Durante ese periodo de oscuridad, nuestra gente fue asesinada, nuestros templos aniquilados y nuestros altares profanados. Luego con pinzas al rojo vivo arrancaron la lengua de su boca. Esa misma noche, prestaron solemne juramento basado en una ceremonia de sangre. El hombre ha honrado a muchos Dioses por miles de siglos. Observe el universo que lo rodea.
Ninguna mente los conoce a todos. En este universo de peligro y aventuras, los Dioses implementan su voluntad mediante la lucha y no con mandatos. Amplifica todo lo que es grandioso en un hombre y el resultado es un Dios. Su belleza ha sido alterada por la niebla de los siglos. Algunas veces visitan el mundo de los hombres interesados en conocimiento.
Pero si las deidades son maestras del disfraz La sombra oscura, es la silueta que se refleja por la luz del sol. La realidad de los Dioses existe en uno de estos caminos. En la naturaleza, la realidad de los Dioses conecta con la realidad de los hombres. Cuando las dos realidades son perpendiculares, se forma la puerta misteriosa. Hasta ahora, hemos discutido sobre sus Dioses en general. Al contrario, la naturaleza es la matriz que da vida a los Dioses. Otra entidad que honramos es la Diosa Frigg.
Empujados por el deseo de crear, desde esta hora nuestros cuerpos son uno. En primera, Thor es popular porque es el favorito de los aventureros. Sin amabilidad, un hombre no puede ser humano. Aquellos llamados gigantes de hielo viven en un lugar de noche eterna y frialdad inmaculada. Aunque Njord actualmente vive en Asgard con su esposa, es Vanir de nacimiento. Para un elfo, el juego amatorio puede llevar a la muerte. Cuando ella camina por nuestra realidad, el poder de su belleza hace que las flores se desarrollen, y los frutos maduren.
El agua celeste es la lluvia que cae del cielo. Lo que es nuevo y fresco, pertenece al dominio femenino. The fantasy I have just delineated is not a uni versal one; in some cultures the moon is considered masculine.
But in American culture the moon is definitely feminine. It even has the maternal associa tions of a cow jumping over it or being made of green cheese. The lunar mission brings to mind the interweaving of folklore and history. The point is that historical events and personages may serve as anchors for flights of projective fantasy. I believe many historians err seriously in dismissing or ignoring elements which they label as spurious or apocryphal. As a folklorist, I have learned to respect what the folk say and think about history re gardless of the historicity of their words and thoughts.
What happened is important, but no less important is what people think happened or what people wished had happened. Folk history may tell us more about folk than about history, but surely that is worth knowing. The folk history of George Washington, for example, includes his famous confron- tation with his father over the chopping down, not of a beanstalk, but of a cherry tree. Actually George, a son in that anecdote, is more celebrated for his paternal role. Why is it, for instance, that George Washington is reputed to have slept in so many beds on the east coast of the United States?
Signs proclaim that George Washington slept here, not ate, drank, or visited here. Of course, if he is considered to be the father of our country then the verb choice is apt—as is the par ticular style of monument erected to honor him. But can there be any validity to the projections discussed thus far? I can anticipate the most obvious objection: Readers may have watched the lunar landing, and they did not think of any associations of Apollo-Diana, brother- sister incest, etc.
They did not think of the lunar land ing as a violation of the moon. Any tension they may have felt was strictly due to their genuine concern for the safety of the astronauts. But sometimes the tension was excessive. Some in dividuals refused to believe that the lunar landing actually occurred.
Rather they assumed that the whole event was simply a fictionalized television program. Several individuals suffered breakdowns evidently precipitated by the successful lunar landing. And here one must reiterate the important point that folkloric projection is often, though not always, unconscious. Rarely is the nature of the projection consciously recognized.
That is precisely the point. It is the bringing of the unconscious into the purview of the conscious which is difficult and painful for the psyche. Projection is one of a number of psychological defense mechanisms which provide an un conscious screen or arena for the display of the causes of anxiety; it is for this reason that folkloric pro jections are so indispensable as tools in the human arsenal for mental health. What is the meaning of this act? I wish to reiterate my firm conviction that semiotics must ulti mately be concerned with meaning. In terms of the literalization of metaphor, the bride, through the ritual act of throwing away her floral bouquet, is sig nifying her willingness or intention of being de flowered.
Interestingly enough, the flowers once separated from the bride furnish an example of contagious magic—which is analogous to simile, by the way—as the lucky girl who catches the bouquet is said to be the next to marry. An even better example of the literalization of metaphor in folkloric projections may be found in another genre, namely nursery rhymes.
Upon reflection, we may recall that there is a tra ditional connection between shoes and marriage. Not only does Cinderella find her prince charming through the perfect fit between her foot and a glass slipper, but in American culture we continue to tie old shoes on the bumpers of cars carrying newlyweds off on their honeymoon.
The mystery of the precise nature of the connec tion is solved by another version of the Mother Goose rhyme, reported from the Ozarks from the s. In nursery rhymes, in fairy tales, in post-wedding customs, the same symbolic equation is found. This supports the idea that symbol patterns are culturewide. I fear I may have done a serious disservice to my thesis by using so many examples of sexual sym bolism. Any anxiety producing topic can find expression in projective form. For example, there is projection in the modern urban legend in which a family is obliged to take its old grandmother along on a vacation trip.
In a remote area, grandmother dies and the family is forced to curtail its vacation. Strapping the body to the roof of the Volkswagen, the family starts for home. I have argued that this legend reflects American attitudes toward the older generation and toward death. In terms of wishful thinking, there is the wish that grandmother should die and that someone else should dispose of the body. Medical stu dents have anxiety—at least initially—about handling cadavers and probably also about paying their way through life at the expense of the health of their patients.
After all, the families of patients are charged for operations whether the operations are successful or not. Racism is another anxiety-producing problem which is expressed in folkloric form. He wins the battle but the victory is Pyrrhic, for in the end John Henry dies.
I have had white middle class school teachers tell me they use this folksong in the classroom as an example of African-American folklore. This is all well and good, but as a projection, John Henry is little more than the white stereotype of what black men should be. The ballad of John Henry is thus more part of white folklore about blacks than of African- American folklore, and its continued use in schools promotes the image of the strong, docile, Uncle Tom figure of the black male.
The unconscious aspects of folkloristic projection make its use all the more insidious— and perhaps dan gerous—inasmuch as few individuals are aware of the semiotic implications of the projection. Racism is nonetheless virulent for its being unconscious. A terse bit of African-American folklore conveys a unique indictment of the use of white folklore in class rooms containing black students. Projections are to be found in all types of litera ture including comics, television, and motion pictures.
My discussion today is based primarily upon folklore only because I am most familiar with folkloric data. But popular culture too can and must be understood as projective material. Similarly, we might look at Star Trek, a popular television program which relates the adventures of an eternally floating bastion of American values in the context of popular science fiction. Typically the space ship makes an uninvited visit to some alien culture which somehow threatens the existence or safety of the ship, Or the ship itself is invaded by the alien culture. Often the progress of the space ship is im periled or stopped.
Its leader heroes, of obvious Anglo -Saxon ancestry Kirk, Spock, Scotty, McCoy , assisted by various assorted ethnic underlings, take whatever action they deem necessary to free the ship. And what does the crew of the Enterprise do? The usual solution consists of converting or destroying the alien cultures. The plots and dramatis personae are strikingly similar in myth and science fiction.
In sum it is the projection which is crucial, not so much the time or place or local coloring. It is the removal from reality to fantasy which allows the human spirit free rein to por tray its spiritual struggles and to play out its mo ments of anguish. Sometimes, however, even fantasy does not afford sufficient disguise for such struggles, not with out recourse to what I would call projective inversion. Most of the projections discussed thus far have been more or less direct translations of reality into fantasy. But there are some human problems that evidently require more elaborate disguise.
One of the finest examples of projective inversion in folklore is the one first analyzed by Otto Rank in his brilliant monograph, The Myth of the Birth of the Hero, first published in In this classic study, Rank attempts to explain why the Indo-European hero should so often be born of a virgin mother and why he should be abandoned to die immediately after birth. A virgin mother repre sents a complete repudiation of the father and espe cially of his necessary role in procreation.
In Oedipal theory, it is supposedly the son who would like to get rid of his father, which would thereby reserve his mother for his exclusive use. But a narrative in which a son deposed or disposed of his father would produce considerable guilt. Rank called this projection, but I would like to call it projective inversion. One obvious ad vantage of such projective inversion is the avoidance of guilt. Projective inversion thus permits one to blame the victim. Rather than feeling guilt, the son-hero can justifiably take Oedipal style revenge and kill the villainous father figure.
Let me give an example of projective inversion from modern American legend. The gist of the legend is a report that black youths have castrated a young white boy in a public bathroom. Like all legends, it is told as true, and in fact several years ago it was reported repeatedly by telephone to various police stations in San Francisco. But historically, one may ask which race has castrated which race? It is surely whites who castrated blacks as punishment for actual or imagined crimes.
But in this exemplar of urban folklore, through projective inversion, the whites have metamorphosed their own fears of the stereotyped super-phallic black male into a form where their victim becomes the aggressor. The wish to castrate black males is projected to those males who are depicted as castrating a white boy. This makes it possible to blame the black victim for the crime the white would like to commit. This raises once again the question of the interrela tionship of historical event to folkloristic projective fantasy. Some scholars tend to feel that historical and psychological approaches are mutually exclusive, but I believe this to be a serious error.
Frequently a historical event may rekindle an old projection or in spire a new one. It has been suggested, for example, that the ele phant joke cycle of the early s might be related to the rise of the Civil Rights movement of the same period. Elephants, like blacks, are associated by whites with African origins. To rape squirrels. As mentioned in the analysis of the pre vious legend, castration, symbolic or literal, is one solution.
Take away his credit card. A baby on a meathook. A baby chewing on a razor blade. These jokes, told by post-pubertal adolescents, may reflect simple sibling rivalry; but that would not explain why this particular cycle became so popular in the early s.
Sibling rivalry, after all, has presumably always ex isted. Whether not a particular joke cycle or leg end derives from a historical impetus is not crucial for the present argument. The issue is whether or not there is a projective aspect to the collectivized forms of fantasy we call folklore. If so, as I believe, then there are important implications for semiotic studies, in which the projective aspect has thus far been almost totally ignored.
He even describes some of the standard tricks as metaphorical, e. My point is that semiotics seems to stop with description, classification, and typology, whereas description, classification and typology ought to be beginnings not ends. Look when I vow, I weep; and vows so born, In their nativity all truth appears.
At which point there's a sequence of hazy events that he almost forgets entirely, except for a masked woman. Trasplantes de cerebro. Ken Perlin. Es un mensaje de voz. One day before the opening, in the press conference, Eric Gullichsen displayed a Virtual Reality helmet and offered journalists the possibility of trying it out in order to experience, for the first time, the simulation of 3D environments in real time.
How can these things in me seem scorn to you, Bearing the badge of faith, to prove them true? When truth kills truth, O devilish-holy fray! These vows are Hermia's: will you give her o'er? Weigh oath with oath, and you will nothing weigh: Your vows to her and me, put in two scales, Will even weigh; and both as light as tales.
To what, my love, shall I compare thine eyne? Crystal is muddy. O, how ripe in show Thy lips, those kissing cherries, tempting grow! That pure congealed white, high Taurus' snow, Spanish advance: avance, adelanto, anticipo, acercarse, progreso, adelantar, proponer, aproximarse, avanzar, anticipar. O hell! I see you all are bent To set against me for your merriment. If you were civil, and knew courtesy, You would not do me thus much injury.
Can you not hate me, as I know you do, But you must join in souls to mock me too? If you were men, as men you are in show, You would not use a gentle lady so; To vow, and swear, and superpraise my parts, When I am sure you hate me with your hearts. You both are rivals, and love Hermia; And now both rivals, to mock Helena: A trim exploit, a manly enterprise, To conjure tears up in a poor maid's eyes With your derision!
None of noble sort Would so offend a virgin, and extort A poor soul's patience, all to make you sport. Spanish bliss: beatitud. My heart to her but as guest-wise sojourn'd; And now to Helen is it home return'd, There to remain. But why unkindly didst thou leave me so? William Shakespeare 55 Why seek'st thou me?
Now I perceive they have conjoin'd all three To fashion this false sport in spite of me. Injurious Hermia! Have you conspir'd, have you with these contriv'd, To bait me with this foul derision? Is all the counsel that we two have shar'd, The sisters' vows, the hours that we have spent, When we have chid the hasty-footed time For parting us,--O, is all forgot? All school-days' friendship, childhood innocence? We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, Have with our needles created both one flower, Both on one sampler, sitting on one cushion, Both warbling of one song, both in one key; As if our hands, our sides, voices, and minds, Had been incorporate.
So we grew together, Like to a double cherry, seeming parted; But yet a union in partition, Two lovely berries moulded on one stem: So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart; Two of the first, like coats in heraldry, Due but to one, and crowned with one crest. And will you rent our ancient love asunder, To join with men in scorning your poor friend? It is not friendly, 'tis not maidenly: Spanish artificial: artificial.
And made your other love, Demetrius,-Who even but now did spurn me with his foot,-To call me goddess, nymph, divine, and rare, Precious, celestial? Wherefore speaks he this To her he hates? What though I be not so in grace as you, So hung upon with love, so fortunate; But miserable most, to love unlov'd? This you should pity rather than despise. If you have any pity, grace, or manners, You would not make me such an argument. But fare ye well: 'tis partly my own fault; Which death, or absence, soon shall remedy.
Spanish absence: ausencia, falta. You are a tame man; go! Spanish cannot: presente de no poder. Out, loathed medicine! Although I hate her, I'll not harm her so.
Hate me! Am not I Hermia? Are not you Lysander? I am as fair now as I was erewhile. Since night you lov'd me; yet since night you left me: Why then, you left me,--O, the gods forbid! Therefore be out of hope, of question, doubt, Be certain, nothing truer; 'tis no jest That I do hate thee and love Helena.
You thief of love!
Have you no modesty, no maiden shame, No touch of bashfulness? Fie, fie! Ay, that way goes the game. Now I perceive that she hath made compare Between our statures; she hath urg'd her height; And with her personage, her tall personage, Her height, forsooth, she hath prevail'd with him. How low am I, thou painted maypole? I am not yet so low But that my nails can reach unto thine eyes. I was never curst; I have no gift at all in shrewishness; Spanish answers: respuestas. You perhaps may think, Because she is something lower than myself, That I can match her.
I evermore did love you, Hermia; Did ever keep your counsels; never wrong'd you; Save that, in love unto Demetrius, I told him of your stealth unto this wood: He follow'd you; for love I follow'd him; But he hath chid me hence, and threaten'd me To strike me, spurn me, nay, to kill me too: And now, so you will let me quiet go, To Athens will I bear my folly back, And follow you no farther. Let me go: You see how simple and how fond I am.
Let me come to her. Let her alone: speak not of Helena; Take not her part; for if thou dost intend Never so little show of love to her, Thou shalt aby it. Your hands than mine are quicker for a fray; My legs are longer though, to run away. Did not you tell me I should know the man By the Athenian garments he had on? And so far blameless proves my enterprise That I have 'nointed an Athenian's eyes: And so far am I glad it so did sort, As this their jangling I esteem a sport.
OBERON Thou seest these lovers seek a place to fight; Hie therefore, Robin, overcast the night; The starry welkin cover thou anon With drooping fog, as black as Acheron, And lead these testy rivals so astray As one come not within another's way. Like to Lysander sometime frame thy tongue, Spanish blameless: irreprochable. When they next wake, all this derision Shall seem a dream and fruitless vision; And back to Athens shall the lovers wend With league whose date till death shall never end.
Whiles I in this affair do thee employ, I'll to my queen, and beg her Indian boy; And then I will her charmed eye release From monster's view, and all things shall be peace. PUCK My fairy lord, this must be done with haste, For night's swift dragons cut the clouds full fast; And yonder shines Aurora's harbinger, At whose approach ghosts, wandering here and there, Troop home to churchyards: damned spirits all, That in cross-ways and floods have burial, Already to their wormy beds are gone; For fear lest day should look their shames upon They wilfully exile themselves from light, And must for aye consort with black-brow'd night.
But, notwithstanding, haste; make no delay: We may effect this business yet ere day. Goblin, lead them up and down. Here comes one. PUCK Here, villain; drawn and ready. Where art thou? Thou runaway, thou coward, art thou fled? In some bush? Spanish blessed: bendecido, bendito, bienaventurado. Come, recreant; come, thou child; I'll whip thee with a rod: he is defiled That draws a sword on thee.
PUCK Follow my voice; we'll try no manhood here. The villain is much lighter heeled than I: I follow'd fast, but faster he did fly; That fallen am I in dark uneven way, And here will rest me. Come, thou gentle day! Coward, why com'st thou not? Thou shalt buy this dear, If ever I thy face by daylight see: Now, go thy way. Faintness constraineth me To measure out my length on this cold bed.
Shine comforts from the east, That I may back to Athens by daylight, From these that my poor company detest:-And sleep, that sometimes shuts up sorrow's eye, Steal me awhile from mine own company. Come one more; Two of both kinds makes up four. Here she comes, curst and sad:-Cupid is a knavish lad, Thus to make poor females mad. Here will I rest me till the break of day. Heavens shield Lysander, if they mean a fray! Spanish amiable: amistoso, amable. William Shakespeare 69 BOTTOM Monsieur Cobweb; good monsieur, get you your weapons in your hand and kill me a red-hipped humble-bee on the top of a thistle; and, good monsieur, bring me the honey-bag.
Do not fret yourself too much in the action, monsieur; and, good monsieur, have a care the honey-bag break not; I would be loath to have you overflown with a honey-bag, signior. Pray you, leave your curtsy, good monsieur. I must to the barber's, monsieur; for methinks I am marvellous hairy about the face; and I am such a tender ass, if my hair do but tickle me I must scratch. Methinks I have a great desire to a bottle of hay: good hay, sweet hay, hath no fellow. But, I pray you, let none of your people stir me; I have an exposition of sleep come upon me.
Fairies, be gone, and be all ways away. So doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle Gently entwist,--the female ivy so Enrings the barky fingers of the elm. O, how I love thee! Enter PUCK. Seest thou this sweet sight? Her dotage now I do begin to pity. For, meeting her of late behind the wood, Seeking sweet favours for this hateful fool, I did upbraid her and fall out with her: For she his hairy temples then had rounded With coronet of fresh and fragrant flowers; And that same dew, which sometime on the buds Was wont to swell like round and orient pearls, Stood now within the pretty flow'rets' eyes, Like tears that did their own disgrace bewail.
When I had, at my pleasure, taunted her, And she, in mild terms, begg'd my patience, I then did ask of her her changeling child; Which straight she gave me, and her fairy sent To bear him to my bower in fairy-land. And now I have the boy, I will undo This hateful imperfection of her eyes. Spanish advances: insinuaciones, paso.
William Shakespeare 71 And, gentle Puck, take this transformed scalp From off the head of this Athenian swain, That he awaking when the other do, May all to Athens back again repair, And think no more of this night's accidents But as the fierce vexation of a dream. But first I will release the fairy queen. Be as thou wast wont to be; [Touching her eyes with an herb. Dian's bud o'er Cupid's flower Hath such force and blessed power.
Now, my Titania; wake you, my sweet queen. Methought I was enamour'd of an ass. O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now! Titania, music call; and strike more dead Than common sleep, of all these five, the sense. PUCK Now when thou wak'st, with thine own fool's eyes peep. Spanish ass: burro, asno, culo.
Now thou and I are new in amity, And will to-morrow midnight solemnly Dance in Duke Theseus' house triumphantly, And bless it to all fair prosperity: There shall the pairs of faithful lovers be Wedded, with Theseus, all in jollity. We the globe can compass soon, Swifter than the wand'ring moon. Horns sound within. William Shakespeare 73 Despatch, I say, and find the forester. THESEUS My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, So flew'd, so sanded; and their heads are hung With ears that sweep away the morning dew; Crook-knee'd and dew-lap'd like Thessalian bulls; Slow in pursuit, but match'd in mouth like bells, Each under each.
Los Sueños: Entre la realidad y la fantasía en el conocimiento humano (Spanish Edition) [Hipolito Santi] on dynipalo.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Baruk: Entre el sueño y la realidad (Spanish Edition). by Fernando Los Sueños : Entre la realidad y la fantasía en el conocimiento humano (Spanish Edition).
A cry more tuneable Was never holla'd to, nor cheer'd with horn, In Crete, in Sparta, nor in Thessaly. Judge when you hear. Saint Valentine is past; Begin these wood-birds but to couple now? I know you two are rival enemies; How comes this gentle concord in the world, That hatred is so far from jealousy To sleep by hate, and fear no enmity? But, my good lord, I wot not by what power,-But by some power it is,--my love to Hermia, Melted as the snow--seems to me now As the remembrance of an idle gawd Which in my childhood I did dote upon: And all the faith, the virtue of my heart, The object and the pleasure of mine eye, Is only Helena.
To her, my lord, Was I betroth'd ere I saw Hermia: But, like a sickness, did I loathe this food; But, as in health, come to my natural taste, Now I do wish it, love it, long for it, And will for evermore be true to it. Mine own, and not mine own. My next is 'Most fair Pyramus. Flute, the bellows-mender! Snout, the tinker! God's my life, stol'n hence, and left me asleep! I have had a most rare vision. I have had a dream--past the wit of man to say what dream it was.
Methought I was--there is no man can tell what. Methought I was, and methought I had,--but man is but a patched fool, if he will offer to say what methought I had. The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen; man's hand is not able to taste, his tongue to conceive, nor his heart to report, what my dream was. I will get Peter Quince to write a ballad of this dream: it shall be called Bottom's Dream, because it hath no bottom; and I will sing it in the latter end of a play, before the duke: peradventure, to make it the more gracious, I shall sing it at her death.
Out of doubt, he is transported. Thus hath he lost sixpence a day during his life; he could not have 'scaped sixpence a-day; an the duke had not given him sixpence a-day for playing Pyramus, I'll be hanged; he would have deserved it: sixpence a-day in Pyramus, or nothing. O most happy hour! I will tell you everything, right as it fell out. All that I will tell you is, that the duke hath dined.
Get your apparel together; good strings to your beards, new ribbons to your pumps; meet presently at the palace; every man look over his part; for the short and the long is, our play is preferred. In any case, let Thisby have clean linen; and let not him that plays the lion pare his nails, for they shall hang out for the lion's claws.
And, most dear actors, eat no onions nor garlick, for we are to utter sweet breath; and I do not doubt but to hear them say it is a sweet comedy. No more words: away! I never may believe These antique fables, nor these fairy toys. Lovers and madmen have such seething brains, Such shaping fantasies, that apprehend More than cool reason ever comprehends. William Shakespeare 81 Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name.
Such tricks hath strong imagination, That, if it would but apprehend some joy, It comprehends some bringer of that joy; Or in the night, imagining some fear, How easy is a bush supposed a bear?
Where is our usual manager of mirth? What revels are in hand? Is there no play Spanish airy: airoso. Call Philostrate. What masque? How shall we beguile The lazy time, if not with some delight? That is hot ice and wondrous strange snow. How shall we find the concord of this discord? Go, bring them in: and take your places, ladies.