source link In a world of cut-throat competition, those who succeeded in business were of an unrelenting entrepreneurial and ambitious spirit that often looked beyond the confines of Britain. Industrial expansion forced traders to look further afield and open up new markets; Portugal swiftly became a key destination. It was only through Lisbon that it was possible to gain access to the Brazilian market, which had long become the mainstay of the intensive southern Atlantic economy, responsible for the capitalisation of the European market in the Early Modern period.
Besides, the Portuguese could not afford to lose the support of the old ally, whose navy provided protection for the trade routes between the metropolis and its colonies. The French invasions of Portugal pushed it to the periphery of the very empire it had founded. If the demise of both commerce and industry had a terrible impact on the economy, the destruction the war wrought in the provinces proved no less damaging.
Looting, extortion and massacres left a trail of blood, hatred and revulsion across the whole nation that was to remain unabated for generations. Agriculture and husbandry practically ground to a halt and farmers were unable to produce the foodstuffs required to feed the urban centres. Famine set in and with it a period of demographic stagnation. Freeing Portugal from the chains of Napoleonic imperialism was not without its costs. Unable to overcome such complete vulnerability, the nation was at the mercy of British interests. Certainly a significant part of the Portuguese economy had for a long time depended on Britain.
Whether Portugal benefited from this trade relationship or not is a matter of controversy Borges de Macedo ; Bethell ; Maxwell ; Pijning ; Pardo However, at least since the Methuen Treaty Britain had been undermining the Portuguese industry with a substantial influx of cheap manufactured goods undercutting all competition. In January the opening of the Brazilian ports to Britain represented a fatal blow. Two years later, the protective mechanism of customs duties was removed precisely when the Portuguese economy was most in need of it.
The prospects for the manufacturing sector grew dimmer as British cotton and wool cloths flooded the Portuguese market. He ended up gaining considerable ascendancy over the representatives of the Prince Regent. In the post-war years he headed the military government, a position which rapidly eroded his earlier prestige as a war hero. People started protesting against the way public funds were being squandered to pay for the presence of British troops on national territory. Portuguese officers likewise harboured deep-seated resentment towards the British officers, who were now apparently being granted all sorts of privileges and promotions see Glover As a stern defender of Tory absolutism, his views were in line with the ones shared by two other Anglo-Irish potentates, namely Wellington and Castlereagh Newitt His absolutist values, along with his thirst for power, left him isolated in a world riven by deep-rooted hatreds.
Paradoxically, partly thanks to the influence of the British officers, the British tradition of liberalism ended up taking root in a country lacking in ideological coordinates to define its political future. When James Hutchinson first set foot in Lisbon, the country was going through a period of economic depression. His letters mirror the upheavals and the social unrest of the period and therefore help to shed light on historical processes, since they testify to the way in which individuals perceived reality and re acted accordingly.
Popular reactions to the new king, news of the uprising in Pernambuco Brazil , political persecutions, and hangings are well documented elsewhere,  but here we are given a view from the inside. Moreover, rather than just affirming the picture that the extensive historiographical literature on the subject has already established, the letters also disclose new facets.
Hutchinson could hardly be said to be the definitive model of the successful businessman. His efforts, nonetheless, were mostly undermined by factors that lay beyond his reach. General poverty, scarcity of money, shortages of food and other essentials, and rationing, for example, became recurrent, if not obsessive, subjects in his letters, betraying his sense of frustration and underachievement.
Moreover, Hutchinson was forced to deal with fierce competition within the Portuguese market and the incompetence of the Customs officials, not to mention liabilities and bad debts, marketing obstacles and, curiously enough, an increasingly demanding clientele, all of which imposed psychological costs he found ever more difficult to cope with.
Each letter contains, as it were, the very essence of history and, through the picturesque and sometimes disconcerting episodes they feature, they help us recreate a reality long buried by time. Precisely because this is a genuine voice that has remained hidden amidst other archival material for almost two centuries, unscathed by later misappropriations or misinterpretations, we are able to salvage pristine fragments of the historical experience and to retrieve for our collective memory some of the particularities and singularities that are usually overlooked in the construction of the historical grand narratives of the nation.
In a letter dated 18 October , for instance, Hutchinson speaks of the funeral ceremonies of Queen Maria I and clearly enjoys recounting the peculiar causes of the accidental fire that burned down the church where those ceremonies were being held. Elsewhere he laments the shortage of foodstuffs and the rise in prices which mercilessly strike the poor letter dated 25 January , but he cannot help relishing the story of a woman arrested for stealing bodies from the cemetery to produce black pudding to be sold to the local shops 9 August Notwithstanding the rapid decline of the Portuguese economy during and after the Peninsular War, British traders rapidly resumed their investments in the country.
Samuel Farrer Jr. It would be up to young James Hutchinson Jr.
His inexperience notwithstanding, James was not entirely at a loss. The need to account for every transaction and to keep his brother-in-law posted about how business was being conducted resulted in a correspondence of considerable length, which lasted until his departure from Lisbon at the end of Being an outsider in customs, language and feelings, Hutchinson tried hard to accommodate himself to his new setting. In his letters, however, the affectionate attachment he exhibits towards his sister and the other members of his family indicates that his stay in Lisbon was, emotionally speaking, hard to bear.
He often complained about her silence and the fact that she now seemed to have forsaken him altogether. But then, it was not just the separation from his loved ones that threw him into a state of melancholy. His life in the Portuguese capital was infused with a sense of estrangement he was unable to overcome.
He felt uprooted and disengaged. It becomes all too apparent that his gaze is that of an outsider, of someone struggling to succeed in a strange, disturbing world, whose social and political environment contrasts in many respects with that of his native land. He soon realised it would not be easy to fit in. Despite the support that other British expatriates residing in Lisbon gave him, he complained to his family about living conditions there.
His difficulty in understanding the Portuguese is particularly visible when he is faced with the lack of patriotic fervour of the man in the street, a fervour one should expect from a nation that had been recently freed from the Napoleonic terror:. Since most of the time he was consumed by work, it becomes difficult for the contemporary reader to detect such feelings of estrangement in the midst of commercial jargon and ledger accounts. He sought to be meticulous in his book-keeping and reports and sensitive to changes in market conditions, especially as far as fashion, trends, tastes and purchasing power went.
He struggled to prove himself worthy of the trust and respect not just of his brother-in-law, but also of other foreign merchants who had already established their names in the Portuguese market. He even got carried away by the idea of opening his own establishment in order to fend off competition and to tackle the problem of low bids, which often forced him to keep the bales in store for unusually long periods of time. In order to perceive how displaced he felt, one has to read between the lines.
When his enthusiasm waned or his health gave way, an undeclared anxiety and irritation would surface. His less than flattering comments on Portuguese customs officials and the tone of his replies to his brother-in-law whenever suspicion of laxness or mismanagement hung in the air prove the point. He became impatient when ships from Brazil, New York or Falmouth were unduly delayed. He was unnerved by the negligence of long-standing debtors, who often turned a deaf ear to his entreaties. Besides, in spite of the considerable sums of money that passed through his hands, James was far from leading an easy and comfortable life.
In a sense, it was through his own body that he first measured the degree of his maladjustment. He was constantly ill, poorly dressed, and found his lodgings uncomfortable. The weather did not suit him and he feared death might creep up on him. He would wear the same clothes for months on end, winter and summer alike. Disease would take hold of him and he would be confined to bed for several weeks. His neat copperplate handwriting would then degenerate to illegible scribbling.
Convinced that he was no longer fit for the job, he would then ask Thomas to let Ambrose Pollett, a friend of the family, replace him in the firm. His physical condition would not let him endure another winter in Lisbon. To him Lisbon, thus, ended up representing the proximity of death, that ultimate moment of displacement. His fears, however, were unfounded and he went back to England where he remained in convalescence, before returning to Portugal.
But once more the climate did not agree with him. In the course of his stay, James was badly in need of a focal point to keep things in perspective and letter writing served such a purpose. More than anything else, it allowed him to keep his sense of belonging alive. These letters ended up being the only bridge not just to his origins, but above all to his own identity. This sentimentality towards his family is in marked contrast with his attitude as an observer.
Although Hutchinson cannot entirely detach himself emotionally from what he witnesses, there is a kind of Verfremdungseffekt in his writing, a journalistic objectification of the topics he covers, whereby the distance between himself and the other is never to be entirely spanned. Translating something as intimate and confidential as private letters has the potential to border on voyeurism.
It raises issues that concern the ethics of translation, since the translator, unlike the casual reader, is supposed to leave no stone unturned in his struggle to reach communicative effectiveness. In this sense, translation is to be viewed as an act of intrusion and, simultaneously, of extrusion in other words a disclosure and a close examination of that which pertains to the private sphere. The former constitutes a form of violation , of disrupting that which belongs to the realm of the confessional and becoming, to borrow the words of St.
Nevertheless, such violence is mitigated by the transmutational properties of time. Over time, these texts have acquired the status of archaeological evidence, which does not necessarily mean that in this respect the position of the translator is less delicate.
After all, he was not the addressee of the letters and that fact alone poses some problems. An outsider may find it difficult to penetrate the referential fabric of the letters. Unlike travel accounts or autobiographies written for publication, these texts were not intended for a wide readership. They were personal in tone and content, and the writer knew what responses to expect from his only reader living across the English Channel.
The writer did not project an ideal or fictional reader to whom he might grant full right of access to the world recreated in his prose. As a consequence, his world remains sealed off from a larger audience and the translator is forced to break into the textual space like a trespasser. Implicatures lie hidden within this corpus of letters but they can never be entirely unravelled: whatever inferences the translator may draw, he or she will always lack the necessary background knowledge to establish their validity.
Such implicatures, one must not forget, are a symptom of the close relationship existing between the two correspondents. Implicit meanings result from a common experience, excluding other readers. Fortunately, the text in question is generally far more objective and factual than one would suppose, and this alone gives the translator significant leverage over the hidden aspects of the correspondence.
It is in the terrain of factuality and narrativity that the translator moves free from major constraints, although it is certain that the faithfulness of the representation can never be taken for granted see Polezzi What we get instead is a myriad of disparate images that can hardly be coalesced into one single picture.
The reason is obvious: the stories he tells do not follow any thematic pattern, other than the fact that all of them revolve around the city itself. Although the anecdotal episodes themselves are self-contained and refer only to fragments of both individual and collective experiences in early nineteenth-century Lisbon, they play an important part in the process of historiographical reconstruction of the past. The historiographical value of the letters lies in the fact that they contain accounts that were neither censored nor doctored: no one ever scrutinised or edited the stories, which were simply committed to paper without any concern for accuracy, trustworthiness or factuality.
The ensemble of letters forms a sort of scrapbook containing clippings or mementos that were never meant to be published. Such moments, however, were bound together by a common genetic code: they all emerged out of the drive for novelty, a drive partly explained by the way the processes of cultural displacement affected the author. He preferred to position himself as an observer rather than as a commentator, and avoided getting entangled in elaborate considerations. Far from highly opinionated, the letters nonetheless give us the chance of peering into his personality, albeit obliquely. Sometimes, however, he felt compelled to take sides, such as when he dared to air his own opinion on Beresford:.
Such explicitness was rare. Shortly after the rebellion in Pernambuco, Brazil, Hutchinson censured himself for letting slip his views on the political turmoil that had gripped the country and decided to not to return to the issue for fear of reprisals:. His fears over the consequences of political dissent were not wholly misplaced. The horrific hanging of the Conspirators he watched on 22 October , shortly before his departure, left a lasting impression on him:. Here, his voyeurism matched his horror as he came to the full presence of death—that dark character that kept resurfacing in his writing.
As we have seen, what was once private acquires, over time, an archaeological value: the status of artefact is conferred on language as privacy metamorphoses into historical evidence. In translation, chronological distance is of the essence: one might even argue that every translation has embedded in its genes an indelible anachronism. In sharp contrast with our contemporary world, where synchronous forms of communication and instantaneous access to information seem to have taken hold of the way we communicate with each other, the art and craft of translation necessitates the slow transit of time.
It is a painstaking process of problem-solving, reflection and maturation. It takes time and perseverance. And when it involves the representation of past historical phenomena, as in the present case, the temporal dimension acquires critical significance. On the one hand, the translator cannot help excogitating his own condition as a historical subject: he becomes conscious of the relativity of values, of the differentials separating lifestyles, habitus in the Bourdieusian sense and Weltanschauungen. And here, in the translation process, the time gap separating source and target texts functions not so much as a thread linking both acts of writing along a historical continuum but rather as a lens, generating several simultaneous optical effects, where light shifts in unsuspected ways and where appearance must be understood in its composite and elusive nature.
This, of course, entails much scrupulous work of detailed historical research, as well as the ability to articulate it within the translational process. The crux of the matter lies in being able to dwell in the interstices between two languages, two cultures and two historical periods. In other words, one must learn to come to terms with the undecidability which undermines the certainties offered by our ingrained logocentrism. As the translator shifts, in the course of the translation process, from one logosphere in the Barthesian sense to another, he realises that the movement itself does not actually, cannot entail the loss or gain, subtraction or addition of meanings.
Meaning does not constitute some sort of universal currency that is, manifestations of a universal language common to all human beings that can be subjected to a process of direct exchange or transaction. Meanings cannot migrate freely from one language to another.
I can only subtract meanings within the system they belong to. Languages weave their own networks of meanings and the exact value of each meaning, if it can ever be assessed, is to be determined only symptomatically by the effects generated by its presence or absence in one particular social and cultural context. To believe in the transferability of the meaning and its capacity to survive as a whole in two distinct linguistic and cultural environments as in a process of ecesis is not to realise something that Derrida pointed out: that even within the same language meanings not only differ a problem of spacing , but are forever deferred which is the condition of their temporality.
One of the main problems of translation, therefore, is not just spatiality but also temporality , particularly the historical condition of the texts. And this, I think, poses an obstacle far more difficult to overcome, since it has to do with the impossibility for the translator to render two externalities compatible in one single target text. Just as Hutchinson was compelled, as an expatriate, to come to terms with the social and cultural reality of his host country  which is, for all purposes, a question of spatiality , so the translator, like a migrant travelling through time, is forced to come to grips with an ancient world governed by laws long forsaken and now irretrievable the question of temporality.
And since both writer and translator are forever barred from a fully unmediated contact with the unconsciously lived culture of the Other, both seeing it as something external to themselves, though not necessarily negative, their attempts to assimilate cultural elements and national idiosyncrasies can only take place on the terrain of the imaginary, which enables them to crop, select, filter and reshape elements and idiosyncrasies in order to discursively tame the otherness. Translators of travel writing therefore have to operate on a double disjuncture. On the one hand, they have to deal with the cultural gap that exists between the author and the people he visits Hutchinson and the Portuguese , a gap which over-determines the perceptions, constructs, responses and projections of otherness of the British expat, but which -- since it is barely made explicit in the text -- can only be detected by means of a symptomatic reading.
On the other hand, translators have to negotiate the disjunction that will always separate them from the time and the concrete conditions under which the texts saw the light of day -- a disjunction that is further amplified by the impossibility of mapping the exact location of the intersection of cultures which gives the letters their characteristic intercultural tension see Cronin 6.
Therefore, the translator is left with no choice but to try to overcome these two disjunctions, both of which constitute distinct moments of resistance to interpretation. How can we then circumvent the limitations to translation that such a double disjuncture imposes? Of course a careful, detailed investigation into the empirical elements offered by the letters and the issues broached therein must always be conducted, but this is not enough: it can only be through a critical awareness of these tensions and resistances that translators may decentre themselves and avoid the pitfalls of identification and idealisation.
It is this decentring at the core of translation that ends up being in itself a form of travelling. It is rather the translator and his reader who are invited to venture across a frontier -- the frontier that sets the limits to their identities, values and representations, and that is both spatial and temporal. In fact, the main challenges to the translation of these letters were posed by the problem of temporality, that is, by the difficulties of bridging the time gap.
The first issue to be tackled was the stylistics of the Portuguese target text. It was not just a matter of finding the best equivalents and transferring contents from the source text into the target language without major semantic losses. It was also a matter of finding a style and a register that could somehow match the original ones. In order to do that, I compared the letters to similar archival and bibliographical sources in Portuguese. The analysis of the examples of letters allowed me to determine the way in which the target text was to be drafted.
In Portuguese, this is not so linear. In the early nineteenth century, modes of address would have varied according not only to social class, age or degree of familiarity, but also to written language conventions. The solution to the difficulty in ascertaining whether we were dealing with informality or politeness was partly given by the manual. This was the form I resorted to throughout. Another difficulty had to do with wording. The manuals proved useful in guiding my lexical choices.
I wanted to give the translation a distinctive period flavour to represent the historical dimension of the original letters. Another challenge was related to the commercial jargon both in English and in Portuguese. Nowadays commercial terminology in both languages is much more complex, but most of the neologisms that currently exist in Portuguese are English words.
Back then, that influence was more tenuous. In any case, the search for the right equivalent would have always been time-consuming. If we multiply this by the wide spectrum of nomenclatures related to those areas of economic activity Hutchinson was directly or indirectly involved in, we have an idea of the complexity of the task. To start with, there were the inner workings of the wool trade business.
I had to unwind the ball of yarn of the English wool and worsted industry, including all the details concerning the different stages of the manufacturing process: recognising the provenance and differences in quality of the raw wool available in both the Portuguese and Spanish markets, the various patterns of the warp and weft, the way the cloth should be cut or dressed, specific types of woollen cloths, their designs and colours, and so on. It took me a while before I learnt from a magazine published in London in Tilloch that the initials did not stand for any English or Portuguese words, but for Spanish ones.
They referred to the way Spanish wool which also included Portuguese wool was classified: Primera or Refina R. Moreover, since conducting business ventures overseas back then was not without its risks, I had to acquaint myself with the idiom used in cargo and shipping insurance, learn about risk-assessment, shipping deadlines, storage conditions, bills of lading, types of merchant ships crossing the Atlantic, and so on. But then there are also taxes and duties, customs procedures and the requirements of port authorities, the valuation of the bales in the Cocket,  goods lodged at the Custom House not yet dispatched -- all of this wrapped up in a language of its own, which has to be patiently disassembled, explored, digested, and then reassembled and fine-tuned in the translation process.
In order to penetrate that language I had to resort to historical research once more. However, since the Revista de Estudos Anglo-Portugueses is aimed at a scholarly readership, it proved unnecessary to insist on the explanation of cultural or linguistic aspects that they are supposed to be already acquainted with. Differences in style between early nineteenth-century and early twenty-first-century Portuguese are noticeable, but they do not make the text less intelligible. In any case, stylistic conventions should not pose a problem for all the scholars who are used to working with documents of that period.
So I kept the footnotes to a minimum. The future publication of a book containing the complete correspondence of the Farrer family, this time aiming at a more general readership, will entail a different explanatory methodology, but not a different stylistic treatment. Writing narratives of displacement and travel is in itself a translational act, where the author is always seeking to translate into his mother tongue the manifestations of the culture of the other.
In the process, the translator is forced to question his identity, values and the representations of his own nation and people, especially if the original text is non-fictional and therefore stakes a claim to the immediacy and truthfulness of the experience. The translator thus has to achieve a tour-de-force in bridging all three gaps and rendering the text accessible to the contemporary reader.
However, the meanings in the target text will always have but a spectral relation with the ones in the source text: they are constructed at the same time as a re-apparition of a former presence that does not present itself as full presence and as the apparition of a new presence —a new text in its own right. Brewster, London, New Left Books. London, R. Covering dates: Paris, ; Joaquim Ferreira de Freitas. London, Richard and Arthur Taylor, He is also the director of studies of postgraduate programmes in ELT and translation.
He has also participated in several European-funded projects related to teacher training and computer-assisted language learning. English: This article aims to investigate how humour is translated in two theatrical plays by Eugene Ionesco La Cantatrice chauv e and Les Chaise s into Greek. The study explores three different Greek versions of the two theatrical plays. On the one hand, it seeks to consider humorous effects within the original plays, and on the other hand, it investigates the challenges involved in transposing verbal humour and the strategies used to translate or even reinforce humour in the translated texts.
If incongruity is an indispensable humour - provoking parameter, translators should also seek to mobilize the same cognitive mechanism in the translated texts. It is argued that even if a more literal translation is not always privileged or even possible, what is of importance is the humorous effect, otherwise the perlocutionary force of the translated humour on the target audience. Nous sommes comiques. Toutes les personnes importantes?
Les psychiatres et leurs psychopathes? Le Pap e, les pap illons et les pap iers. Ionesco , Les Chaises , traduit par Belies, p. La sou pape a un pape. Le pape a besoin d'un bouchon. Bien que ce ne soit pas grand-chose. Ionesco , La Cantatrice chauve , traduit par Protopapas, p. Ionesco , La Cantatrice chauve , traduit par Belies , pp. Et il riait comme un veau. Ionesco, Les Chaises traduit par Stamatiou.
Pourquoi tu prenais mal tout trop facilement? Il a juste fait une blague. Je n'aime pas les blagues! Giorgos Protopapas. Traduit en grec. Erikkos Belies Traduit en grec. Belgium, University Press Antwerp: House, Juliane Translation quality assessment. A model revisited, Tubingen, Gunther Narr. Gruner, Charles, R. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Trabelsi dir. Margot, Jean-Claude Traduire et trahir.
Meyer, John, C. Nida, Eugene, A. Reiss, Katharina, et Vermeer, Hans, J. Nord, , Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. Vandaele, Jeroen guest ed. Jerome Publishing, Vol. London, Continuum: Maria Constantinou received her Ph. She taught foreign languages and communication-related courses in private academic institutions of Cyprus , and since January , she has been teaching linguistics, critical discourse analysis, semiotics and translation both theory and practice at the University of Cyprus. She is particularly interested in issues related to metaphors, ideology, emotions, humour, discourse, society and identity construction.
She has published on Kazantzakis and Ionesco, focussing mainly on the phenomena of intertextuality, metaphor, humour and ideology. Her recent research includes journalistic and political discourse, CMC forums, blogs and media and institutional translation and pays particular attention to the interplay between image and text. She has participated in various conferences and published articles and chapters on and in English, French and Greek mainly from a contrastive, cross-cultural and translational perspective in refereed and peer-reviewed journals and edited volumes.
The manifold interface between music, migration and translation can foster challenging research, especially when translation is metaphorically approached as a continuous journey and migrating condition of people and forms. Moreover, this song has been crossing an unbelievable number of geographical, temporal and artistic boundaries, often intertwined with actual stories of Italian-American migration. The case study focuses on some relevant moments in this amazing journey, observing the successive layers of meaning created by its many incarnations.
The case study fully confirms that broader perspectives are crucial when studying the migration of popular songs. Monolithic notions, such as authenticity, cultural specificity or musical genre, as well as narrow distinctions between song translation proper , intralingua translation, non-translation and adaptation do not easily engage with this context.
Thus, flexibility is the only viable answer. It is a stimulating field for both Music and Translation Studies, calling for more challenging approaches and greater contamination from both research areas. Music is a migrating form of art. Being a universal language Minors 1 , it can spread and migrate much more easily than people, thus establishing contacts and interacting with a variety of cultural influences.
It comes as no surprise that stimulating contributions have recently appeared, showing that studies on music and migration can be promising allies in particular, see Kapelj in and Kiwan and Meinhof Similarly, the articulate interface between music and translation has started to attract increasing academic attention, becoming the focus of a growing number of thought-provoking studies . The intersection of translation and music can be a fascinating field to explore.
It can enrich our understanding of what translation might entail, how far its boundaries can be extended and how it relates to other forms of expression. Research into this area can thus help us locate translation-related activities in a broader context, undermining more conservative notions of translation and mediation. Susam-Saraeva The focus on translation has been shifted towards cultural processes, with increasing emphasis on new modes of mobility and transcultural sociability born across multiple borders and boundaries. Translation is seen as a continuous journey, a metaphor for the migrating condition of people and forms.
Bassnett and Trivedi Each time some meaningful layers have been added, both problematizing and enriching the migration of this song. However, these steps can be better understood only if read as parts of a complex process still in progress, rather than a series of detached translational episodes. Therefore, the aim of the article is to offer a downside-up contribution to the debate on song translation through a paradigmatic case study.
The analysis of a concrete example of a multifaceted translational process is a way to confirm and stress the relevance of more comprehensive and extended theoretical foundations within cultural translation studies. Translation Studies have often overlooked popular songs, especially their semiotic complexity. Yet, paradoxically, it is their very multidimensional nature that makes studying them so challenging and promising at the same time.
Undoubtedly, an element of its complexity is the fact that the genre called song is a verbal-musical hybrid Low b: Chanan However, this paradox is only one of the elements of complexity in songs. The physique of the performers, their facial expression and gestures, their costumes, hair, and make-up, as well as dancers, lighting and possible props, merge into the song. The methodological complexities and challenges involved in the study of popular song translation are thus evident.
The study of song recordings and videos should rely on a vast area of expertise. A combined competence, in Translation Studies, Music as well as Semiotics, is unfortunately not easy to find. However, even when moving on from mere criticism of single texts, researchers need to adopt new frameworks when studying music and translation Susam-Saraeva To start with, greater flexibility is crucial, since rigid distinctions could be misleading. The present author rather shares the view that distinctions are better seen as blurred in post-structuralist thought Van Wyke This opinion is even more appropriate in the case of translation of non-canonized music, such as popular song translation.
Susam-Saraeva stresses that. Susam-Saraeva , highlighting added. This case study will show how a long series of different transformations can receive greater significance if approached as a continual translational story. However, this approach inherently requires the overcoming of narrow definitions and boundaries between translation proper , adaptation and re-writing.
Understandably, the impact of music and in particular of songs is even more intense on migrant communities Susam-Sarajeva Since its composition in lyrics by Giovanni Capurro, music by Edoardo Di Capua, published by Edizioni Bideri, Naples , the song has spread rapidly and is still crossing an impressive, unbelievable number of geographical, temporal and artistic borders and boundaries. At any rate, it cannot be denied that its popularity has been exceptional, and this is fully confirmed by the Neapolitan Song Sound Archives in Naples, a recent foundation by RadioRai the Italian state radio together with Naples Municipality and Campania Regional Council.
Eloquent proof of this is that on August 14 th in Antwerp, at the opening of the first Olympic Games after World War I, when the band conductor realized that no score of the Italian Royal March was available, he chose to play 'O sole mio , a tune that all his musicians could play by ear, and the song was greeted with great enthusiasm by all those present Del Bosco 6.
Pesc and Stazio 11 [As a music form, Neapolitan song is a metonymy for a city, and sometimes even for the whole country. It is an eloquent example of narrativization of place. However, any claims to regard City and Country as monolithic entities remain suspect. We must acknowledge that urban cultures are by their very nature the result of multiple intersections and layers, and similarly local and national cultures are seldom so homogenous as to be conveyed by a single song, or music form, although they may serve as identity emblems.
Naples is no exception, of course, though it has a few very distinctive traits. One of them is the persisting presence of a type of musical production with strong identifying factors since the 19th, which complicates and problematizes what has just been observed. On the other hand, an important issue to weigh in is that, paradoxically, this musical form is a sort of hybrid, and has been so since its very beginning. What is usually labelled as Neapolitan song is very far from being a uniform musical genre. In fact, it is a much more complex and multifaceted cultural phenomenon than one might expect.
The beginning of the classical season of Neapolitan art songs is identified with the closing decades of the 19 th century, but the actual origins of this musical form are vague and should be traced back to the 14 th century, and probably even earlier. Neapolitan polyphonic roundelays with lute or calascione accompaniment  had already become quite popular between the 14th and the 15th centuries; their matrix had been the villanelle alla napolitana , a very popular song genre in Neapolitan dialect especially between and , which also attracted important composers, like Claudio Monteverdi.
It also reflects complex phenomena, from the steady migration into Naples from other areas in the Realm, to the continual daily commuting of so-called cafoni , common louts, from the surrounding countryside. Although fiction is not to be taken as an accurate reflection of real life, this episode evokes a plausible dislocation of the song from Southern Italy to Venice, popular enough to be sung even by a gondolier. Venice and Naples had belonged to different states only a few decades before, in pre-Unification Italy. This means that important cultural and linguistic borders had still to be crossed within the Italian peninsula.
In point of fact, its lyrics, even nowadays, can be only partially understood by native Italian speakers not fully acquainted with the Neapolitan dialect. Structurally and rhythmically, the text is characterized by regularity and constant alternation of rhymed stanzas and chorus.
Repetition words, phrases and whole lines is the key figure throughout the poem. Moreover, each four-line stanza is framed by the recurrence of the same line. What a wonderful thing a sunny day The cool air after a thunderstorm! The fresh breezes banish the heavy air… What a wonderful thing a sunny day. Il sole, il sole mio, Sta in fronte a te Sta in fronte a te. Luccicano I vetri della tua finestra, una lavandaia canta e si vanta Mentre strizza, stende e canta. Luccicano I vetri della tua finestra! Shining is the glass from your window; A washwoman is singing and bragging Wringing and hanging laundry and singing Shining is the glass from your window.
Quando fa sera e il sole se ne scende, Mi viene quasi una malinconia… Resterei sotto la tua finestra, Quando fa sera ed il sole se ne scende. But another sun, […] . In the whole poem, a text of only thirty-three lines, the word sole sun occurs sixteen times. Presumably this core image is what has helped it overcome linguistic barriers and reach native Italian speakers outside Naples. Nonetheless, although it is not a minor mistake, this common mistranslation has paved the way of the migration of the song, at least at the beginning. It has become a quintessential synthesis, or rather an epitome of Latin vitality and passionate feeling.
The mistaken meaning has even become an important factor in collective identity construction. The implicit commonplace is the equation sunshine is Naples and Italy, with two direct corollaries:. They were singular figures, street musicians who, accompanied occasionally by a pianino a portable musical box on a hand-cart , but mostly by a guitar, interpreted all types of popular song, travelling almost all over Europe . Italians were migrating from different parts of Italy, carrying with them very different cultural backgrounds.
Caruso was the most admired Italian opera tenor of the early Twentieth Century, and certainly the most celebrated and highest paid of his contemporaries worldwide. From November 23 rd his name was associated with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City, where he opened each season for eighteen consecutive years.
Undoubtedly, this recording itself could be seen as a meaningful form of transformation, through musical reconceptualization, arrangement, performance and singing style. Certainly, Italian communities abroad looked up to him. He was a migrant like them, and thus they could idolize him as an emblem of collective Italian redemption. Opera and great theatres meant higher prestige and greater circulation abroad, well beyond Italian-speaking migrant communities.
This way, greater emphasis is placed on the stanzas that are more focussed on the sunshine and easier to understand, being linguistically least dialectical. Instead it proves how incongruous ideas of authentic interpretations can be. The first recorded version in English sung by American born Charles W. However, although interesting, all these cases only affect the textual-linguistic level of the song. It was sung by the American singer Tony Martin as well as by the Italian American singer Dean Martin, who recorded it some years later.
Easily perceivable effects of cultural displacement can be spotted in the disconnecting of lyrics and partly of music, too, from the Neapolitan song that had reached the USA. It is a radical rewriting, to start with the lyrics. Love is a flower that blooms so tender Each kiss a dew drop of sweet surrender, Love is a moment of life enchanting, Let's take that moment, that tonight is granting, There's no tomorrow when love is new, Now is forever when love is true, So kiss me and hold me tight, There's no tomorrow, there's just tonight . It gives way to a more universal theme, Love, which Love becomes the absolute protagonist of the song.
Its warmth and unmistakably Mediterranean flavour are easily seen as the perfect match for a successful message of fervent and sensuous seduction. The shift from opera orchestras to variety show bands needs important musical reconceptualization, but voice still plays the main role. In both cases, however, what remains pivotal is the successful match of passionate melody and warm voice.
On the one hand, he is adding a strong exotic Mediterranean flavour to his performance, thoroughly befitting a passionate seduction song, while, on the other hand, he is sending a strong signal to Italian communities in America. Both musically and textually the Neapolitan song is drastically changed through a translational approach, which minimizes its foreignness to the point of overshadowing it. A 20 th -century concept, which rarely appeared in earlier song but did appear with some frequency from the thirties on, was the possibility of impermanent love.
Tawa It favours love as a theme, although romantic sentimentality gives way to seduction and passion, with a subtle trace of urban cynicism. It's now or never, come hold me tight Kiss me my darling, be mine tonight Tomorrow will be too late, it's now or never, my love won't wait. It's now or never, come hold me tight Kiss me my darling, be mine tonight Tomorrow will be too late, it's now or never, my love won't wait . It is immediately a roaring success. According to the Wikipedia list of best-selling singles, it is the eighth best-selling single of all time, while other sources exalt it as the best-selling single ever.
Arguably the best selling single of all time, it shifted 30 million copies worldwide Julie Burns It consists basically of a bar chorus and verse, both based on a familiar tune, and there is nothing unusual or striking about the melodic or harmonic structure of this song. As Saffle states, what is really unusual is the way Elvis sings this song, his strikingly handsome and heart-felt performance Saffle Elvis Presley was a stunning performer, and although he did not compose any of his music, the ways in which he performed the songs made them always sound new and unique.
However, since his powerful stage presence had started to defy the values of more conservative audiences, who began to be suspicious of his glamorous bad-boy appeal and his culturally challenging music, in this song he deliberately adopted a more passionate and less defiant performing style Saffle 2. However, market conventions also include the need to stress the Italian flavour as an essential element in a love song of seduction.
The use of a mandolin in the orchestra accompaniment, an instrument traditionally associated with Italian folk music, is clearly meant to provide local colour, too. They are perfectly in line with the conventional image of Italy as the country of melody and sensual romance needed for the American market. What is theoretically innovative, and politically crucial, is the need to think beyond narratives of originary and initial subjectivities and to focus on those moments or processes that are produced in the articulation of cultural differences.
What is important is that the song lives on, modified and modifying at the same time. It travels well beyond Italian migrant communities and reaches once unimaginable audiences, who unavoidably receive it according to their specific historical and cultural backgrounds.
The lyrics are in English, but with important Italo-American invasions. First of all, paisans in the second line. As the Urban Dictionary online explains, paisan is a word used with Italians or Italian Americans when they are informally, but in a friendly manner, addressing one another.
It is the imperative first person plural form from the Neapolitan language, but it is misspelled. It should be written, and pronounced, with double mm , facimmela, but the phonemic distinction between m and mm is often missed by English speakers. Moreover, as in the preceding example, a rule of English grammar is easily applied to a foreign word. At any rate, the reference could hardly be more evident in a music video of the song accessible in SonicHits webpage .
At the same time, its distance from the source song is equally stressed. New layers have been added. Such an articulate story of domestication, negotiation and difference is at this point intrinsically part of the substratum of the song and necessarily takes part in its ongoing migration. Many years later, the process of creative hybridization remains as strong as ever, opening unexpected and innovative sites of negotiation and collaboration. Strictly speaking, Pino Daniele is no emigrant and is always aware of his deep personal links with his hometown, Naples.
Yet his whole artistic quest is in a certain sense a never-ending migration, until his premature death in January Since his first album in , Pino Daniele has been a transnational artist, endlessly experimenting and exploring differences in music genres and rhythms, while always preserving its Neapolitan roots, or rather its South Mediterranean nature. His privileged attention is to American music, music of Afro-American origins, rock, jazz, funky and above all blues. Even its lyrics are not translated. The admixture is easily perceivable in a music video .
Pino Daniele is sitting and playing a guitar, accompanied by an assorted group of classic and ethnic instruments and musicians. The economic use of instruments and a sober stage design create a deliberately less glamorous atmosphere. He thus offers a unique song, which is both homage to Elvis Presley and American blues as well as a powerful response and expression of resistance to Anglo-American mainstream music from this side of the Ocean.
If code switching in a song is already a meaningful organizational and aesthetic device meant to achieve both localization and globalization Davies , in this song there is much more, from text and linguistic switching to cultural hybridization and artful music contamination. The concept of transcultural intimacy , a collective intimacy beyond and across nations a main notion in Susam-Saraeva , opens new perspectives in this research.
Among them, Mario Bellavista, a jazz pianist from Palermo, should be noted. Bellavista, who is a lawyer by profession, has recently recorded an album entitled O sole mio , which is also one of its eight tracks. In a video interview accessible online, Bellavista points out that the three American artists warmly welcomed his proposal and even actively contributed to the arrangements . Bellavista moves around New York by car but he does not do the driving.
So he can better observe and enjoy. Although he is often in the video, it is mostly his privileged perspective that guides the camera, which contributes to making these images so personal and incisive. New York was the port of arrival in the USA for so many Italian migrants and as such it certainly has an important symbolic value in the video. However, this jazz version looks back and forwards at the same time.
Along the journey the song has taken on many more layers, opening to Afro-American rhythms and developing transcultural dimensions. What we think to be very far, is very close to us, or even inside us at times. Thanks to Harvie, Jerry and Eric, who have helped me feel more Italian. It is an important admission of transcultural intimacy and an implicit acknowlegment of the creative value of translational hybridization.
After all, it is its captivating passionate melody that has mostly driven the translational journey of the song, favouring the multifaceted encounters that mark out its exceptional progress. This opens broader contexts for research in popular song translation, while calling for more challenge-based approaches. To start with, flexibility is paramount. This leads to a view of the journey as an ongoing process of translational development.
Studying this progress as a translational continuum, rather than as a series of detached episodes of transformation, the article highlights the transcultural value gradually acquired by this popular song. The adage that music is a migrant art par excellence is fully confirmed, in all its implications, starting from its hybridizing potentialities and openness to the provocative and inspirational acts of cultural translation we have studied here. As we have seen, the so-called Neapolitan songs have vague origins and Naples itself has always given signs of being an open-air workshop on resistance and cultural hybridization Pesc and Stazio Researchers in popular song translation should be aware that monolithic notions such as authenticity and cultural specificity as well as musical genre do not easily engage with their research, as this exemplary story of popular song migration amply confirms.
Music and Cultural Translation Studies can be precious allies. Stronger contributions and greater contaminations from both study areas can be a way to go beyond traditional research-field boundaries, providing terrain for perspectives and innovative studies. However, we should be aware that high-level expertise and integrated competences in both Music and Cultural Translation Studies are highly desirable, but hard to find.
Pioneering collaboration among scholars from the two different fields is therefore to be hoped for as one possible solution. Therefore, the concluding remark of the present article would like to be a deliberate open call for joint efforts in that direction. L'espressione schernisce il modo in cui gli Africani storpiano l'italiano "vuoi comprare?
La femminilizzazione della migrazione. Il numero crescente di donne italiane che hanno fatto il loro ingresso nella forza lavoro, ha creato un vuoto nella sfera domestica, colmato dalle donne immigrate, e ha determinato la recente femminilizzazione dell'immigrazione in Italia. Come Mario Grasso ha illustrato nel suo studio Donne senza confini. Le donne sono state le prime a migrare e hanno lavorato per creare le condizioni per il successivo ricongiungimento con i loro mariti e figli; migrano principalmente per motivi politici ed hanno un elevato livello di istruzione.
Molte di loro hanno partecipato alla guerra, come membri del Fronte di Liberazione Eritreo contro l'oppressione dell'Etiopia, ed hanno un grado elevato di emancipazione e di determinazione, come nel caso di Ribka Sibhatu 8. La letteratura coloniale italiana. Forse reputavo quegli esseri troppo semplici. E mi accorgevo che nella sua indolente difesa c'era anche la speranza di soccombere. Ennio Flaiano, Tempo di uccidere , p.
La multiculturalizzazione in atto in Italia ha infatti rivitalizzato l'atteggiamento auto-riflessivo sulle implicazioni delle imprese coloniali e sulla loro risonanza nell'ambito del contesto culturale presente. Comunque, questa situazione contesta le affermazioni come la seguente di Maria Cutrufelli: Il sogno imperiale dell'Italia nel Corno d'Africa Anche in un approccio multiculturale alla letteratura come quello offerto dal testo Altri lati del mondo 10 , curato da Maria Antonietta Saracino in collaborazione con altri importanti autori Isabella Camera D'Afflitto, Alessandro Portelli, Vinicio Ongini, Goffredo Fofi, ecc.
Non dovremmo dimenticare Ooronoko: Or the Royal Slave , il testo recentemente riscoperto di Aphra Ben , la prima donna in Inghilterra a guadagnarsi da vivere con la scrittura , che racconta la storia di un uomo di colore che inizia la sua vita da principe e la conclude da schiavo. In Francia, accanto alla grande letteratura di Tahar Ben Jelloun, Assia Djebar o Rachid Boujedra, vi sono anche i numerosi racconti ironici per ragazzi che dimostrano l'avanzare del multiculturalismo, come Il gatto di Tigali di Didier Daeninckx, in cui un gatto tunisino viene ucciso per motivi razzisti.
Nonostante la presenza africana, sulla base del legame coloniale, assuma un ruolo marginale nella letteratura italiana, questo non significa che sia completamente assente. Innumerevoli furono i resoconti delle azioni espansionistiche, scritti per creare la "fabbrica del consenso", come ha affermato lo storico Angelo del Boca. Le varie rappresentazioni letterarie sul colonialismo hanno assolto il compito di preparare e commentare la politica espansionista italiana, producendo la retorica discorsiva della propaganda imperiale.
Durante la prima fase della letteratura coloniale troviamo i resoconti dell'esploratore Vittorio Bottego, un aggressivo avventuriero seguace della politica coloniale di Crispi. Arnaldo Cipolla fu considerato "il Kipling italiano" per i lunghi e vividi resoconti dei suoi viaggi.
Oltre a queste, vi sono le descrizioni fantastiche lasciate da altri viaggiatori ed esploratori, come quelle di Emilio Cecchi, o i racconti di autori come Emilio Salgari, che scrisse di luoghi lontani come l'Africa e la Malesia Sandokan senza esservi mai stato. In questo modo D'Annunzio rinnova il vecchio mito dell'Africa come una terra rigeneratrice, e lo trasforma nel sogno politico dell'espansione. In occasione della conquista dell'Etiopia egli scrisse Teneo te Africa La seconda gesta d'oltremare.
Dalle avanguardie al Fascismo Palermo, Sellerio, In aggiunta a queste rappresentazioni astratte dell'Africa, vi sono i reportage giornalistici di Orio Vergani, Curzio Malaparte e Dino Buzzati, tutti corrispondenti per Il Corriere della Sera all'epoca dell'Impero in Africa. Romanzo storico , ristampato nel da Rizzoli di Riccardo Bacchelli, e Settimana nera Milano, Mondadori, di Enrico Emmanuelli, continueranno a svelare l' "altra" faccia della letteratura coloniale italiana.
Milano, Bompiani, , Lettera dal Sahara , e anche il suo ultimo romanzo La donna leopardo Milano, Bompiani, , hanno tutti a che fare con l'Africa. Come Moravia egli era alla ricerca delle risposte profonde ai grandi quesiti esistenziali che l'Africa pone ai suoi visitatori. Un'altra pubblicazione davvero recente riguarda l'opera postmoderna di Gianni Celati, Avventure in Africa Milano, Feltrinelli, , in cui i modelli di vita offerti dall'Africa sono visti come l'unica via di fuga possibile dalla routine quotidiana, erosa dai simboli del consumo di massa.
L'Africa di Celati dunque precede o ignora il mondo post-coloniale. La letteratura post-coloniale e la narrativa afro-italiana. La situazione italiana appare piuttosto povera, se paragonata alla ricezione di cui godono gli scrittori africani ed asiatici in Inghilterra, con le splendide collane dedicate espressamente loro da affermate case editrici. La gente tende a considerarmi uno strano tipo di inglese, magari una nuova razza, dal momento che sono il prodotto di due vecchie culture.
Sostengo che paradossalmente lo scarso numero dei nostri immigrati rispetto agli altri paesi europei e malgrado gli allarmismi impedisce la nascita di una cultura che si possa chiamare multietnica. Canto-poesia dall'Eritrea. Mentre la Gran Bretagna ha sperimentato un flusso di ritorno negli ultimi quattro decenni, l'Italia ha rimosso le sue gesta imperiali dalla coscienza nazionale.
Tutte immagini estremamente significative per l'analisi della costruzione dell'immaginario collettivo italiano e della rappresentazione dell'altro, ma che sono piuttosto datate, razziste e frutto di una specifica retorica espansionista. Molti dei testi degli immigrati italiani sono scritti in collaborazione con uno scrittore o un giornalista italiano, che con una genuina intenzione di impegno civile, danno voce a coloro che non ne hanno, prestando la loro lingua alla narrativa migrante, cercando di mescolare l'interesse per la situazione multiculturale presente con le intenzioni letterarie.
Queste origini sono inscritte nei loro testi.