He set up on his own in , but he continued the newspaper. Holt developed a reputation for being a strong Whig who advocated for the rights of the colonies. He soon became the most important printer outside of Boston because of his coverage of the fight between the colonies and Great Britain. He worked with the Sons of Liberty to spread their materials throughout the colonies.
These pieces and many others that Holt published during the Revolution were picked up by other printers, particularly in the colonies south of New York. Holt thus became an essential link in the spread of Patriot ideas throughout the colonies. Holt is also a good example of how tough the war could be for the newspaper printers. He then moved to Kingston, New York, in and revived the Journal. He fled from Kingston just before the British burned the town. He then went to Poughkeepsie, New York, and continued the newspaper. Each time Holt moved, he lost his property and sometimes most of his belongings.
But he kept trying to publish the Journal in order to continue to get the word out about what was going on in the fight with Great Britain. Although not the most famous printer of the Revolution, Holt may be the most important because he never stopped working to keep people throughout the colonies informed and encouraged about how the fight was going.
Benjamin Edes printed the Boston Gazette in partnership with John Gill from April to June and by himself from that point until September During the s and early s, he printed much of the news that helped produce the American Revolution. But his efforts went beyond just printing what others had written. Edes himself was a strong supporter of the Revolution, becoming more vocal in his protests of British actions following the adoption of the Stamp Act.
When the Tea Act made the situation even worse, Edes printed protests as well as engaging in the planning and activities that led up to the Boston Tea Party. Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, Edes fled Boston to Watertown, where he continued to publish the Gazette in an effort to make sure that the people knew as much as possible about events in Massachusetts and elsewhere. He returned to Boston after the British evacuated and continued his newspaper.
In his History of Printing in America , Isaiah Thomas praised Edes as the printer who provided the strongest support for the fight for independence. The partnership ended in October, but Thomas continued to publish the newspaper. The Spy supported the Patriot cause from the very beginning and regularly printed essays, both as pamphlets and in the newspaper, which supported the rights of the colonists in the face of British restrictions.
Thomas realized, before many others, that the fight between the colonies and the mother country was soon to become a shooting war. He moved his press to Worcester, Massachusetts, shortly before the battles at Lexington and Concord. He actually witnessed the first shots at Lexington and reported about them in the Spy.
He continued publication of the Spy throughout the war and sought to use the pages of his newspaper to inform and encourage his readers about the war with Great Britain. Thomas is also important because he saved the newspapers he received from other printers all over the British colonies. Today, this group of newspapers provides the core of the collections at the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts, a major research center for anyone interested in the press during the American Revolution.
So, Thomas not only reported on what he saw at the time, but he also worked to make sure that future generations would be able to understand what happened as well. James Rivington is often considered to be the best printer to have worked during the Revolutionary Era. He first published the New-York Gazetteer in April At first, Rivington tried to be objective and present both sides of the conflict, but this did not last long; he increasingly spoke out in support of the British government.
He made the Patriots so angry that they tried to shut down his operation on two different occasions in They succeeded the second time, destroying his press and melting down his type to make bullets. Rivington soon left New York for England. These newspapers were excellent productions and included the most news from other countries of any papers printed at that time. Rivington became famous as the most vocal printer who supported the British in their fight with the colonies.
Rumors began to spread that Rivington had been a spy for General George Washington. He was a very influential Loyalist printer, no matter which side he was actually supporting. Dunlap was a good businessman and did well in his printing business. He became the printer for the Continental Congress in As a result of this position, he became the first printer to produce copies of the Declaration of Independence.
Following its adoption on July 4, Dunlap printed about broadsides of the Declaration which were the first printed versions of the document. This action alone would have made Dunlap a very important printer in the Revolutionary era, but he also produced most of the information printed about the actions of the Continental Congress.
Coverage was limited because the Congress hesitated to quickly publicize their actions too much, particularly prior to voting to break away from Great Britain. The Continental Congress did provide for the publication of their journals and Dunlap fulfilled this assignment from to from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, while the British occupied Philadelphia from September to July Dunlap also served in the militia for the city of Philadelphia and fought in the battles of Trenton and Princeton.
He was one of the few printers to serve the Revolutionary cause in this way. After the end of the Revolution in , Dunlap continued publishing his newspaper and turned it into a daily in , the North American and United States Gazette. Peter Timothy published the South-Carolina Gazette from to He took over the printing business from his mother Elizabeth Timothy, who had run it following the death of her husband Lewis in The South-Carolina Gazette was the leading paper in Charleston throughout this era.
Peter Timothy worked hard to publish a good newspaper that kept his readers informed. Prior to the late s, Timothy presented a neutral stance in the growing fight between the colonies and Great Britain. Timothy personally appeared to be pro-American, but he believed that the newspaper should not take sides.
That outlook started to change when the British adopted the Stamp Act with its taxes on advertisements and newspapers. Timothy increasingly commented on the actions of the British, but both sides continued to criticize him because he did not come down strongly for one side or the other. He supported public protests against the Stamp Act which angered Loyalists, but he also did not work hard to prevent the use of stamps in Charleston which made the Patriots mad at him. During the s, Timothy grew in his support of the Patriot side, both in the pages of his newspaper and his activities.
He served in several groups working against British authority prior to the outbreak of fighting and he served as secretary of the general assembly after independence was declared. He did not flee Charleston when the British occupied the city in He was imprisoned by British authorities in Saint Augustine and his newspaper ceased publication at that time. But his impact had already been made because his newspaper had been a major source of information for people in South Carolina and the other Southern colonies. He received great criticism from British authorities and Patriot leaders because he seemed to not be able to make up his mind which side to support.
He bounced back and forth, depending on what issue was under consideration and who was in control. Gaine published his newspaper, the New-York Mercury , for thirty-one years. The paper kept this name until it ceased publication in Gaine was a successful printer in New York, but the growing fight with Great Britain produced many problems.
He also supported the boycott of British goods in an effort to get the taxes repealed. But when all the taxes except the one on tea were repealed, he called for an end to the boycott. During the next several years, he printed little political news in the pages of his newspaper. When relations worsened following the Boston Tea Party, Gaine urged everyone to avoid violence and he advocated working until a deal could be reached with Great Britain. His failure to fully support the boycott efforts of the Patriots resulted in him being branded an enemy by militant Whigs.
He returned to New York in November and then supported the British. But the British did not trust him any more than the Patriots had because he seemed to have been wishy-washy in deciding which side to support. The leading student of American Revolutionary ballads during the last century, Frank Moore, greatly admired Dr. The British Crown failed to realize that reform rather than force was the only hope for a political and economic settlement of the argument.
Although the Stamp Act was repealed, the Townshend Acts of provided for British revenue through customs levied on glass, lead, paper, and tea. The atmosphere was charged. To cap the climax the ministry decided to quarter British troops in Boston. The legislators were commemorated in silver as well as song. The renowned silversmith Paul Revere made a silver drinking bowl in July fig. Anonymous broadside song, Boston, The Ninety-Two refused to rescind the Massachusetts circular letter.
Early in Dr. This practice was probably more common in the eighteenth century than it is today. The presence of troops in a town inevitably presents problems and Boston was no exception. Matters came to a head in March By prearrangement a group of ropemakers from the wharves met a party of soldiers to settle their differences by an encounter of clubs.
Men on both sides were badly beaten and mutual feelings were not improved.
Broadside song by Joseph Warren, [? Boston], As a mob gathered a few members of the 29th Regiment were called out and they faced the crowd with fixed bayonets. Then one of the soldiers was hit severely on the head. This was too much for military patience and the guardsmen fired. During the next few minutes three civilians were killed outright and two more died later.
Anonymous broadside ballad on the Boston Massacre, March 5, Samuel Adams and others fanned the flames; the unfortunate affair came to be called the Boston Massacre, a rather pretentious title for the death of five people. The rabble rousers were for lynching the soldiers during the next few months, but, owing to the courageous and extremely unpopular defense of the accused by John Adams and Josiah Quincy who convinced the jurors that the troops had acted primarily in self-defense, all but two were acquitted.
These two, although convicted of manslaughter, were punished only to the extent of having their hands branded. Soon after this incident the troops were withdrawn. Ballad writers meanwhile screamed for vengeance and Paul Revere made a woodcut of the event. Two of the broadsides were illustrated with five coffins at the top; emotional indignation was at a high pitch.
Its secular usage is suspected to be considerably older. The air was published in in Revival Hymns , collected by H. Day Boston. Its reassignment to a secular narrative text is more in keeping with its origins. The second ballad, On the Death of Five young Men fig. It must be remembered that tunes which flourished in the English-speaking world during the eighteenth century are preserved not only in this country but also in Great Britain and that both belong to our cultural heritage. An accidental death also occurred in March Christopher Seider, a boy of eleven, was killed by an unpopular customs officer, Ebenezer Richardson, who fired a random shot into a crowd that tried to prevent him from removing a wooden statue which some citizens had set up in front of a shop.
Because Governor Hutchinson felt that the charge should have been manslaughter rather than murder, and that the customs officer should not hang, Richardson spent several years in prison. This angered the extremists. The broadside describing the affair was called A Monumental Inscription fig. The poet was extremely eager to see his villain hanged. The author has adjusted it to fit the ballad fig. Although most of the Townshend Acts were repealed in , partly owing to the pamphleteering of John Dickinson, the one on tea was kept. This was largely because Parliament could not admit that it did not have the right to tax the colonies and also because the East India Company was in financial straits.
The issue came to a head in when, with seventeen million pounds of tea in warehouses, the company pleaded to be allowed to sell its tea in America free of duty while it paid the Exchequer sixpence a pound, the amount prescribed by the authorities. Lord North, however, said that a principle was involved. The company reluctantly acceded, although skeptical that the law could be enforced. Immediate resistance arose.
The Sons of Liberty made certain that consignees of tea did not accept shipments, or, if vessels managed to land chests, that they were kept in storehouses and not sold. The famous Boston Tea Party came about when three ships carrying the precious leaves sailed into the Charles River late in November and early December but were not allowed by the citizens to unload.
Governor Hutchinson thereupon refused to give the vessels passes enabling them to sail out of the harbor and return to London. Instead of the hoped-for word from the governor stating that he had reconsidered his decision, the messenger brought his refusal. Meanwhile, a group of young men, disguised as Indians with their faces blackened so as not to be recognized, boarded the ships, split open the chests, and poured the tea into the harbor.
Although the task took most of the night it was carried out efficiently without cheering or demonstrations from the watching crowd. Here was another chance for balladry. Although probably sung to a well-known decasyllabic tune of the day, it has so far escaped identification. Furthermore the air has a particular interest for Americans since it was played by a British band at Yorktown the evening before the articles of capitulation were signed.
The tune given fig. It became popular in during the Jacobite uprising. The next year Handel quoted the following phrase from the tune in his Occasional Overture which celebrated the victory of the Hanoverian monarchy:. Two stanzas of An American Parody are placed under an edition of the tune by P. Weldon fig.
The tune had long been known in the colonies through such collections as Clio and Euterpe London, — The Weldon edition has been selected because it shows the shortened form of the tune, probably more often sung in public than the original version. Broadside with four anonymous ballads, the first on the subject of the Boston Tea Party, ca.
Anonymous song from the Pennsylvania Gazette , October 19, First page of anonymous chapbook ballad, an attack by a Tory on the American Congress. From the evidence presented it is clear that the provincials sang both ancient and modern tunes. They enjoyed the new stirring military airs of the eighteenth century, while at the same time the old melodies survived with extraordinary vitality. To the Tune of Chevy-Chace fig. This extended plea of eighty-two verses called for the colonists not to break with Britain. Too long to be printed as a broadside, it was issued in chapbook form and filled nineteen pages.
Written by a Tory, it accused the colonial Congress of misleading the poor, and attacked both the well-to-do and the politicians in power. The latter included merchants who did not wish to break entirely with Britain and some Tories sympathetic with this point of view. Some individuals outside those two groups were more authoritarian in outlook and were critical of both.
They believed that differences could be settled only be decree or compulsory arbitration. The tune, under one of these names, was frequently mentioned in the colonies as proper for new texts. Child, and a galaxy of twentieth-century folklorists, as we have seen, have written about the subject. Anonymous broadside ballad, Salem, Massachusetts.
Thomson, among others, have written about its wide dissemination. The earliest colonial printings of the Chevy Chase ballad with traditional words have not survived, but there are a number from the later eighteenth century both in chapbook and in broadside form. The second page, containing eight of the traditional sixty-two stanzas, begins the ballad with the famous.
Two additional verses, however, can be found towards the end of a broadside printing of the ballad n. His source was a manuscript at the University of Edinburgh dating from the time of Charles II, and most scholars believe that the earliest form of the tune is of Scottish origin. While lacking the beauty of some ancient melodies, this air has a narrative quality that neither folk singers nor their listeners ever forget. The story of the first, known to Boccaccio, derives from a tale of the Roman writer Valerius Maximus.
Sculptors and painters were inspired by the tale and, as early as , a broadside entitled The Grecian Daughter was licensed in London by the Company of Stationers. One from a press in Windsor, Vermont, has the most remarkable cut published in this country prior to The Grecian Daughter.
Anonymous broadside ballad, [ ca. The Vermont Grecian Daughter is an original work; the American artist was not simply making a copy. He placed a round window in the middle of the cell, lacking in the European cuts; his column is square, not round; the chain attached to the unfortunate prisoner is several times the size of those depicted by his predecessors; and the floor consists of white and black squares, not earth with straw upon it.
Finally, on the border of the black tile, in front of the entrance door to the cell, again a new feature, one can just distinguish the letters RES, perhaps an abbreviation by the New England artist indicating the source of his inspiration: R ubens E xcudit S mith. Although not so moving as the more primitive Windsor imprint, it is a striking rendition of the scene and both deserve further study by art historians. The proof of the tune association comes from early English broadsides. London, Printed for E[dward] W[right] n.
The version of the tune to which The Grecian Daughter has been set fig. The text was written down in and the tune notated in The melody is barred in time as Bronson suggested instead of the time of an earlier editor.
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To the tune of When Flying Fame. The earliest American edition is an eight-page chapbook with a woodcut on the title page showing a woman kneeling before an approaching figure.
A later edition in broadside form and lacking a woodcut reads simply Fair Rosamond. A Lamentable Ditty n. One hundred seventy-six lines are printed on the broadside. Franklin, Jefferson, and many colonial Americans were fascinated by Scottish folksongs and owned collections of them, and Francis Hopkinson knew and corresponded with Robert Bremner. It has been a favorite for several centuries and is found on a dozen broadsides before That reproduced here, an undated Salem imprint, has a woodcut in the upper left-hand corner with two gentlemen crossing swords and two children watching under a tree fig.
In an issue of The Spectator , Joseph Addison spoke of walls decorated with ballad broadsides and added:. The last Piece that I met with upon this Occasion, gave me a most exquisite Pleasure. There is even a despicable Simplicity in the Verse; and yet, because the Sentiments appear genuine and unaffected they are able to move the Mind of the most polite Reader with inward Meltings of Humanity and Compassion.
The Incidents grow out of the Subject, and are such as are the most proper to excite Pity; for which Reason the whole Narration has something in it very moving, notwithstanding the Author whoever he was has delivered it in such an abject Phrase and poorness of Expression, that the quoting any part of it would look like a Design of turning it into Ridicule.
But, though the Language is mean, the Thoughts as I have before said, from one end to the other are natural. The famous essayist did not state that the total effect could be realized only when the ballad was sung, but he must have been aware of the fact. The latter is also associated with the Chevy Chase ballad. Cecil Sharp recorded a quite different tune in the southern Appalachians which shows the inventiveness of folk singers and the way that ballads acquire different melodies. The tune is found in several ballad operas including The Jovial Crew , where it appears as air no.
A Musical Entertainment in two acts; Founded on the Flan of the Old Ballad London, , one finds the unusual appearance of the full song text on which the ballad opera is based. It is a happy coincidence that Benjamin Franklin spoke in his aforementioned letter of the same year, saying that The Spanish Lady was commonly sung in Massachusetts. Its fame spread through oral tradition and ballad sheets carried about by hawkers and pedlars. Perhaps its popularity was due to its unusual rhythm and the haunting quality of the melody. The melody used here fig. Besides Chevy Chase Child ballad no.
The extraordinary popularity today of Bonnie Barbara Allen Child ballad no. One is always grateful for eighteenth-century quotations about balladry. Occasionally one runs across a description of actual ballad singing. The Connecticut soldier who served under Washington describes his experience thus:. And then lay down again. Bostwick could not have known that this ballad would live on to become one of the most popular folk songs of the twentieth century. The text Bostwick recorded has been substituted for that recorded by Sharp. Another favorite ballad which went through a number of broadside editions in the eighteenth century belongs in the religious and moralist category.
It also generated a number of doleful woodcuts, some of which may have been copied from seventeenth-century originals. In short there was an eager public for this broadside. The edition selected which depicts a lady in seventeenth-century costume accosted by a skeletal man with an arrow in his hand is entitled A Dialogue Between Death and a Lady n. Although the American imprints do not suggest a tune, the Roxburghe Ballads edited by J.
Both airs are eminently suitable for the ninety-six-line colloquy. The Lady of the previous ballad was not a New Englander. In her final words she lamented,. The true believer had quite a different attitude and welcomed a release from the cares of life. This attitude is expressed with almost baroque fervor in the broadside A Hymn, Composed by the Reverend Mr.
Whitefield n. At least three eighteenth-century New England composers including William Billings set these words to music and a number of folk tune versions also came into being. The air was notated from the singing of two Baptist Church elders in Clay County, Kentucky, in and is one of the few eighteenth-century broadside ballad texts surviving in the oral tradition fig. Lord Bakeman or Young Beichan Child ballad no.
It was one of a large folk song category about maidens who rescue heroes from dire plights. Young Beichan has become Lord Bakeman, a nobleman from India in the undated broadside discussed here fig. A ballad relating a dramatic story of life aboard a naval vessel was published as The Happy Ship Carpenter n. Lord Bakeman set to a Vermont folk tune of the same name, collected in the twentieth century. When he was wounded in a naval fight she looked after him and was responsible for his recovery. At last both returned and all was forgiven.
Ballads concerned with the sea were understandably popular in England and New England. Margaret Olney notated a charming melody in Mattawamkeag, Maine, in , from a singer who remembered fifty-two of the fifty-seven stanzas fig. The story matches the adventures of Sinbad the Sailor. At one point a jealous captain throws the hero into the sea, but fortunately. Sea chantey broadsides are not included, because they were practically nonexistent. Chanteys were legion but they seldom got into print, partly because some were indecent and partly because others were local in character, dealing with life at sea including the unpleasant habits of unpopular officers.
They were heard on rivers and they migrated to lumber camps where living conditions were similar and crudeness was not an affront. The category of moralist ballads includes both hymns and funeral elegies which were sung as well as read. Hanging ballads too go back many centuries and American colonists continued the tradition.
To have a culprit confess his sins and ask forgiveness was welcomed by law-abiding, churchgoing citizens.
Sometimes a number of recantations were printed before a convicted person went to the gallows. The first is The Execution Hymn. By Elhanan Winchester fig. The woodcut on the broadside of a man on the gallows and the executioner descending a ladder must have helped the sale of the broadside. O Lord, forgive. Its printed source is the Knoxville Harmony of The second moral fakement ballad with words of warning, again in common meter, was The Dying Groans of Levi Ames? This tune also appears as air no. The third moral fakement, historically the most interesting of the broadsides connected with the unfortunate burglar, is Theft and Murder!
The author, more concerned with the Boston Massacre of than the burglary of , juxtaposed the punishment of Levi Ames with the fact that the British troops who killed five civilians on March 5, , had not been hanged. The soldiers, guilty only of manslaughter, were vilified as murderers in stanzas 3 and 8. Ames is warned by Death of damnation, darkness, horror, fire, chains, almighty wrath, and endless pain. At the top of the sheet there is a woodcut depicting a skeleton and a gentleman with a wig dressed in early eighteenth century clothes.
The apparition introduces himself and comes right to the point:. Two-thirds of the way through a preacher breaks into the conversation and promises salvation to the burglar if he will allow Jesus to be his only Support. Americans have also enjoyed satirical and humorous songs bordering on the ridiculous. The evidence found by George T.
Goodspeed, however, led him to believe that Seccomb was the author of the second part too. Broadside ballad in two parts by John Seccomb, ca. English broadside ballad version, ca. Matthew Abdy [sic]. Although they are difficult to date, no more than ten editions appeared prior to The former also appeared in the London Magazine for May , and part ii in the same periodical for August—all in all rather unusual coverage for a humorous ballad.
The ridiculous verses continued to be published well into the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Answer: When it has no tune. Writers of broadside verse in the colonies knew that musical tunesmiths could be found in London. It was there that the earliest musical setting of the stanzas known to this writer appeared in London Markham, about whom nothing is known, has a pleasant lilt in time.
The Merry Mountebank was among a sizable inventory including instruments as well as music offered for sale in the Boston Gazette for June 28, , by an unidentified gentleman from London. A fiddle-tune flavor, however, is in keeping with the spirit of this broadside, for fiddle tunes were frequently adapted to secular and even sacred words.
The tune specified is air no. John Gay and his musical colleague J. The last witty broadside to be discussed was actually issued in the early nineteenth century and concerns the practice of bundling. Bundling began in colonial days when people paid calls on winter evenings. Rooms were cold and the older people preempted the best places by the fire; the young people often got into bed together under covers without undressing to keep warm. This practice evoked criticism and led to the publication of the broadside A new Bundling Song Boston,?
The author, while censuring the practice of bundling, is primarily poking fun at country people, and his satire is indeed amusing. The version given here fig. The original text to the tune was a Puritan satire on monarchy. Fittingly, the last broadside to be considered concerns the most famous pirate in American history, Captain Kidd. The British Navy in the early s, preoccupied with war against the French, was unable to attend to the many complaints of English merchants regarding piracy and one way of combatting the situation was by licensing privateers to capture them.
Bellomont created a joint stock company with Lord Chancellor Sir John Somers, the first lord of the admiralty, two secretaries of state, Livingston, and Kidd. By the articles of agreement Kidd became captain of a new ship with thirty-four guns, the Adventure Galley , his task to capture or kill pirates and bring in enemy ships as prizes. In time the adventurers captured six ships. Kidd later discovered, however, that the registration was specious; she was actually in the employ of the East India Company and sailing under false colors.
Flying the French flag, the Quedagh Merchant was a legitimate prize for an English privateer. His next step was to purchase a small sloop and after a few weeks he dropped anchor in Oyster Bay, Long Island, where he got in touch with an admiralty lawyer, John Emmot. The latter went to Boston to talk with the Earl of Bellomont, carrying a letter from Kidd stating that he could prove his innocence. The governor showed it to members of the council and with their approval the Captain was given a safe-conduct. Bellomont questioned Kidd, his partner of the joint stock company, and tried to find the exact location of the Quedagh Merchant.
A few days later he found himself in jail; Bellomont had broken his word. Bellomont, however, refused, and, after eight months in prison, the captain was returned to England for trial. If the captain were to accuse those who had financed the major costs of the undertaking, he was told he would go free. This he refused to do; and after eleven months in Newgate, Kidd was brought to trial at Old Bailey. The papers, it seems, had been deliberately suppressed. Captain Kidd had his own code of ethics. Found guilty of murder and piracy on May 8th, he was hanged at Execution Dock on May 23, The first time he was suspended, the rope broke and the gallows became unusable.
Paul Lorraine had tried to extract a confession from the privateer captain before his demise but was unsuccessful. To the Tune of Coming Down fig. Early editions of the Captain Kidd broadsides in this country have not survived, but there is a relatively late eighteenth-century version, The Dying Words Of Captain Kid fig. A comparison between the English and American verses is instructive:. The amoral, mocking tone of the British imprint is in direct contrast to the moral, confessional tone of the North American version.
Anonymous broadside ballad, [? A later folk song associated with the chimney sweep Jack Hall was collected by Cecil Sharp ca. The use of the same tune for secular, moral, and sacred verse is very old; the final example illustrates this point. Variants of the melody are still current in our folk tradition coupled with the moralizing words placed in the mouth of the unfortunate Scottish-American sea captain. Folk singers have also objected when their ballads were published and none more strenuously than Mrs. Despite these objections, most investigators recognize, perhaps reluctantly, that there are well-known folk songs which have evolved from print and especially from broadsides.
This process is as old as the development of printing by Gutenberg and Caxton. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for a ballad to move from oral tradition to print, then back to the oral tradition. Problems of many kinds are presented by the transmission of ballad tunes from flexible, oral performance to printed song sheets and broadsides and even to the findings of the most sensitive collector. A printed text, however skillfully executed, cannot capture completely the exact nature of the performance of a ballad.
And precisely because each performance by a singer may differ to a greater or lesser degree, to say nothing of differences from singer to singer, one cannot find a definitive text and tune even with modern recording equipment. This study has presented some seventy tunes matched to nearly as many broadsides, the majority of whose verses are related to events and customs both historic and domestic in the life of the American colonies. Broadside verses were to be sung, either to a traditional tune or one currently popular which not only had the same meter but also conveyed the mood of the words, or to one fashioned for the occasion.
The verses were usually presented to a group of listeners by a singer who knew how to tell a story. The singer was most frequently unaccompanied; on occasion, however, he or she was assisted by a dulcimer or cittern. In the case of some of the more militant ballads, a fife and drum provided an appropriate accompaniment. When music was grafted onto the verse of a broadside, certain effects were inevitable. Aside from the sheer entertainment it provided, music helped the singers and listeners to remember the verses, and contributed to a rapid dissemination over the countryside, as a catchy tune does even today.
The melody also served to emphasize and heighten the meaning of the poem. Finally, one must not forget the physical and emotional effects produced by various kinds of music, rhythms, and instruments in marching songs, hypnotic revivalist hymn tunes, and dirges. Broadsides with metrical verse have long occupied a low position in the art of poetry. This is because they have been judged from a literary point of view. The fact is, however, that broadsides in meter were not generally recited or read aloud, nor were they meant for perusal or for contemplation and the unfolding of deeper meaning.
They are like librettos. When their metrical rhymed lines are put to appropriate tunes they take on an immediacy and have a genuine appeal, especially for rural people. Before the era of radio and television they were one of the most important vehicles for disseminating news, and they also afforded pleasure and entertainment. The topical ballads in this volume were chosen to provide the reader with an opportunity to examine the relationship between music and society. Because broadsides with metrical texts are rarely an eloquent literary or artistic mode of expression—such eloquence being largely the presence of the upper classes with the opportunity to indulge in refinement—they have long been neglected.
And, because broadsides provided a cheap medium, they were available to all. In particular, they found a response in the man in the street, whose feelings, interpretations, and reactions were reflected in them. In addition to topical ballads, there were hundreds of others dealing with such general subjects as vice, virtue, the supernatural, and faithful or unfaithful lovers. These have not been dwelt upon in this study partly for lack of space, and partly because insofar as the oral tradition is concerned, they have already received a great deal of attention from folklorists.
A final word should be said about the critics of broadside dissemination. Symmes was probably involved in the publication of The Voluntiers March , but they thoroughly disapproved of salacious broadsides. There are also lines in some eighteenth-century editions of Yankee Doodle , to name a well-known song, which are not fit for the drawing room.
In fact, they still are. The tunes in this study have several factors in common: a number are specified by, or have been used with, more than one broadside text, and have endured over several generations. In this study alone, eight broadside texts either specifically call for it or have appropriately been fitted to variant forms. These imprints cover a span of nearly two centuries and were issued in both the colonies and England.
Tunes are also capable of conveying associations. The conclusion: a good tune provides a means for conveying ideas, meanings, or associations; once it has proved its worth it is used repeatedly, and is not restricted by time, place, or nationality. This investigation has brought to the fore a good number of broadsides and identified many of the tunes to which they were sung. Although additional research is required, enough information survives to fit ballads lacking specific tunes with appropriate melodies. Broadsides should not be deprived of the life instilled in them by music for when resuscitated they take their rightful place in the stream of our folk song heritage.
The description of each broadside and tune as well as the footnotes owe a great deal to her. The author is also most grateful to Israel Katz for analyzing the tunes and indicating their place in colonial music. Finally, Richard J. Wolfe and Roy Lamson were good enough to look over the galleys, and the former, particularly, made a number of helpful suggestions which were heeded.
Music and dance maintained a position of importance in seventeenth-century England. Dancing was not specifically referred to but would certainly have been included in the category of forbidden occupations and pastimes. Nathaniel Shurtleff, ed. Boston: William White, — , iv , i, , , ; v, , ; Report of the Record Commissioners of the City of Boston , 39 vols. Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, — , Second Report, pp. It is Ordered that the Counstable watche be giuen out for the ensueing yeare A charge shall be giuen verballie, or read vnto the watch euery night.
The Form of Charge. Fawcet, by the same author; and, perhaps most important of all, Some Thoughts Concerning Education by the great Nonconformist authority John Locke ed. Quick [Cambridge University Press, ]. This was a distinctly lower-class kind of dancing, and definitely not what was taught in dancing classes. Allen, , pp. The sentiments expressed and the quotations from authoritative sources used to support them both in this sermon and in An Arrow. Such displays of erudition were a standard feature of seventeenth century sermons, which, besides conveying moral and theological truths, were expected to entertain and inform.
Pemberton, John Essex, Kellom Tomlinson, and others. At Yale in the Beinecke Library is another, dated , bearing the name of Walter Rainstorp, and containing tunes as well as figures. Please see pages 14 and 15 for complete citations. His daughter Judith married William Turner in William was the son of William and the grandson of Ephraim Turner, all three of whom were dancing masters in Boston.
Fishar was not Johann Christian Fischer — , German oboist and composer, but probably John Abraham Fisher — , English violinist and composer. Skillern, . This collection was only recently brought to our attention. It is interesting that few of the dances in the collection are to be found in other American manuscripts. Like the Merrill ms , it seems to be a copy of a specific book, not a personal collection of favorite dances.
Perhaps this is the reason that so often the same title appears in several manuscript collections of dances or tunes; there were favorites here in America, they seem to have been fairly widespread in their popularity, and they are clearly derived from English sources on a selective basis.
Whittier Perkins has copied several dance tunes on this page. Thompson,  , p. Jackson in the preparation of this paper. Her valuable collection and notes made on dance of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the foundation of this study. This hall, donated to the city by Peter Faneuil in , was a multipurpose building housing town offices and a large assembly hall over a marketplace, a practice common in England at the time. Boston, , 1, This is the earliest-known mention of an actual military band in America, but further research may discover that the other leading colonial seaports had their militia bands as well.
The musical compositions are significant because they were the standard musical fare for the military band. The publishers are significant because both Rutherford and Thompson, around , published fife tutors which served as texts for the Revolutionary fifers. The editor, or editors, remained anonymous, though their purpose was obviously to support and encourage the colonial cause. Oliver Morton Dickerson Boston, The account went to some length in describing each step in the ceremony in detail. Coburn, s.
The entry is, unfortunately, not documented. The funeral was for John Maturin, secretary to Gen. Thomas Gage. The 4th, 5th, 10th, 23d, 38th, 43d, 47th, 52d, and 59th Regiments of Foot were in Boston at the beginning of No indication of the existence of a band has as yet been found for the 52nd Regiment. The 64th Regiment, with its band, was stationed at Castle William, in Boston harbor.
By early June , the 35th, 49th, 63d, 64th, 65th, and 67th Regiments of Foot had arrived at Boston. There are references in inspection reports to bands in all but the 65th Regiment, though it may be assumed that that regiment would have followed the custom and would also have had a band. Philip Padelford San Marino, Calif. Discipline was very strict in the eighteenth century armies.
Persons convicted of crimes or breaches of discipline were ceremonially punished in front of their regiments or brigades. Thacher may have unconsciously substituted melodies in his journal, remembering only the connotation rather than the specific tune used, or it is possible that both tunes were played alternately. This insult would most certainly have been clearly understood by the local citizens. The Boston Evening Post of March 13, , does not mention the music performed, but includes a sworn statement of the farmer Thomas Ditson.
This advertisement also appeared in the Boston News-Letter of September 9, A copy of the trade card is in the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Some indication of the interest taken in these volunteer militia units can be observed from the great achievement of organizing, clothing, and equipping this company in such a brief space of time. See also Roberts, History , ii , The counterhoops are painted red, and seven fiber snares are stretched across the bottom head. It is possible that the rope loops, in place of the usual leather ears, are contemporary.
For a well-written account of the stand at Lexington and Concord, with many references to this young drummer, see Arthur B. For a listing of the various regiments formed and their commanders, see Francis B. John C. Fitzpatrick Washington, D. Butterfield et al. Cambridge, , i , The songs usually must be shortened for audiences in our impatient times, but length was no barrier to complete performance in the eighteenth century when the singing itself was a pastime.
Three other song texts from that same chapter are included in the present study with their original music and so may be performed and judged for themselves. London, , ii , For copies of the tune and some of its texts, and for a further discussion of its history and the musical aspects of the surrender see the works noted below. Boris Ford Harmondsworth, Middlesex, , pp.
Schlesinger, Sr. Also, American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings , lxxx , part 2 London, — Original sets are rare but C. New York, , with an introduction by Day. Printed in Massachusetts , — , ed. Worthington C. Ford, Massachusetts Historical Society, Collections , lxxv , There is also a photostat copy in the Massachusetts Historical Society broadside collection. Worcester, , ii , However, it seems to this author to make more sense for a caricaturist in England not to know that Washington had been in command outside Boston for six months than it does for a Boston loyalist to ignore the fact.
Joyce, Ancient Irish Music Dublin, , p. A photographic reprint in two volumes was issued by Frederick Ungar New York, Morison points out on p. Friedman, The Ballad Revival Chicago, , p. London, — , iv , no. London, ; facsimile reprint, New York, , 1, There is an arrangement for virginals in Drexel ms. The earliest complete edition was issued by the Massachusetts Historical Society in its Collections , 5th Ser. A recent edition with more extensive notes was edited by M. This quotation can be found in the former edition in vol. James T. Osborn, modern spelling ed.
Oxford, , p. Smyth, The Writings of Benjamin Franklin , 10 vols. Carl Van Doren New York, , p.
It is quoted in full in Oscar G. Ashton in his Real Sailor Songs London, , p. It is very bad—as bad as it could be. But it bears every mark of being the original by Benjamin Franklin. Firth, Naval Songs and Ballads London, , xxxv , — In an eighteenth-century copy of the song in the Library of the Arsenal at Paris mss. But I have likewise heard the same attributed to a different author. London, ; facsimile reprint New York, , i , I am indebted to Gillian Anderson for calling my attention to this publication.
Boston, , no. A reduced facsimile also appeared in W. Robinson, Catalogue 77 London, , opposite p. The text was reprinted in Virginia Vetusta , ed. Neill Albany, N. Christopher Brook wrote a Poem on the Late Massacre in Virginia London, , but he was not an eyewitness of the event. He does not discuss the and ballads published by J.
The London Prentice was published a number of times in Boston; the earliest surviving broadside was issued by Thomas Fleet in and was printed on the backs of papal indulgences captured by American privateers, presumably in the Caribbean. The first half may have been written earlier. Illustrated with a curious Cut. See footnote Representative poems by Benjamin Franklin, Sr. Thomas and H. Tingus — Printed by W. Gilman, No. The broadside is signed W. The entire bulletin was reprinted as Publications of the American Folklore Society , xi , with an introduction by Samuel P.
The only copy is in the Henry E. Huntington Library at San Marino, California. The American parodist probably considered his substitution sing a little clearer. Thomas Symmes, both the official account and the ballad give the date of the fight as Saturday, May 8, although Sunday, May 9, was the day it really occurred. The reason for this change she believes was to protect the reputation of Chaplain Jonathan Frye who should not have been scalp-hunting on the Sabbath. Bertrand H. Bronson, in Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads , 4 vols.
Princeton, N. The latter, primarily found in New England, are discussed in Tristram P. See also Simpson, British Broadside Ballad , p. The air goes back to and can be found in Drexel ms. Although not specified on the broadsides, a variety of sources indicate that The Grecian Daughter and Fair Rosamond were also sung to this famous tune see below pp.
Theodore R. Tappert and John W. Doberstein, 3 vols. Philadelphia, — , i , Frost, Sir William Pepperell , Bart. Bryant and S. For his conclusion regarding several renderings, see p. Henry Sacheverell? Descending from a line of nonconformist English ministers, he was a political preacher who advocated the High Church and Tory cause between and when the Whigs were in power.
Although the House of Commons ordered that he be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors, the light sentence handed down in was considered a triumph for him, the High Church, and Tory party. The transcription appearing in this text comes from a manuscript found among the papers of a family in Paxton, Massachusetts, which were transcribed no later than by Professor Franklin B. Dexter and sent to Samuel A.
Green at the Massachusetts Historical Society. The date in brackets is that of the battle. London, — , v , — John Handfield. Doughty and G. Parmlee, The Siege of Quebec , 6 vols. Quebec, , iii , — It is perhaps difficult to conceive how greatly prized military songs were in former days. Wolfe, and Alexander Hamilton. The Scots also published an edition entitled Britannia; or , the Death of Wolfe. Printed and Sold by N. Stewart, Edin r. There is a copy of this early nineteenth-century imprint in the Massachusetts Historical Society. The second edition in two volumes appeared at Edinburgh in A facsimile reprint Hatboro, Pa.
See also Simpson, British Broadside Ballad , pp. The fitting and alterations were made by the author. Charles Stonehill, 2 vols. London, ; reprinted New York, , ii , See John W. A copy of the original broadside may be found at the New York Public Library. Reproductions may be found in Rutherford facing p. Some times heavy, half-witted Men get a knack of Rhyming, but it is Time to break them of it, when they grow Abusive, Insolent, and Mischievous with it.
The order Rutherford, Peter Zenger , p. Simpson, British Broadside Ballad , pp. John Edmunds in A Williamsburg Songbook , p. London, — , v , , was the sort of song for which Elizabeth Hansford was fined. Edmunds prints all ten verses together with the tune and a harmonization, pp. New York, — , ii , ff. Their aim has been to cull, from a great variety of ancient Songs, such as have been, at all times, generally approved. For further discussion of the tune, consult Simpson, British Broadside Ballad , pp.
The letter is given in full on p. Cambridge, , i , ; and in the opening of Arthur F. Full details can be found in Simpson, British Broadside Ballad , pp. Vernon was the much criticized British naval officer in the unsuccessful Cartagena attack of This word was given to the drink of rum mixed with water which he served daily to his sailors as a form of rationing to curb drunkenness. Sold at the Heart and Crown in Cornhill, . Evans ; Ford No tune is specified for the nonexistent victory but there is a naive woodcut of the naval attack on the forts.
He was apparently unaware of the Norwich broadside. London, , vii , , for a good summary of its history. One of the principal sections of the poem described how Trulla, the profligate woman, triumphed over Hudibras the hero of the burlesque epic. King S——rs was Capt. He along with McDougall and Sears resigned from the committee in to protest the attempt of the conservative merchants to dominate its decisions.