheating and plagiarism, experience has taught that they are best dealt with before the temptation arises. Both of these involve stealing which is unacceptable. If I discover incidents of either, you will automatically receive a grade of zero for the exam or paper.
If you are unclear what falls into the category of plagiarism, please ask me. Course Accommodation. Gordon College is committed to assisting students with documented disabilities see Academic Catalog Appendix C for documentation guidelines. A student with a disability who may need academic accommodations should follow this procedure. Deliver a Faculty Notification Form to each course professor within the first full week of the semester; at that time make an appointment to discuss your needs with each professor.
Failure to register in time with your professor may compromise our ability to provide the accommodations. Questions or disputes about accommodations should be immediately referred to the Academic Support Center. Ideally, the assignments listed for a given date should be completed by the time you come to class that day. Note the following key for deciphering your reading assignments:.
Primer - the Theological Primer on Blackboard and on reserve.
If you are running short on time, always read the biblical text first. Lectures are numbered below to correspond with the numbers on the Blackboard lecture outlines. Revelation, inspiration, authority and the text as we have it a Hebrew document. W - Q ; Q ; Q Y - Preface and Ch 1 monotheism. Primer — read in its entirety. B - Genesis OTP - 2 nd ed ; 3 rd ed and Study Guide.
W - Q Y - Ch 2 sovereignty. Available at www. See also. On the ibri. B - Genesis skim the genealogies but note the decreasing length of years. Work on the three introductory maps as described in the map assignment all on Blackboard under Content. Consult Bible atlases, the maps in the back of your Bible, etc. There will be more detailed maps to follow; these are simply an overview of significant locations. B - Genesis you will figure out which parts to skim. Y - Chs 3,4 election, covenant I.
God's self-revelation in His Divine Name and in His mighty acts; the problems of the Divine Names, the authorship of the Pentateuch, and the supernatural. B - Exodus Y - Ch 5 covenant II.
W - Q 36, Y - Ch 6 theocracy. Map — Israel in the Wilderness on Blackboard. W - Q 28 ; Q ; Q B - Exodus , Numbers 35,36; Deuteronomy 15,17, Y - Ch 8 sacrifice. B - Exodus 23, Lev , Num 5,6,9,, Deuteronomy Y - Ch 10 redemption. B - Num , 16,17,,27,; Deut , 13,18, Y - Ch 9 faith. B - Joshua ; Map — Conquest and Settlement on Blackboard. B - Judges Map — the Major Judges on Blackboard.