http://marcfaggionato.com/images/controllo-remoto/3316.php Testimonies rv vv A. The Life of Christ vv B. Baptism C. The Cross vr rv Comments A beautiful prayer profoundly influenced by the language of the Qur"an. In the tradition of testimonia-collections, with occasional recognition that the treatise is addressed to Muslims rather than Jews. Includes 8 Old Testament prophesies. Includes 3 Old Testament prophesies.
The manuscript breaks off in mid-sentence, and we do not know how much of the text might be missing. It would be possible to imagine more chapters of testimonies; having had one on baptism, for example, one might expect to see a chapter on the eucharist. The Bible as literature, wisdom and history A first observation is that quotation of or allusion to the Bible does not necessarily depend for its effectiveness on its status as sacred scripture.
He then adds: If anyone of the people hopes to grasp something of the greatness of God, he is seeking his shadow—which can never be grasped! Griffith has maintained that the years should be counted from the Incarnation in the Alexandrian world era, giving a date of ; S. But God may his name be blessed and his mention exalted! Rather, the book of Isaiah has simply provided a vivid image that helps the author to make his point. Let us take one other example. For if their affair is from God, then their religion will be established and 19 SA , f.
And if their affair is from other than God, then God will bring it to naught …. Both 23 SA , f. On the ineluctably narrative character of Christian soteriological discourse, see M. Hauerwas and L. Jones, eds, Why Narrative? In the case of the Apology, this may be seen in the very sequence of stories—Noah, Abraham and Lot, Moses—a sequence that may be found in several suras of the Qur"an.
Testimonia Much of the text of the Apology, especially in its second part, is structured around testimonia, that is, Old Testament texts that are used as proofs or prophesies of the Incarnation, birth, ministry, passion, death, resurrection and ascension of Christ, as well as of particular Christian doctrines and practices. Sometimes the quoted passage provides evidence in a fairly uncomplicated manner.
When, for example, the author of the Apology wishes to establish that God has a creative Spirit, he quotes Job The situation is much more complex when, a few pages later, the testimonium is Habakkuk 3. Here we are dealing with a complex, centuries-old tradition of typological interpretation, one that probably has probative force only for the highly initiated. SA , f. In the remainder of this article, I would like to investigate a little more closely the function of the testimonia in the Apology as well as in other Arabic Melkite texts, in the hope of being able to shed a little light on the Sitz im Leben of these texts.
I summarize the main points of my argument in advance: 1. The influence of the ancient Christian literary form of the testimonia-collection is of great importance to many early Arabic Melkite apologetic texts. Even when these scripturally-rich texts claimed to be addressing non-Christians—Muslims in the case of the texts considered here—most of their readers were Christians. I shall now return to each of these points in detail. Harris was one of the great early students of testimonia-collections,29 a com- 29 On the contribution of Harris, see M. Harris hoped to mark swanson mon genre of early Christian literature that can be traced back with considerable certainty to the second Christian century.
Indeed, Harris believed, as do a number of contemporary scholars, that written testimonia-collections may have been in existence before the books of the New Testament were written. Let me give an example—one which Rendel Har- 34 See n. BL or. Cachia, ed. Watt, trans. In what follows I will refer to the paragraph number, allowing the text to be consulted in either the text or the English translation volumes.
The first testimony is Gen 1. Stir up your power, and come to save us. O Lord our God, save us. Fire shall devour before him, and [ ] break out round about him. One can easily imagine the author of our Arabic Apology having recourse to a Greek testimonia-collection similar to such texts. I, pp. Cachia; paragraph no. Ps Is Hab 6.
Life of Christ 1. Micah 5. Job 9. Job Dan 9. Gen Baruch 3. Hab 3. Dan 2. Zech 9. Baptism 1. Ezek Micah 7. Cross 1. Deut Num Zech It is again not difficult to imagine that the author of our Apology had recourse to a work of this sort as he composed his text. I think, though, that my first main point is clear: testimonia-collections play an important role in early Arabic Melkite apologetic literature, either in themselves or as resources on which authors could draw. Commending a Christian worldview My second main point has to do with the function of the testimonies in a text such as the Apology.
Here, I would argue, the testimonies play a major role in laying out and commending a worldview. Wright,51 for whom worldviews have four characteristic functions. And fourth, they set forth particular actions, 48 On the manuscripts of this work, see M. The Apology is a powerful presentation of a Christian worldview, and its use of scripture is integral to that presentation. The testimonies in the second part of the Apology then bear witness that the scriptural narrative is internally coherent, with Old Testament prophesies matching New Testament events in such a way as to move the receptive reader to wonder.
The rituals and symbols associated with this worldview are not neglected by the Apology, as may be seen from its final two chapters: Christians enter the reality described by this scriptural narrative through the ritual of baptism; within it, their great symbol is the cross. And throughout the Apology there are indications of the sort of actions that are suitable for life within this worldview, actions characterized by freedom from the Devil, obedience to God, and the imitation of Christ.
I would like to suggest that wherever testimonia-collections are reproduced or used, this Christian worldview is adumbrated: the testimonies serve for Christians as a reminder of a scripture that not only provides the overarching meta-narrative within which the fundamental questions of human existence are defined and answered, but which is, at the same time, a coherent whole, magnificently 53 54 55 SA , f. Some of these instances are familiar; others are just waiting to be discovered by the attentive student. This raises questions about the intended audience of many of the early Arabic Christian apologetic texts.
Harris was impressed by this Muslim-directed character of the text. Seeing the continuity between the Arabic apology and the testimonia-collections of the earlier literature Contra Judaeos, he suggested that the treatise should simply be called Contra Muhammedanos. In the first place, the text is not against anyone; it is almost entirely free of polemic. But, in the second place, his suggestion probably exaggerates the extent to which debate with Muslims was, in fact, the principal setting of the text. After surveying the sources in a recent 56 Ibid. Albl concludes: This patristic survey has uncovered no indisputable evidence that the testimonia were used in actual debates with Jews.
Already in the Dialogue with Trypho, the form of the dialogue between a Jew and a Christian seems to be a literary fiction; the aim was to instruct Christians or persuade a pagan audience. The overwhelming evidence points towards the development of these testimonia-collections in a catechetical life-setting.
This may overstate the case. A work such as the Arabic Apology may have been valuable, as Gallo points out, to Christians who were being challenged in their faith by their Muslim neighbors. For them, the Apology may have been intended as a powerful statement of a comprehensive and integrated scriptural universe that—the author implies—they should be loathe to abandon. In reading the scriptural testimonies, a Christian reader could see the weaving of a worldview, like a great tent. A question that remains is: Would a Muslim have any desire to peer inside that tent?
It seems to me that the authors of the texts considered here do attempt to provide what they believed might be windows or gateways for Muslims to look—or even enter—into the Christian worldview. We shall explicate that, God willing, by means of these revealed [munzala] Books, for the sake of the one who desires knowledge, has insight into matters, recognizes the truth, and opens his heart so as to believe in God and his Books.
At this early stage of the history of Christian-Muslim conversation he makes bold to claim: the Christian community possesses these Books of which the Qur"an speaks, and so Muslims should pay attention to what they teach. With regard to the doctrine of the Trinity, the author of the Apology proceeds to provide one example from each of the four sources he mentioned. The Bible and the Qur"an in agreement It is worth noting that the author of the Apology, whenever possible, does not simply quote the Bible with the assumption that a Muslim reader will accept it as a text that God has sent down, but rather supplements his biblical presentation with appropriate quotations from the Qur"an.
Betz and H. Perhaps a few. One of the most important features and functions of pseudepigraphical literature is its contribution not only to the formation of a general biblical background, but also to knowledge of the biblical canon in an eclectic as well as summarized way by including material both from the Old Testament and the New Testament. The pseudepigraphical textual tradition transmitted basic knowledge of scripture not only before but sometimes even beyond the authorized translations of the books of the Bible.
It provided the Christian communities with an extensive scriptural foundation, necessary for the understanding of their own religious, and in particular confessional, identity. In this article I shall discuss one of the earliest and most monumental pseudepigraphical works in Arabic, known as the Apocalypse of Peter. This was perhaps the first pseudepigraphon to be written—at least in part—originally in Arabic.
I will focus in particular on the text, as edited and translated by Alfonse Mingana in , which is based on a Karshuni manuscript from his own manuscript collection. It is very probably a compilation of writings, and the three parts of it must have originated 1 Mingana Syr. Mingana, Woodbrooke Studies, vol. III, Cambridge, , pp. The numerous manuscripts of the work bear evidence of its great popularity, up to the late Middle Ages.
On the popularity of the text in western and eastern Christianity, see G. I Studi et Testi , Vatican, , p. On the manuscript tradition see E. The first part was originally edited and translated by Margaret Dunlop Gibson based on a Sinai manuscript that was dated to the tenth century at the latest.
Due to the existence of this edition, Mingana left this section out of his own edition. The second part, with which the Mingana text begins, contains an extensive narration of heavenly and eschatological secrets, while the last part consists primarily of a political apocalypse. Interestingly, there are references to Church customs that indicate a Coptic origin for the text. Apocrypha Arabica, London, , p. My analysis of the work does not take into consideration this third part in matters of origin or dating. The first and the most ancient of these Arabic layers I am tempted to ascribe to about A.
On the practice of circumcision among Copts, see O. Also Secreta Petri were read in Egypt during the church services ibid. About the re-written bible in arabic port the hypothesis of an Egyptian origin for Christian pseudepigraphical literature written originally in Arabic. There are still a significant number of texts that remain unpublished or that exist in old and often inadequate editions and have been generally neglected by modern scholarship.
A significant aspect of pseudepigraphical literature consists in the re-writing of the Bible; it presents an extension and explanation of the biblical story by illustrating details of biblical statements about the nature of the world and of humankind. The narrative motifs reflect various exegetical approaches to the biblical passages. Often borrowed from older texts, they form part of a long-established literary tradition. The choice of literary motifs or textual traditions used in the composition of texts in a new language is revealing with respect to the self-perception, intentions and concerns of a specific community in history.
Based on the existing textual evidence, the first chapters of the book of Genesis were among the most popular biblical stories in Arab Christian pseudepigraphical literature. In the following, I will focus in particular on the biblical creation and paradise story in the Apocalypse of Peter I. I owe this reference to Professor Rifaat Ebied. The two versions present two different and varying approaches to the theological, anthropological and soteriological issues involved in the narration of the Paradise story.
The Book of the Rolls is more or less a translation and expansion of the Syriac Cave of Treasures, while the Apocalypse of Peter I is a more original composition, presenting a variety of new motifs and ideas. It reports a revelation of Jesus as given to Peter the Apostle, and then transmitted to Clement by Peter. According to the literary classification of pseudepigraphical literature, the text belongs roughly to the pseudo-Clementine literature on account of the narrative frame that is used.
Peter, who is described here as the chief of the Apostles, reveals to Clement the secrets that he has received from Jesus. These include a detailed description of each day of the creation, basic information about the nature of the Godhead and the nature of the angels according to their various ranks, the creation of Adam and Eve and a description of Paradise. The fall, as related in the 10 On the Pseudo-Clementine literature in general, see J. Irmscher and G. Hennecke and W. The choice of this narrative frame is interesting. It might indicate a situation in which the church was struggling for its authority.
Eve, who is already married to Adam in Paradise, convinces Adam to eat from the forbidden fruit so that he might become like God.
Eventually, Adam and Eve are deprived of their glory and forced to leave Paradise in great grief. The setting of the text, following common pseudepigraphical motifs, is the Mount of Olives. What follows is more or less a continuation of the Book of the Rolls. Clement reports to Peter that he is now able to refute the Jews, but he still needs to know the heavenly secrets as revealed to 12 The backdrop of the revelation of the Mount of Olives is also the setting of the early Christian text known as the Apocalypse of Peter, or the Ethiopic Apocalypse of Peter, as it is extant in Ethiopic, although it was very probably originally composed in Greek.
A Coptic version of the text exists as well. It was composed very probably in Egypt in the first half of the second century and the translation into Ethiopic must have been made through an Arabic translation. See, C. Compared with the Arabic text of the same name, this text is more concerned with eschatological questions, the Last Judgment and the torments of hell. The two Peter apocalypses share an interest in the eschatological realities, in paradise and hell in general, although not necessarily in the details of the description. Accordingly, there is only an indirect relation between the two texts.
This introduction is significant for the diverse intentions of the two texts.
The Book of the Rolls focuses for the large part on biblical history and genealogy, and it appears to serve as a general background for the more esoteric teachings that are to be revealed now in the Apocalypse of Peter I. Only he is endowed with the real divine truth. The text deals mainly with the following fundamental questions of Christian faith: why God created Adam knowing about the transgression that would take place; why Christ became incarnate; why there is life and death and what is after death; what is the meaning of the soul; why God promised resurrection; the knowledge of the hierarchies of the heavenly beings; what will happen in heaven on the day of the resurrection; the end of the world; the state of Paradise and of the Kingdom of Heaven.
The Son is identified with the Creator, and so when Christ speaks of any divine creative or other action, he uses the first person plural. Christ mentions certain episodes from the Old Testament as the actions performed by himself and God or the united Godhead in order to underline His pre-existence.
This statement might reflect an implicit refutation of Islamic polemic against Christian trinitarian theology. From his posterity good, pious people would rise to fill the angelic hierarchy from which Satan had fallen. As ruler over the earth, Adam was created angelic, spiritual and immortal, but he was also created 17 Cf. Textes handelt. Da das arab. Thus, he possessed originally a double nature, mortal and immortal, because God knew that he would transgress the commandment.
His rebellion meant death for the earthly and mortal nature. According to this version of the Paradise story, Adam ate from the tree because he wished to be God and he deserved death because he disobeyed God, in spite of his intelligence, and warnings against disobedience. God has created Adam and Eve and the world because of his incarnation, so that his preexistence, majesty and glory might become manifest.
Finally, he became incarnate in order to raise bodies from the grave and to give them eternal life. This text presents one of the most extensive, detailed and vivid descriptions of Paradise to be found in Jewish or Christian pseudepigraphical texts. Paradise was created from the Eden of delight. The third door opens to Mount Sinai, the second door to the Mount of Olives, and the first door, which is the highest, leads to the burial ground of the body that Jesus took from Adam. From this door, God hears and answers prayers. From this place the Archon, the Devil, was driven out.
Paradise is the place of reward for people who have attained merit through their good works. It has neither food nor drink, because its breeze satisfies the souls. The dwellers therein have no sinful thoughts, nor do they delight in sin. There is in it no hunger and no thirst, and its inmates are in no need of garments as there is no shame in nakedness.
These are the believers who are baptized and confess the faith and avoid sinning. They will be showered with endless happiness. The extensive description of places such as Paradise, Eden and the Kingdom of Heaven expresses a basic theological and pastoral intention of reinforcing the perseverance of the righteous Christians 26 27 28 29 Ibid, p.
Ibid, p. See Mingana, Woodbrooke Studies, pp. A considerable part of the text deals with the events at the last Resurrection, when it is stressed that the faithful, and especially those who have suffered persecution, will be rewarded, purified and become like the angels of heaven. The heavenly Jerusalem is the Altar and the Sanctuary of life, where the liturgy never ends. The description of the heavenly Jerusalem emphasizes the interest in liturgical life which can be observed throughout the text. The interest in the observance of Christian everyday practice is also expressed through the incorporation in the text of another pseudepigraphon, known as the Testament of Adam.
In the so-called Horarium of this text, the hours and numbers of prayers are precisely defined and explained according to episodes from the Paradise story, such as the creation of Adam, his rebellion against God and his expulsion from Paradise. The number of daily prayers for the people is three, while for the ascetics it should be seven. This tradition corresponds to the long-established tradition of the Prayers of the Hours.
The concern about liturgical life, which is here described as divinely ordered and corresponding directly to heavenly mysteries, might derive from a milieu in which there was a concern to preserve liturgical life intact, 30 This idea most probably reflects the monastic ideal of the vita angelica, going back to Mk The Testament of Adam was originally composed in Syriac between the second and the fifth centuries ad. Charlesworth, Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, vol. Apart from the Horarium, the Angelic Hierarchy as described in this text also bears close resemblance to our text.
This could in fact point to a clerical-monastic milieu behind the text. The text concludes with apocalyptic visions about the signs of the end of the world, which are strongly influenced by the Revelation of John. The Arabic Apocalypse of Peter I and Islam According to its narrative frame this text technically belongs, as already mentioned above, to the pseudo-Clementine literature.
The choice of the pseudo-Clementine narrative frame might imply an emphasis on the authority and unity of the Church, as founded by Peter. Rather, it is more closely related to Jewish and Christian apocalyptic literature. As with Jewish and Christian pseudepigraphical literature in general, the texts of these traditions depend upon each other. Later Christian apocalyptic literature, as part of a long literary tradition, is based in great part on the two canonical apocalyptic texts, the Book of Daniel and the Revelation of John.
In some respects, this body of literature builds a closed self-referring literary system. The texts of a younger date intentionally use basic motifs from the older texts that have been authoritative or even canonicised, as a means to acquire authority and trustworthiness for their own prophetic revelation. In this context, the concept of history, which leads inevitably to the consummation of the world, is basically linear. The course of world history consists of ever-recurring themes that precede and forebode the final act of the eschatological drama.
The eclectic choice that the Apocalypse of Peter I makes here from the older pseudepigraphical literature is significant. In contrast with the usual tradition of pseudepigraphical literature, it does not copy or imitate an older popular text, but presents an original compilation of passages, ideas and motifs from a number of texts, which are, I suggest, carefully chosen in order to support and illustrate the main theme of the text.
The scope of the text is the revelation of heavenly mysteries about the beginning and the end of creation, but to my mind this text uses these literary motifs to express a specific reaction to Is- emmanouela grypeou lamic rule. In a certain way it is a theological confrontation, even if only a latent one here, with Islam.
I believe the Apocalypse of Peter I presents the metaphysical eschatological background of the political apocalypse in the Apocalypse of Peter II that follows later in the same manuscript. It explains how the truth about the Christian faith and the Church has been revealed already in the first chapters of the Bible and how it therefore determines the course of history which is divinely planned. Although this text is not openly a political apocalypse, it has much in common with political apocalypses in Arabic that also originated in Egypt, such as Pseudo-Athanasius, Samuel of Qalamun, etc.
And it seeks to strengthen their faith and encourage them to endurance by promising the Kingdom of Heaven and by dwelling on descriptions of the rewards and of the delights of Eden. The Book of the Rolls, on the other hand, can be regarded as translation-literature, which did not serve any further explicit political issues. While in the Book of the Rolls, the opponents are said to be the Jews, certain allusions in the Arabic Apocalypse of Peter I imply that the esoteric teachings here are part of a confrontation with Islam. Thus, the inclusion of the Book of the Rolls in this collection of texts can be seen as providing a contrasting background to the Apocalypse of Peter I, which offers a new version of the Paradise story with the viewpoint of new eschatological signs such as Islamic rule.
The direct confrontation with Islam takes place in a more political-historical context in the third part of the text, although the Arabic Apocalypse of Peter I presents the necessary theological context for the understanding of the following section with its political and historical emphasis. While our text remains faithful to the literary traditions of the relevant pseudepigraphical literature, it seeks to re-invent and re-interpret them in order to adapt them to a new historical period and ultimately through a new linguistic medium.
In the third vision of the Fourth Book of Ezra, after the seer has narrated briefly the events of each of the six days of creation, he concludes: And over these you placed Adam as ruler over all the works which you had made; and from him we have all come, the people from whom you have chosen. All this I have spoken to you, O Lord, because you have said that it was for us that you created this world.
But we your people, … have been given into their hands. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? According to the text, Peter will spiritually beget children of chastity and asceticism. They will have superiority over all nations, but will suffer under their enemies. Rivista de Ciencias de las Religiones 4, , pp. It might have been composed in the first century ad in Greek or Aramaic, but versions of it exist also in Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Armenian, Arabic, Coptic, Georgian, and a small fragment in Greek.
See B. If we assume that this text was indeed written by Christians who were exposed to Islamic beliefs and even Islamic religious propaganda, the selection of themes appears to be deliberate for the re-enforcement of Christian identity and separateness. Consequently, believers can confront Muslims with the correct 39 40 41 42 43 Ibid. Although this text does not contain any concrete information about defection to Islam or about hardships that might have led to conversions, some passages sound like an effort to bring comfort and reassurance to Christians under persecution.
As Christ promises: If you do the things that I have ordered you to do I will prolong your lives, multiply your provisions, double your wealth, remove your troubles, guard your souls from all the evil which had prevailed upon you, enhance your prestige in the world, stand by you, care well for you as long as you live, lengthen the fixed time of your death and fulfil the desires of your hearts in respect of your daughters and your sons; and every good deed which you will perform I will increase it and double it several times for you, and cause it to possess higher value.
Biblical stories could have become easily accessible in this way, possibly also through an oral form of communication. The production of this literature 44 45 Ibid. The re-writing of the main stories of the Bible, especially the rewriting of the first chapters of Genesis explaining the creation and nature of the world and of humanity, the story of transgression and the origin of sin, and finally the present state of humanity, serve as a theological basis for the self-understanding of the community.
The encouraging and paraenetic role of apocalyptic literature in times of political-historical crisis is further expressed through its fundamental theological scheme, which unifies the beginning of the creation with its end. The biblical history corresponds to the history of the world, which is pre-determined by God in the very moments of the creation.
The pre-determination of world history secures the outcome of historical events, which in this perspective can be only temporary and cannot change the course of the history, which is based on the history of creation. The Arabic Apocalypse of Peter I offers a solid even if elementary or simplistic basic knowledge of Christian theological beliefs. It seeks to stress the omnipotence and omniscience of God, Jesus Christ, which provides the theological background for the political apocalyptic part that follows in the same text collection.
In addition, the elementary theological ideas would have been understandable to all the faithful. The promised reward in the afterlife for the believers who persevere becomes a vivid reality in the extensive and detailed colourful descriptions of Paradise and of the angelic beings that inhabit the heavenly realm. It is well-known that this has been a great challenge to all Christian communities in the Near East since the earliest time of Muslim domination.
Does God not grant worldly power to the kingdom truly professing his name? The belief in divine support for the orthodox sovereigns of this world formed the basis of Byzantine imperial propaganda and was exploited during the wars against the Sasanians, who were believed to have been overcome by the power of the holy cross. This is how matters stood on the eve of the Muslim conquests. It has been suggested that for Miaphysite Christians the apparent defeat of the invincible cross was a less crucial question than it was for Chalcedonians, because the Miaphysites were already subjected to people of a different confession.
IV, p. A strategic aspect of these texts was to depict Muslims as lacking a religious message: they are presented as a mere barbarians, whose invasion was orchestrated by God in his concern with the fate of Christianity. In most of these texts they are also thoroughly evil, so as to underline the negative role allotted to them by God. Juynboll, ed. The central question that I want to address is how the author or authors tries to convince his audience that an unwavering faith in Christ is reconcilable with the challenge of a Muslim-dominated world.
What are the ways in which the text tries to show that Islam has a temporary role in the divine plan? How does it use the Bible for this purpose? And how does the text ultimately manage to maintain the image of Muslims as outsiders in a Christian world? Before these questions can be discussed in detail, I will first need to give a concise overview of what is known about this text.
At various points in the text references to its own title appear, and as it turns out there are more than one. The titles Apocalypse of Peter and Book of the Rolls have been used in modern scholarship, but there are at least four other names found in the manuscripts. Graf rightly took issue with calling the text simply the Apocalypse of Peter, because of a possible confusion with the ancient Apocalypse of Peter that is known to have existed already in the second 5 G. The fact that its Ethiopic version reflects an Arabic Vorlage has made scholars look for witnesses of that stage of transmission of the text, but as yet without success.
A close verbal correspondence between the ancient Apocalypse of Peter and the APBR is absent; there is a minor overlap in eschatological motifs, but most of these are common in Christian apocalypses, and the most noteworthy elements of the ancient Apocalypse of Peter are not present in the APBR. Bradtke and Graf have made provisional inventories of these manuscripts. The text includes, among others, slightly adapted versions 8 References to and quotations from the ancient Apocalypse of Peter in early Christian literature can be found in D.
Series 97 , Atlanta GA, , pp. The hypothesis that the APBR may still hide some parts of the ancient Apocalypse in the sections left out by Mingana was brushed aside by several scholars and can certainly be dismissed after my inspection of MS Par. However, not all manuscripts of other Christian Arabic Petrine texts have been explored. Uri 99, Bodl. Nicoll 48, Harvard Syr. III, Cambridge, , [pp. Studi Africanistici, Serie Etiopica 2 , Naples, See pp. I would like to thank Prof. Bausi for his kindness in sending me his work. Battista and B.
Bagatti, La Caverna dei Tesori. Testo arabo con traduzione italiano e commento Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. Collectio Minor 26 , Jerusalem, They are, however, present in other manuscripts. The manuscript used is MS Mingana Syr. This manuscript is unedited, apart from a few small sections. It mentions two undated Vorlagen from Aleppo, compiled from three manuscripts, of which the oldest was from Bezold, ed. Two minor fragments ff. IV, pp. Troupeau, Catalogue des manuscrits arabes. These dates are given according the years of the martyrs, which was common among Copts only.
MS Par. This list continues with the predictions concerning the appearance of Islam and its rulers and a description of the Second Coming of Christ, which ends on f. This section is also to be found in Mingana Syr. Then follows a long description of heaven and hell ff. The section f. From f. On the basis of a perceived emphasis on the fate of Egypt during Islamic rule, the text has been regarded as an Egyptian composition by several scholars.
In addition, Mingana found the text to be unlike anything he knew from the Syriac tradition and therefore assumed that the Syriacisms in the text were the result of a later phase in the transmission. In a Coptic-Arabic manuscript the presence of such elements is clearly more difficult to explain, if one holds on to the supposition of an Egyptian origin. Furthermore, at least two of the texts that have been integrated into the work, the Cave of Treasures and the Testament of Adam, belong to the Syriac tradition.
The emphasis on the fate of Egypt is definitely strong in a few passages, but in others the focus is incontestably on Syria and Mesopotamia. On these grounds the scholarly consensus needs to be challenged and the possibility that the transmission occurred in the opposite direction deserves to be investigated more seriously in future research. This issue should, however, not make us lose sight of the fact that the text became popular in both Miaphysite communities. It is not always possible to determine whether the text reflects the shared experiences of Copts and Syrians living under Islam or whether certain ideas expressed are the unique views of one or the other of these two communities.
He must also have noticed that the text is not particularly concerned with doctrine to begin with. Nicoll, Bibliothecae Bodleianae codicum manuscriptorum orientalium catalogus, pars secunda, Oxford, , pp. This is relatively easy, since there are numerous references to the Abbasid period in the text. These prophecies may serve as proof of the relative lateness of the text. Although the text is believed to have come to the attention of crusaders during the Fifth Crusade see 25 biblical exegesis and interreligious polemics of the Arabs will have been fulfilled.
We should note, however, that this fulfilment of forty kings is not coupled with one specific decisive victory of a Christian king, whether it be the true Last Emperor or simply a Byzantine emperor rising up against his eastern enemies. So how and when should the Christian audience of this apocalypse expect their liberation from the hands of the Muslims? The answers to this question are multiple, not to say contradictory. Throughout the text, different ideas about it are expressed: when the king of the East and the king of the West engage in battle, when the north is in ruin, when twelve kings and nine little kings have completed their rule, when the Jews learn the art of warfare, when the third of April falls on a Sunday, and so on and so forth.
It is rather as if many existing apocalyptic cycles—overlapping and conflicting—have been strung together. In many instances the APBR also points at cracks in the power structure of the caliphate, drawing attention to internal strife and the quick C. See also below n. The lives of all of them will be short and inconsiderable, their lifetimes passing like a dream, for the sake of my beloved ones. I will shorten their days and make them perish quickly and fold them up like a scroll and make them vanish like smoke, as if they had never existed.
Most of these things I do are for your sheep, O Peter. He met his wife, Selina, while serving as a missionary with Iris Global in the bush of Mozambique. Together, they are the founders of Life Poured Out International, a ministry with a vision to reach the lost, ignite the church, and serve the poor. Michael has an unrelenting passion to spread the good news of Christ across the nations.
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Excited to have Mark Wilson back on the podcast after a three year hiatus. But how do you discover that plan? The Spirit Said Go is designed to help believers find God's will. Using Paul's journeys in Acts as examples, Wilson discusses twenty lessons on guidance drawn from these journeys. Using his firsthand experience traveling along these routes in the Eastern Mediterranean, he reads between the lines offering additional insights into Luke's account. He also provides important geographical and archaeological information to illustrate Paul's world among the Jews, Greeks, and Romans.
Wilson then illustrates each lesson with autobiographical vignettes drawn from his own spiritual pilgrimage of over forty years as a follower of Jesus. Friends and colleagues also share stories of similar experiences of guidance.
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Each chapter ends with reflection questions that help the reader integrate the lesson into Christian living. The volume offers an inductive Bible study combined with practical, spiritual insights regarding how God guides his people then and now. He is the author of Biblical Turkey and Victory through the Lamb Cook, Whether believers realize it or not, God intended for them to do what the Bible says: adopt the orphan, take the gospel into all the world, and care for the needy. These are mandates that point believers down the path of true living and eternal life.
Sometimes those steps are easy, but many times they require a move outside of what feels safe or secure. Tricia researched at in Austria and interviewed over veterans to collect their remarkable experiences…passing them on to a new generation of readers. Tricia puts the same dedication and detail into every book she writes. Tricia's writing style is vivid and heartwarming, allowing readers to take home more than engaging stories, but also incredibly inspiring messages of faith and hope. Her goal is to write stories that matter.
Tricia Goyer is a homeschooling mom of ten, grandmother of four, and wife to John. With a busy life she understand the importance of making every word count. The cadets learn logical-thinking skills as they examine the contents of a mysterious box and the vast universe. Warner Wallace is a cold-case homicide detective, a missions leader, a church planter, and author of Cold-Case Christianity.
He and his wife, Susie, have four children and live in southern California. It's time to get your life on track in and beyond. You don't want to miss this talk with Dr. You were created to live a significant life! With wisdom and care, author, counselor, and therapist, Dr. Ham, Ph. He received his Ph. He lives in the Colorado Springs area with his wife, and their two Goldendoodles.
He and his wife have grown children, and their families, who live inside and outside of Colorado. Has the church fallen asleep at the wheel? We are quick to blame everyone else from Hollywood to Washington, but it is not the culture's fault God is sidelined. If God is missing from the conversation, then it is because His people have failed to represent Him there. Christians have been far too silent for far too long, retreating out of fear of offending someone or the unpleasantness of stepping outside our comfort zone.
When Christians have spoken up, too often it has not been in ways that honor Jesus. We have inserted our own opinion, obscuring the beauty and truth of the Gospel in favor of our political, ideological, or personal agenda. It's time for us to embrace our calling as Christ's ambassadors. To do that, we must be equipped to engage the world in ways that bring the mind of Christ to bear on the matters of the day. Before becoming president of the PLC, she served in mainline Christian ministry for 17 years.
She lives outside of Nashville, TN with her husband Jim and family. While a few trusted Greek texts are in print, significant advances have been made in Greek translation studies of the New Testament since a standard text was adopted by academics in Dirk Jongkind St. Edmund's College, University of Cambridge and Dr. Peter Williams Tyndale House, Cambridge. Together with their team, they have taken a rigorously philological approach to reevaluating the standard text—reexamining spelling and paragraph decisions as well as allowing more recent discoveries related to scribal habits to inform editorial decisions.
Heiser has helped to remind the church of the supernatural worldview of the Bible. Gleaned from his years working as Faithlife's scholar-in-residence, this is some of the very best of Dr. Heiser's work. D, Wisconsin-Madison is scholar-in-residence at Faithlife Corporation. He also hosts the popular Naked Bible podcast.
I'm honored to have Bishop Bill Hamon join me on the podcast. We talk about his conversion story and early ministry years, what it means to be filled with the Spirit, and the reasons speaking in tongues is a powerful gift available to every believer. More than million Christians have received the gift of the Holy Spirit, yet most do not utilize this precious gift to its full potential. And many who do speak in tongues on a regular basis do not fully understand all the benefits this gift brings. A prophet for 60 years, he has prophesied to more than 50, people and provided training for over , in prophetic ministry.
Connect with Bill:. Michael Williams returns to the show once again to share about his latest book. Michael Williams, PhD, takes readers on a journey from Hosea to Malachi, uncovering significant messages about Jesus and the gospel. Making these often overlooked books accessible, Williams gives insight into each of the minor prophets, exploring.
Though the Minor Prophets of the Old Testament may seem obscure, readers will discover the significance that lies within these short books and how the relevance of these books will help grow their faith. His passion is to equip students with knowledge of the Old Testament and its languages so that they may grow in their comprehension and appreciation of redemptive history and be adequately prepared to promote and defend the faith through word and action.
Connect with Michael:. I'm honored to have Judd Brannon on the show today! We discuss the backstory of how he got interested in making movies, what a director actually does, and most importantly his new film Champion. This powerful new movie will immerse you in the supercharged world of dirt track racing. When main characters Sean Andrew Cheney and Jack's Gary Graham lives collide, they form an unexpected bond and go on a journey of healing together. Core themes you'll encounter in the film are forgiveness, fatherhood, and foster care. One must fight for his family, the other must fight to forgive.
Dirt track racer Sean Weathers was at the top of his game When a rivalry with another racer turns personal, the ego that propelled him to success causes a tragedy, sending his life into a tailspin. Jack Reed was attempting to make up for past mistakes. He had prospered as a businessman but failed as a family man. In a sudden turn of events, his chances for reconciliation are ripped from his grasp. Sean and Jack's lives collide, and an unexpected bond forms between them. Working through a painful journey of healing together, they each learn about second chances and the true freedom only forgiveness can offer.
With a vision for bringing stories to life, Judd has had the opportunity to direct and produce multiple video projects. Judd is thankful for the support of his wife and two awesome boys. Connect with Judd:. Jen Miskov shows that when our deepest desire is to fall more in love with Jesus, a life of courageous faith, bold action and astounding miracles comes naturally. It's time to get out of the boat and start walking on water. Peter never set out to walk on water.
He didn't attend a special seminar or school; he just loved Jesus and wanted to be closer to Him. No matter the storm, no matter the danger, he wanted Jesus more. With fresh biblical insight and immediate life application, author and teacher Jennifer Miskov shows that when your deepest desire is to fall more in love with Jesus, a life of courageous faith, bold action and astounding miracles comes naturally.
She shares how to experience the unrelenting, extravagant love of Jesus and how to pursue Him with the same passion. You will be inspired to let go of what's safe and step into the impossible--because when we know we are loved, we will do anything. The wind and the waves will come. Miskov, PhD, teaches revival history at Bethel School of Supernatural Ministry, facilitates Writing in the Glory workshops, and is the founding director of Destiny House, a ministry that cultivates communities of worshipers who do life together in God's presence.
Ordained by Heidi Baker and Bill Johnson, Jennifer loves to lead people into life-changing encounters with Jesus through her writing, teaching, and ministry. She resides in Redding, California. Connect with Jen:. Ryan Huguley shares a powerful framework that will empower pastors to cut their sermon prep time in half! Author Ryan Huguley reveals:. Why work harder when you can work smarter?
In he accepted a call to become the senior pastor of Harvest Bible Chapel in Hickory, NC, a growing congregation of 1, Ryan has worked in church planting since and has a passion to help the next generation know Jesus and make Him known. The Holy Spirit isn't the silent helper. The truth is that the Holy Spirit is right there--waiting for you to let him help. With warmth and encouragement, Sarah Bowling shows how he longs to be part of every situation you face in life, from the exciting, mountaintop experience to day-in, day-out hardships.
She'll help you identify the daily challenges and problems and then match those up to the Holy Spirit for supernatural results. But it's hard to hold that truth in your heart when you're worn out and weary from the mundane, everyday battles and struggles--when you lose your temper again or give into that persistent temptation or feel paralyzed by overwhelming circumstances.
As you see how the Helper moved in the lives of the disciples and apostles, you'll begin to recognize the uniquely supernatural expressions of the Holy Spirit in your own daily life. Your faith will be encouraged as you discover how a Spirit-led life means Spirit-filled help, no matter what you may face. Connect with Sarah:. Krissy Nelson shares some of the life-changing truths she has learned through her own God encounters. She wants to empower you to break every hindering thought so you can truly believe what God says about your identity and calling.
But for so many Christians, this has not been their experience. These are not mere stories—they are invitations for you to start hearing words of hope spoken straight from Heaven over you:. You were created for the impossible. Start believing and embrace the miraculous life God has for you! Her passion is being a light in the dark and voice of truth to a generation. Through Not Alone, together as a team, they desire to see Jesus become the common thread among families.
Discovering and agreeing with His divine plan for your life! Connect with Krissy:. Sometimes life's obstacles get in the way of God's purpose for our lives. Hakeem Collins invites you to break off the enemy's curses and walk in abundant life! Lay claim to your blessings by breaking the enemy's power!
Emerging prophetic voice, Hakeem Collins presents a devotional experience unlike any other. Sickness, guilt, and shame are all obstacles to God's glorious purpose for your life. Fight for your abundance by speaking truth against the enemy's lies. Hakeem Collins is a new prophetic voice and governmental minister with a unique anointing in the prophetic, healings and the supernatural. Seminary can be a difficult road. Danny Zacharias and I share some of our hard-earned wisdom on how to not only survive, but thrive in seminary, while maintaining your health, nurturing your family, and being involved in ministry.
Many students struggle with the rigorous study and the challenges to their personal and spiritual lives. In it, two seminary professors and former seminary students tell you what they tell their students, and what they wish they'd known. This book aims to teach you skills that will help you thrive in the areas of your personal life, time management, and study practices. While seminary is always a rigorous experience, you can do more than survive it. You can thrive. He resides in Wolfville, Nova Scotia with his wife Maria and their four children.
Benjamin K. His research and teaching interests have focused on spiritual formation, biographical leadership, and family ministry. He is co-author with Richard A. He resides in Lynchburg, Virginia with his wife Lerisa and their three children. My friend Israel Wayne returns to the show to make the case for the importance of Christian education and homeschooling. Full disclosure: I am pro homeschooling. Most Christians believe God doesn't care, one way or the other, how our children are schooled or what methods are employed.
This book will use Scripture to prove otherwise. What you read in this book will radically challenge your assumptions and preconceived ideas. There is almost no topic that is as relevant to the future of Christianity or as controversial as the education of children. Students in school classrooms spend thousands of hours being instructed by people who are not their parents. There is almost no way to calculate what a powerful force this is for influence.
From rules to help students reason to information that will help you be a more effective teacher, this book shows the vital importance of "why" in asking students to learn the "what" and "how" of any subject. The future of your child's education and, therefore, his or her life is ultimately in your hands as a parent.
Open your mind and your heart to God's Word and His truth. Much is at stake. Ask Him to give you discernment to help you understand how He sees the issue of education. Israel, and his wife Brook, are homeschooling their nine children in SW Michigan. Since , Israel has traveled the nation speaking on family, homeschooling, revival, discipleship, and cultural issues.
He is a frequent guest on national radio and television programs. Israel has been featured as the keynote speaker at numerous conferences, some with over 5, in attendance. Carl Gallups joins me to talk about biblical prophecy and how it relates to unfolding world events, the unprecedented expansion of technology, and thousands of Jews and Muslims coming to Christ. Increased turmoil in the Middle East. The rise of ISIS. China and Russia's presence in the Fertile Crescent. The exponentially increasing technological explosion. The "Trojan horse" refugee crisis.
America's collapsing borders. The rise of the Sodom and Gomorrah spirit. These are just a few prophetic fulfillments occurring in our day pointing to significant biblical times to come. Jack Sheffield was driving a Geo Metro and collided with a ton asphalt truck. The doctors had little hope, yet he was miraculously healed! The body of Christ is about to go swimming! Together they have been in healing ministry for over thirty years, and continue to travel throughout the USA, Canada, Mexico, South America, Europe, Asia, New Zealand, and Africa experiencing God's glory in healing, miracles, signs and wonders.
CHC is a place of equipping, prayer sessions, ministry to children, and outreach to hospitals, YMCA, prisons and other unique market-place ministry venues. Connect with Jack:. Together, they risked everything to plant seeds for a future that might just save them all.
It comes with a catch: he has to close the church doors for good and sell the prime piece of land on which it sits. While developers eagerly eye the property and the congregation mourns the inevitable, Michael and his family look forward to moving on to an established church where they can put down roots.
Michael, his wife, Aimee, and their two children live in New York City. Aimee is married to Michael Spurlock, an Episcopalian priest. Aimee and Michael live in New York City with their two children. However, I felt that I could not speak of it openly until the "time was right," and that time is now! In the years that followed, I had angelic encounters that are also recounted in these pages. The time I spent in the presence of Jesus profoundly changed me! During this time, Jesus promised that the story of His visitation and the teaching He gave during my minutes with Him has the capacity to radically change YOU too.
He attended Central Bible College in Springfield, Missouri where he received a bachelor degree in theology. Later, he received training in Missions at Rhema Bible College. For 45 minutes, the Master revealed spiritual truths before returning him to his body and assigning him to a supernatural ministry. The supernatural world is all around us.
Brynne Larson may look like a normal girl—except her version of normal involves exorcism of demons and teaching people around the world that the paranormal is very real. Since The Exorcist, movies about demon possession have increased in quantity and gore. Witchcraft invades literature, coming packaged in stories directed towards children. Zombies, ghosts, vampires, and aliens are regular characters featured everywhere from TV dramas to History Channel specials. Some mock the supernatural.
Some preach against it. Get ready to:. You were created to experience the supernatural. The secret is learning how to avoid the dark side. Matthew W. Bates Ph. He is pressing the church towards a new precision: we are saved solely by allegiance to Jesus the king. Instead of faith alone, Christians must speak about salvation by allegiance alone. This is the gospel, or so we are taught. But what is faith? And does this accurately summarize the gospel?
Because faith is frequently misunderstood and the climax of the gospel misidentified, the gospel's full power remains untapped. While offering a fresh proposal for what faith means within a biblical theology of salvation, Matthew Bates presses the church toward a new precision: we are saved solely by allegiance to Jesus the king.
The book includes discussion questions for students, pastors, and church groups and a foreword by Scot McKnight. In this conversation she offers practical tips for listening well. Putting her advice to use will result in a stronger marriage, better parenting, thriving friendships, and increased influence in your workplace. The secret to great relationships isn't to become more charming or funny or to solve the world's problems or to just try harder.
The secret is to listen--and listen well. It's that simple. When you listen well, your marriage will grow stronger, your parenting will flourish, your friendships will thrive, and your influence at work will increase. You will be amazed at how one simple act can transform the hearts of others--as well as your own. She speaks nationally and internationally at conferences, retreats, and training events. James Dobson's Family Talk. Connect with Becky:. He joins me on the show today to equip and encourage you to pray with more authority, confidence, and expectation.
The words we speak in prayer are like spiritual seeds. In the same way that planting seeds in the ground produces a harvest, you can learn to pray in a way that plants the blessings of heaven here on Earth. Tim Sheets shares a revelatory new message that will take your prayer life to powerful new dimensions.
Grasp the impact of your declarations and discover the power of praying the words that Heaven longs to hear! The Oasis began in with 22 members and grew from their rented facility through three other locations to their present seat sanctuary in Sheets is a requested teacher and speaker nationally at conferences, churches, seminars, bible schools, and served as an instructor with the Christian Life School of Theology for eleven years. Sheets received a Doctorate of Divinity from the school in In Dr.
Sheets founded Destiny Bible School which brings in national speakers to the local church to train and equip laypeople. It convenes 5x year. As a result, Dr. This is an ongoing assignment. His vision is to raise up people who will authentically demonstrate the Church on the earth and passionately evangelize the world. His heart is for awakening and reformation in America. He has assumed a key role in apostolic outreach in the founding of additional churches in Ohio and Kentucky. Sheets also serves extensively in providing directive input and guidance to several other independent churches.
His heart is to provide effective vision and structure to existing churches and to continue founding new satellite churches on a regular basis. Tim Sheets resides with his wife, Carol, in Lebanon, Ohio. Connect with Tim:. Andrew T. In this conversation we examine some of the core topics covered in his book God and the Transgender Debate , including:. What does God's Word actually say about these issues? How can the gospel be good news for someone experiencing gender dysphoria? How should churches respond? This warm, faithful and careful book helps Christians understand what the Bible says about gender identity.
It will help us to engage lovingly, thoughtfully and faithfully with one of the most explosive cultural discussions of our day. If you want to learn more and love better, and are open to considering what God has to say about sex and gender, this hope-filled book is for you. Includes a section looking at practical questions including: - Can someone be transgender and Christian? In his role, he researches, speaks, and writes about human dignity, family stability, religious liberty, public theology, the relationship between church and state, and the moral principles that support civil society.
He also examines how ethics inform public policy decisions and investigates the role that religion plays in American political culture. He helps the ERLC in areas related to academic initiatives, content production, issue advocacy, moral analysis, church equipping, and policy communication. Keith Ferrin is a coach, storyteller, and author. In this interview we talk about his new book Bible Praying for Parents , traditional vs. We know we should pray for them.
And yet, our prayers often feel repetitive. Or we wonder if they're making a difference. So then, how do we know what to pray? How do we know we are praying in line with God's will? We know it is the God-breathed Word. We know it covers every aspect of life. Section One: Daily Prayers. The prayers are the actual words of Scripture, with the reference, category, and focus. Section Two: Bible Praying by Category.
All the prayers from each category laid out together. Section Three: Bible Blessings. Say them to your kids. Pray them over your kids. Remind them of who they are and whose they are. If we are honest, our prayers can become repetitive, robotic, and even shallow. Bible Praying for Parents immediately accelerated and deepened my prayers for my family. Every day, this book will give you a power-packed prayer from the Bible. This book is perfect for every parent like me who feels inadequate and insecure in prayer. He is the author of several books and speaks at conferences, churches, and schools around the U.
Welcome to The Shaun Tabatt Show! Do you feel uncertain about what or how to pray for your daughter? You're not alone! Praying for our daughters can seem overwhelming, but it doesn't have to be. This easy-to-use book features Scripture-based prayers that cover key areas of every girl's life: Her identity --finding her security and strength in God's love and acceptance Her heart --pursuing a life of purity and devotion to the Lord Her mind --committing to growing in wisdom and discernment regardless of her circumstances Her relationships --developing skills and attitudes to foster healthy relationships Her purpose --trusting God with her life, gifts, and passions With simple ideas to nurture your daughter's faith from toddler through teen, this encouraging book will equip you to pray with more confidence and power.
A writer, ministry speaker, and Bible study teacher, she is a frequent contributor to parenting blogs and is constantly on the hunt for ways to communicate truth with grace and, if possible, humor. Teri Lynne and her husband live in northern Alabama with their teenage daughter.
In this episode I speak with Timothy P. Your future could not seem brighter—except for a troubling dream A True Story So Timothy drove to a remote spot in British Columbia. There the adventure--which later led to a startling discovery in the oldest Hebrew text of the Bible--began. Welcome to The Chamberlain Key. The diagnosis: Autism Spectrum Disorder. In their attempts to see Josiah recover and regain speech, the Cullens underwent overwhelming physical, emotional, and financial struggles.
While other kids around him improved, Josiah only got worse. Five years later, Josiah, who had not been formally taught to read or write, suddenly began to type on his iPad profound paragraphs about God, science, history, business, music, strangers, and heaven. Tahni worked for thirteen years at a multi-campus church in the Twin Cities of Minnesota, serving in communication arts and as a ministry director.
Tahni and her producer husband, Joe, have created an award-winning documentary called Surprised by Autism. Here are the questions Sam and I discuss in this interview:. Yet some of the gifts that God offers to his people aren't commonly seen in many churches today. Gifts of prophecy, healing, tongues, and other supernatural gifts of God seem to be absent, and many Christians are unsure how to cultivate an atmosphere where God's Spirit can work while remaining committed to the foundational truth of God's Word.
In Practicing the Power , pastor and author Sam Storms offers practical steps to understanding and exercising spiritual gifts in a way that remains grounded in the word and centered in the gospel. With examples drawn from his forty years of ministry as a pastor and teachers, Storms offers a guidebook that can help pastors, elders, and church members understand what changes are needed to see God move in supernatural power and to guard against excess and abuse of the spiritual gifts.
If you long to see God's Spirit move in your church and life, and aren't sure why that isn't happening or where to begin, this book is for you. He is also the senior pastor of Bridgeway Church in Oklahoma City and a former professor. Storms travels both in the United States and abroad, speaking at churches and conferences.
He is the author of over two-dozen books and a contributor to the Zondervan Counterpoints volume Are the Miraculous Gifts for Today? Here's are the questions Sharon and I discuss in this interview:. When detectives arrive, they find not only the broken body of the victim, but a child who remembers nothing of who she is or how she came to be at the scene.
Because the little girl has no known home, a gentle-hearted detective inspector named Charles St. Clair takes her to his home, and from that point on, his life will never be the same. And St. Clair will learn the truth about a supernatural battle that has been raging across England for four hundred years. The Redwing Saga presents an alternative telling of history, pulling back the veil of secrecy put into place by those who would deceive and destroy. Geopolitics, criminal investigation, and science merge with secret societies, angelic warfare, and human free will.
Book One of the series, Blood Lies , introduces the characters—both human and non-human—as well as their backstories, and it starts us on a journey that will eventually lead from Whitechapel to World War. Gilbert for nearly twenty years, and during that time, helped to raise a brilliant and beautiful stepdaughter, Nicole Gilbert.
She and Derek speak several times each year at conferences, where they love to discuss news and prophecy with viewers, listeners, and readers. When not immersed in study, a writing project, or scouring the Internet for the latest science news, you can usually find her relaxing in the garden with their faithful hound, Sam T. Connect with Sharon:. Today I speak with J. Forensic Faith is an engaging, fresh look at what it means to be a Christian. Connect with J. Warner Wallace:. It is a means for God to reveal himself to you and your loved ones in a powerful way.
This practical guide by Donald S. Whitney will prove invaluable to families—with or without children in the home—as they practice God-glorifying, Christ-exalting worship through Bible reading, prayer, and singing. Includes a discussion guide in the back for small groups. Whitney is professor of biblical spirituality and associate dean at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky. We each have to watch out for these spiritual scorpions, so we share some common dangers. What are your felt spiritual needs?
You can pick and choose what you read and accept. You are going to interpret what I say based upon your own background and knowledge. You have been allowing me to share these messages with you, and we are developing a common experience together, and many of you have sent me your feedback, by and large positive.
Some of my manna articles challenged certain reader's basic assumptions, and as expected confusion and anger was generated. My inspiration to write these manna articles comes from my faith that there are choices we can make in life, within a greater context where Almighty God offers us good choices in every difficult situation, but we often don't recognize them. One common experience we all share is government, and a conscience.
The topic of this manna. The British colonies in North America had their share of abuses of human rights, starvation, slavery of all races, exploitations, and many other shortcomings. But I can think of two positives that stand out. First, in spite of all the corruption, relatively speaking, and making a general statement, the British colonies were much better administered than most of the other colonial empires.
Second, British royalty had written into the charters of the various colonies that they grant their inhabitants "liberty of conscience. It is a little known fact that the original 13 states had state Constitutions, which spelled out the right of "liberty of conscience" better than the Constitution, Bill of Rights, or Declaration of Independence. James Madison worked hard to get specific wording in the Constitution concerning "liberty of conscience", but his work and arguments were in vain.
A watered down version was adopted. One of the reasons he faced opposition was that the delegates were concerned that people would become conscientious objectors to war! They knew that most people want to live peaceably, and given the opportunity are not going to fight for the politicians!
So these framers of the Constitution would not grant Almighty God His rightful power over men's consciences and His place in the hearts of men. They removed the words "liberty of conscience" from the text. It is obvious that there is only a shallow form of civil liberty when full liberty of conscience is not granted.
From its inception, the Federal government has grown stronger and more despotic with each passing year. Despots don't display themselves as devils, but disguise themselves as desirable, dauntless, dazzling, divinely inspired, democratic delegates of the common man. In the end, these dammed demons devour what is good and leave destruction.
It is unfortunate that a true love of country is not taught. The propaganda of the despots in control of this nation has convinced people that patriotism means "My country right or wrong, and my leaders right or wrong. Disloyalty is really the actions of those who are destroying the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Quit using the star spangeled banner as a blindfold over the eyes of Americans.
If I truly love someone, I will risk a gentle loving confrontation to assist them. There are of course times when it doesn't benefit anyone for us to speak our mind especially if we have a bad attitude , but if we saw a spouse getting ready to give a speech, and his fly or her dress were unzipped, we had better, if we love that person, speak up. Love means to correct. If we love our country, we will want to make it even more lovable, and to preserve what is lovable about it.
If something is fine, keep it, and if something is not, refine it until it is fine. The Word of God encourages us, "Let us not grow weary while doing good, for in due season we shall reap if we do not lose heart. I'm suggesting that the world's problems do have solutions. It's easy to be a slave, and let someone else take all the responsibility. Just follow the leader. Today love of country means to spend money when the politicians tell us to bolster the economy; love of country means to worship heros and military symbols, love of country means a "united we stand" sticker.
Socialist countries of course like group think. In socialist countries behind the iron and bamboo curtains, Christians were second class citizens. Here is how the state treated the churches: 1. They had to be registered. They had to register their members with the government. They had to keep their activities within specified bounds, public evangelism was prohibited. Hey people, we have all that here in this country including the socialism. Churches are intimidated to incorporate, and then have to report their memberships to the IRS and other agencies.
For instance, a Pastor of an independent Bible church in Texas was jailed in Feb. The Supreme Court refused to hear the case. Now you might take issue with me on the third point, and I agree that we have not been totally restricted in this area-although if you have gone out to witness or pass out tracts like I have you will find this liberty is often curtailed. When I passed out a patriotic tract that was extremely benign, I ended up with a SWAT team at my house the next day asking me what kind of hate group or neo-nazi group I belonged to.
They asked me what I was about, and I got a chance to preach Christ to them. My wife wants me to clarify to you that the tract had not the slightest hint of Nazism. There was nothing that could be misconstrued. The tract did not mention any racial groups. The ultimate abuse of government power that I have heard about along these lines happened in Pennsylvania under the direction of the man Bush put in charge of the new Cabinet level Office of Homeland Security a deceptive name if there was one.
A Christian couple was arrested and stripped of their child because they handed out Christian literature. This mind-boggling event took place in Pennsylvania, and when people thought that the injustice would be set straight by the governor, guess what? They learned he didn't disapprove. And this is the man who is in charge of our "security"-it all has the feel of Russia's internal security forces! In Russia, your were in trouble if you "forced" taught your Christian beliefs on your child. We have similar cases happening now in the U.
Today's churches are in captivity. That was part of the message in yesterday's manna. Now how does one respond to that? It's no surprise, it's been foretold. History is full of the slaves of Satan becoming murderers of the Champions of Christ martyrs. While no one enjoys feeling isolated like Elijah, it's usually just a feeling.
While no one finds persecution pleasant, the blood of the Christians was the seed of the church. If our government thinks it can outdo the Communists, Romans, and everyone else, God is going to disappoint them in a big way. First, Let's get a grip on ourselves and not fear these cowards the true bullies of the world , who are moral midgets. Blow their minds, by not letting them intimidate you. They feed off of others fear, so starve them. Second, if we do not make a stand and continue giving concessions, the forces of tyranny will be encouraged. Appeasement and apathy are not good choices. Third, it is clear that we don't not have enough political clout to make a difference.
In this case, we need God's help. God said that he resists the proud and gives grace help to the humble. There are many things Christian activists can do, that are very powerful. Bill Gothard teaches some powerful tools. I think a fundamental choice is to decide not to accept what they are trying to impose upon us. After we have chosen to be our selves, and to be true to ourselves, then we need to have the wisdom to open the hearts of these rulers. Daniel is an example of someone who opened the hearts of two famous super power rulers.
Cyrus actually encouraged the Israelites to return and build their temple. I pray that America has a Daniel within its ranks. James Christ's brother wrote a scripture that says "true religion" is to stay "unspotted from the world". Daniel means "God is my judge. How would you like to be renamed "Bill-Clinton- will-protect-me"? Somehow, under the most difficult conditions, these men refused to conform to the world's program.
I'm not saying I know exactly how it can be done!! Part of Daniel's solution to working with a despot and a tyrannical government was prayer. Additionally, although he was devoted and faithful to God he did not come across as being a bigoted, argumentative, obstinate, unloving, or disrespectful person. What this tells me, is that part of the answer to our problem with government is how we ourselves think, pray and act. Now that is something we can work on! You've had to live with yourself for better or worse. Do you have ideals? What's been the impact of evil on your ideals?
You've been given self-expression and self-will, and some freedom of choice within limits , but you've also been given problems. I wouldn't dare presume I knew your personal problems, but I have come to the conclusion we often think we are trapped in a unique problem, without realizing that many other people are quietly facing something very similar.
I've also come to the conclusion and others have too that having a good friend listen to us is as worthwhile as any psychologist no matter what the problem. Of course, having a good friend may be the problem! One ticklish thing about being a good friend with someone is that we have to be worthy of being his or her friend.
I've seen men that I looked up to, and would have loved to have been their good friend, but I was not worthy, at best I could be an acquaintance. Some will settle to be a hanger-oner, or servant, but this is not friendship. Over the decade that I've been exposing the World Order, there have been many disappointed people who wanted to be good friends with me. I simply did not have time. That is another catch to friendships-it will cost us something, but it is generally worth far more than the investment!
For lack of time, I have perhaps missed out on some potentially wonderful friendships. Due to the restraints of life, good friends are few. But then a few good ones will do, they are plenty. When I went to Israel, I visited where Abraham is buried. The guide, who by the way happened to be Moslem, emphasized how Abraham was famous as "the friend of God". This, for some reason, made a big impression on me. Abraham was worthy of that friendship. And some of us may be slightly jealous. It also shows that God would like to work WITH us, along side of us, and not as some arrogant cruel dictator, as is often portrayed both in and out of churches.
We live with all these intoxicating success stories and pretty faces that the news media brings us, and then we read about incredible Bible heroes. Although the Word of God has more 3-D heroes who have their share of faults and problems than the movies, let's face it, how many of us are going to be as great as Daniel. Probably no more chance than we have to be a Bill Gates.
Most of us have too many struggles with ourselves to measure up to the Apostle John, or Daniel, or Moses. Whether I lifted weights or grew my hair long I doubt I'd ever approach Samson's brave strength. Yet, those seem to be the heroes that Christendom likes to remind us about. Inwardly, we despise weakness; in spite of what everyone says, I know a lot of people inwardly feel bad about themselves. Of course, few people, if any, enjoy admitting their shortcomings to anyone.
And in fact, many don't even admit it to their conscious minds. We need to be kinder to ourselves in a way. The apostle Paul wrote, "For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves with some that commend themselves; but they measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves among themselves, are not wise. You might wonder why I held his advice in esteem?
This roommate was one of the most intelligent sensible men I've ever met in my life. By the way, it breaks my heart how quickly the ancient wisdom of the Bible, that was the positive foundation for Western Civilization, is frivolously discarded. To solve problems we need to poke them, examine them from different perspectives. Your perspective may be too close to the problem, and mine too far. Others try to give theirs away.
Of course some people solve problems by ignoring them. They say, "What you don't know won't hurt you. Since some people's problems are imaginary, I suppose it might help them if they ignored their false problems. What can be unproductive is for Christendom to preach, "It's God's will" and encourage people to fatalistically resign themselves to problems. This is un scriptural and shows a total lack of how God and His will operate. Since I don't want to get sidetracked, I am not going to explain the will of God in this short manna article. Just understand, that God has a circumstantial will, and His intentional will, and His ultimate will and people often get these mixed up.
Certain people are concerned when they shouldn't be, and relaxed with bovine placidity when they shouldn't be. I recently saw a bumper sticker that said, "If you're not outraged, you're not discerning. Right now I could ask any price if I did. My guess is that our lives have some purpose-or at least should. What purpose does God have for your life? Lots of times, we have answers within our heart that we won't admit. It's funny, how some people say, "This silly thought is in my mind, but I don't know what to think about it.
Our hearts will give us a better answer than our intellect or our emotions. Our intellects require all the right facts, something that often doesn't happen. Emotions are just emotions. But listen to your heart. Seeing yourself as God sees you-that is important in answering the question, "Who are you?
One of the ways we can cleanse our self is to pray to God to reveal every last sin that we need to make right. Yes, we need to make things right. If we stole, return it. If we hurt someone, ask for forgiveness. This may sound scary, but it is a great way to gain spiritual strength. Some people speak with spiritual assurance, because they have a clean conscience. I believe that it is healthier to have a clean conscience. So, how dirty are we inside? It is your life. Still I can't help feeling a sense of deep tragedy when I look at all the lives I have met where individuals didn't see the good choices they could make.
They were trapped in mediocrity. I often see people using the "Bigger Hammer Theory". If a hammer didn't work, they go get a bigger hammer, and then a bigger one; when what they needed was perhaps a knife or a screwdriver. Some people try this with money and government. If some money or gov't. Seeds of encouragement "Did I accomplish anything? You all know how it works, you plant a seed, and even though it is a tiny thing, you can wait, and after a period of time some big plant results.
So why am I describing the obvious? Our lives are a great deal like seeds. Even the Word of God says something along this line. Further on down we read, ". Finally he sailed. He poured his life and soul into four expeditions to the New World doing such things as staying awake all month to get the necessary work done. But the success he sought seemed elusive, and his life was full of little minded self-centered backstabbers.
He died unhappy without knowing what his life's work would mean Some people might view my life as a waste. Rather than getting a great secular education Engineering degree, Ph. Ds and a high-paying job, I opted to question and fight the evil of the system. For over ten years, I have written against the World Order. Actually I was also writing in the 70' s against it, which would make it in a sense 30 years, although I skipped the 80's.
This kind of work elicits all kinds of reactions. I have poured my heart and soul into destabilizing the horrible things that are going on, such as total mind-control, and the apostasy of the church, and the waves of hopelessness that flood good people. I never expected to stop these thing s entirely. At times it seems like facing a tidal wave. People would view all this resisting as foolishness. I contend that whether we succeed or fail we must stand up for what is right. Some of my readers may also have sacrificed worldly success for what they felt was right.
And what was gained? What did I gain that was worth all my efforts? What have you gained by resisting? We experience some success, but we also are left wondering in many situations, did I accomplish anything? If we are secular, we have to rely on examples like the seed and Columbus' life to realize that great things may yet develop from what looks like hard work and little results. The Bible believing Christian can depend upon something more powerful, the Word of God, which repeatedly urges Christians to lay up treasure in heaven.
LK In short, the Bible teaches us that if we do works and they are rewarded, we have been paid for them already. But if we do something good, and don't see a reward for it, then it is credited to our heavenly bank account, which can't be hit by Boeing jets. Later, IF we don't make withdrawals on this account by using our good deeds for bragging and boasting thereby getting rewarded in the here and now , then we will receive our payment as crowns with stars and jewels to throw at Christ's feet.
Some cynical people might scoff, that it all seems sort of silly, Who cares if one has a crown? Anyone who has felt the entire applause of a stadium of people knows that it's a lift to be appreciated by that many people. Think of the excitement in heaven when we can throw these rewards and treasures at Christ's feet? I think it will be exciting. The main point is that one way or the other, we are going to be rewarded for doing what is right.
Another benefit is a clean conscience, which will make life much more livable. They always talk about the standard of living, and the quality of life. They factor in the air and the grocery stores. But they seem to forget things such as guilt, a good conscience, peace, and joy, a sense of purpose, and acceptance as contributing to our quality of life. If nothing else, standing up for what is right will give you many positives to add to your quality of life. There are people on rich estates with such shredded consciences and so much guilt that they can't enjoy life.
Christ is the best example of all this. He didn't write any books. He didn't found any institutions. He didn't leave any monuments or great buildings. He died as a criminal and painfully at that. From a worldly standpoint, he didn't accomplish didlysquat. But he blessed thousands of lives during his short ministry, and is the most significant person of history. He is arguably the person who accomplished the most of anyone in a lifetime, and it was all done in three years of public service.
Do our actions appear futile? No doubt. Have we always been rewarded for doing good? Do people appreciate or understand what we done and tried to accomplish? Most certainly not. But all that is irrelevant. We see the bigger picture. We know that the fruits of our labors may take a long time to ripen after we plant the seed. Let's make the most of life, and may the good Lord richly bless you.
With bovine placidity we allow our owners to milk us dry. This manna will give the news of one large group of people who simply decided to walk away from their slavery. There are many creative ways to help break the satanic slavery that grips the World, and this article will focus on a recent news event that is a positive example of how people can walk away from their control.
I am talking about a meeting this last weekend in Delhi, India of the untouchables, where they walked away from the discrimination of Hinduism and became Buddhists and Christians. When the Aryans invaded India, they introduced a caste system that is pure racism, and racism at its worst. I remember when I first moved to Nepal that our "Twice born" Varna class wealthy Aryan landlord was almost as white skinned as myself.
I don't want to sound critical, after all the lady threw me a volleyball as a gift when she met me. So what do these Aryans called "twice born" in the religious terminology of Hinduism give the lowest caste? Certainly not volleyballs. They give them discrimination and servitude free of charge. That's the poisoned gift they receive from the time they are born until they die. The Jats an ancient offshoot of Jewish-Israelite immigration is a high caste.
By the way, the Hindi word "jati" means caste. Jats will have servants walk ahead of them and clear the streets of any untouchables so they can move through. Reminds me of how our elite uses the secret service and police to clear their paths. In the Be Wise As Serpents book, I outlined five major levels of castes: The Brahmins the Aryan priesthood , the Kshatriyas warriors and rulers , the Vaisyas the skilled trades, merchants and minor officials , the Sudras unskilled workers and the Pariahs called Harijans, Outcasts, Untouchables, Dalit, or Scheduled Caste.
This basic structure reappears in H. The new names to this caste system would be The Wise Men the World Directorate , the Technocrats the Functional elite originally named by Well's as the Order of the Samurai , the Skilled Workers, the Common Masses which includes many blue collar workers, welfare recipients, and others , and the Pariahs the enslaved. My obvious point is that the elite are trying to socially engineer us toward this caste system, and that is what makes this manna article all the more apropos. Allow me to make a few more comments about how life is for the untouchables.
They must do all the work with human wastes, washing, and sweeping. They get the jobs of killing animals, fishing, or working with the dead bodies. In the past, if they touched someone from the four Varna groups, they could be beaten or killed. In some places, the higher castes would not even let the shadow of an untouchable get close to them. Also in the stricter places the higher castes do not even want to set eyes on these untouchables so they are forced to sleep during the day and work at night like ghosts.
The Dalits are not allowed to use the same wells as the higher castes, nor the same stores, nor the same temples. Guess which caste the police protect? The police seem to always favor the favored. It's like Orwell's classic Animal Farm, all are equal, some are just more equal than others. Fifty years of laws against the caste system in India has not stopped discrimination, any more than the American Civil War did in this country. However, over a period of time, as in the United States, discrimination has slowly dissipated, and yet it is still a powerful force in India, much more than in the U.
On July 13, , thousands of untouchables rioted in the financial hub of Bombay, and police shot and killed 12 and arrested 2,1 1 1. This has been one response to the discrimination, and we've seen our share of rioting in our country too. The Untouchables have some leaders who are trying to lead them to freedom. The big leader at the moment is Ram Raj. His predecessor was Dr. Ambedkar, a contemporary of Gandhi. Ram Raj recently got the idea of assembling one million untouchables in Delhi and then in a mass conversion, having one million untouchables renounce Hinduism. Like Dr. Ambedkar, he wanted these untouchables to go ahead and adopt Buddhism.
The Christian leadership of India then met with Dalit leaders on Sept. The Christian churches of India took a united stand in publicly supporting the freedom of the Dalits, and promised to help them by building many schools primary schools and other projects. A Dalit leader was quoted at the meeting, "The only way for our people to find freedom from 3, years of slavery is to quit Hinduism and Castism and embrace another faith.
Christianity offers hope for us. We would be happy if our people would become Christians. Now bear in mind, he wanted people to become Buddhists, but he reconsidered and in the spirit of freedom told his people he would not stand in their way if they wanted to become Christians and not Buddhists. The million-person rally was this last weekend. The idea of the entire caste of untouchables walking away from slavery under Hinduism is quite a heady concept.
Bear in mind, 1 out of 5 people in India is an untouchable, and India has a billion people. The idea that hundreds of thousands of untouchables might convert to Christianity in one mass was also a heady idea. So what happened this last weekend? The government revoked their permit to use a big stadium only a few days before the event. The organizers had to find an alternative site, which they did. The press published all kinds of false information about the event on the radio and television to mislead people, and even announced the event had been cancelled.
They even put up false posters. Boy, it seems the controlled media is the same there as here. Then the system used the police. The police stopped hundreds of buses from coming into Delhi, and also detained thousands in the railway system. The Anti- Christian groups got ready to lambaste and downplay the event- which they did with their typical false reporting.
Of course the government denies that the police turned thousands away, even though tens of thousands witnessed it. The controlled media is helping maintain this fiction. In spite of all these things, at least , untouchables got to the mass rally and renounced Hinduism! The newspapers reported only 2, came, but eyewitness and police reports confirm that it was at least , I have seen for myself how the controlled media plays with figures.
Having learned much in his travels, he assembled a planet out of the dust. Marcovich, ed. Time did not exist, nor did space. Be glorious, country! The Evangelical Scandal.
If a rally is politically correct the numbers get multiplied, and if it is politically incorrect they get substantially divided. And what about the ones that didn't make it to the meeting? Do the authorities really think they can stop the spirit of freedom in the hearts of over a million Untouchables who wanted to attend that rally? Freedom is more than an abstract mental concept. It is a spiritual issue. When Christ left, he sent his Spirit to work in our hearts so that we would want to be free.
And so our hearts cry, "Freedom. My sources include news articles, talks with individuals, my own knowledge and research of the culture from having been to India and Nepal, a book on the caste system, and some web sites such as CBN. To say that God upholds the truth is an understatement, He is the truth. In one of His ten commandments, He orders us not to bear false witness, and in the last book of the Bible, His revelation warns that "all liars" shall suffer the same fate as sorcerers and murderers.
Part of the replacement crew were ethics instructors and philosophers who fit the motto, "I obfusticate, therefore I am. No one is titled "Minister of Propaganda" , rather we call them "spin doctors" and "anchormen". This manna article is written to alert people to how far gone it is. I don't get the impression that even informed thinking people really understand how little truth we get. The Word of God warns us about those who turn away from the truth, who don't love the truth, and resist the truth.
We on the other hand are directed to "obey the truth! Just pour yourself a cup of water and enjoy the corporation toxic waste that has been dumped into it and marketed as a health benefit. I'm talking primarily about fluoride, but anymore who knows what else is in the water?
I tried hard to find someone in our area in government who would own up to the responsibility of knowing what they were dumping into our Portland water-never did find anyone. Now heat the water up in your "made in America" appliance. You see in this nation, definitions are rather slippery and wishy-washy. Now that you've made your tea, sit down and look at today's headlines Notice the word "terrorist"? Our terrorists are called "leaders in democracy" and "freedom fighters"; their freedom fighters are termed "terrorists". And as you can see I'm getting involved in this term warfare, but not on "their" or "our" side, but on the side of truth.
CNN's headquarters at Atlanta are very close to the School of the Americas, a school that would have been better named School of the Terrorists, for many of its graduates are cold-blooded murderers and terrorists. In fact, in South America that is what it is widely called "the School of the Terrorists". The U. The school also has a "Hall of Fame" should be "hall of shame" where various graduates, who became ruthless dictators, have their pictures on the wall. One of the things the U. They also teach how to falsely imprison someone!
But the establishment news outfits like CNN which could drive over to the school in a short time will not do a story on America's School of Terrorists. Selective reporting is one way to deceive. In fact, most of our mainstream news is full of forgotten important details, which would totally change the way people perceived things. How does selective reporting work? When the Feds and police seized and looted my house they found "politically incorrect" material, like a book I was helping write on how the apostate Israelites and Jews had created Hinduism.
They found a book by Boston T. Party on What to do until the Revolution. These books and how many others like them? Never mind the books were seized from a good size home library that is full of lots of love literature Christian and counseling books. Another spin on this trick is to take someone's viewpoint, oversimplify it to absurdity, and then highlight this absurdity to demean the view.
Some of these lies survive for decades. For instance, the idea that Hitler wanted to conquer the entire world. Actually, his book Mein Kampf was quite specific on what he wanted for Germany. Even in his assault on Russia, he had planned to stop once the Don was reached and European Russia was under his control. What still boggles my mind is how people can be aware that Japan was Germany's ally in WW II, and still think that Germany wanted to conquer the entire world.