europeschool.com.ua/profiles/vasugisej/wyry-que-conocer-en.php In the United States and Europe, the ethics of care has achieved a prominent position among the variety of normative views in circulation. I would like to argue that philosophers advocating Jewish ethics in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries planted the seeds for these ideas but that their work was repressed by the Nazi regime and obscured by its long shadow, preventing a modern reception.
In the introduction, Buber discusses when and under what circumstances assistance should be provided to others , p. This position generally holds action to be mandatory only in very exceptional cases Conradi , pp. Even a philosopher like Arthur Schopenhauer, who saw compassion as the driving force behind ethical behaviour, believed that the need must be acute and the emergency dire before action is required , p.
Buber emphasises that the person at the receiving end could be anyone and therefore no distinction should be made between neighbour, stranger, friend, acquaintance, and enemy. You know this soul and its suffering, you know what it needs, and therefore, those to whom it was once refused, deny them not! Let us dare, from there, to put the justification of the first sentence in words. Be loving to your fellow human being as to one who is like you—you know the soul of the co-human [ Mitmensch ], who is in need, so that one is loving to him, because you are people and you suffer yourself the plight of man.
For all of them, the same personal support is mandatory, regardless of whether they are neighbours, mere acquaintances, or strangers. Buber makes the impression that the act of assistance is less important than the act of turning our attention towards others. What ethical behaviour is truly about is the decency, attention, warmth, and kind-heartedness that accompany it. Martin Buber was by no means alone in his focus on what it means to relate to other human beings as neighbours.
In the long nineteenth century, religious philosophers, writers, and rabbinic scholars widely reflected on social justice, companionship, consolation, and cooperation. Few of these texts were likely to have been written as contributions to contemporary philosophical debate. Many came in response to vehement attacks against the authors, with some critics even questioning their right to citizenship and societal belonging. What is more, the authors of these texts geared them towards lay readers in an effort to expand their knowledge and perhaps to equip them with arguments against common criticisms.
The majority of these treatises were dedicated to defending Jewish ethical teachings against popular misrepresentation. They explicitly rebutted legends and obvious simplifications—such as the claim that the code of conduct Jews followed among themselves was different from the one they followed among non-Jews—and rejected the mischaracterisation of Jewish ethical teachings as small minded and petty.
Jobst Paul argues that Jewish ethics ties the institutional social justice with individual ethical requirements of benevolence and charity Paul , p. But that is exactly what happened in the course of the nineteenth century: the process through which the Jewish minority had become equal citizens before the law was discredited. Theologians and antisemites are in agreement on this point. Cohen a , pp. In fact, Gerhard Kittel did not think up his positions entirely on his own. Other theologians had already paved the way. Cohen rebutted arguments like these—specifically addressing those presented by the historian Heinrich von Treitschke [ , p.
A few years later, Cohen published his expert opinion for the Royal District Court of Marburg, in which he discussed the treatment of strangers in the Jewish ethical tradition Cohen Philosophers tend to think that individuals are not obliged to help others if the need is small, if the expected effect of the aid only results in an improvement, if the assistance is continuous, or if the assistance is too taxing.
Sometimes they allow the possibility of obligation if there is some kind of proximity to those in need. Accordingly, this position leaves many questions open. One important question is, Whom to help? But is a neighbour someone who is spatially near or socially near? This kind of equality signifies parity and respect. This is the new idea: that people are equal to each other as human beings, namely as children made in the image of God. From this stems the possibility of the duty of neighbourly love.
The duty does not stipulate the degree of love—which would raise the suspicion that neighbourly love was self-help. As I observed above, Buber does not explicitly characterise neighbourly love as a feeling, but he does speak of love. By contrast, Hermann Cohen explains the relationship of the human being and the co-human by way of disposition [ Gesinnung ], which he believes leads to action.
This disposition is not felt; actions unfold [ entfalten ] from it. Neighbour love is a behaviour induced by a disposition towards co-humans, not the caution, protection, and defence against harm expected from them. All cultivation of a social life entails the unfolding of an ethical disposition. The disposition does not remain as an individual secret; rather, it expresses and is involved in the association of people c , p.
From the first sentence of this long passage, it is clear that Cohen understands the active support of others as a positive duty, not a negative duty limited to the omission of harmful acts. Leo Baeck is another thinker who considers social equality to be a fundamental ethical idea. It expresses the unity of all that is human, a unity that makes life on Earth meaningful and which means much more than the indefinite word love.
For Leo Baeck, to treat your fellow human being decently and kind-heartedly is not a question of feeling or individual decision. It is required of the individual and structures social life and interaction. The German rabbi and writer Ludwig Philippson also argues against describing co-humanity as a feeling. He sees the commandment of neighbour love as a social duty to take action.
Philippson distinguishes between two types of ethics. Tzedaka and gemilut chassadim are key ideas in Jewish ethics. But it also involves assisting others Elbogen et al. This is deed and reality! This is not only a word and a sweet sensation, but a strong deed. The wise say that even the poor person who live on alms should sometimes give alms! In his comment on the passage, he writes:. Torah : the knowledge of the divine truth and the divine will for our whole inner and outer self and world life; avoda : the duty of obedience to God in fulfilling His will with our whole inner and outer self and world life; gemilut chassadim : the selfless deeds of love for the salvation of fellow human beings.
These three things make up and complete the human world and what it encompasses depending on size and type; where they are missing, and if they are missing, and to the extent that they are missing, there is a gap that cannot be replaced by anything, a part of being is missing. In studying the Torah, human beings do justice to themselves; in avoda , to God; in gemilut chassadim , to their co-humans , pp. Divine worship , first in the sacrificial service in the Tabernacle and in the holy Temple of Jerusalem, and since the destruction of the latter, in prayer.
This brings with it obligations toward God. And assisting others , through personal bodily assistance visiting the sick, funerals, consoling the bereaved, sharing the joy of bride and groom, making peace and the like and support of the needy and poor, which is suited to the duties toward the fellow human being , pp. The forms of personal assistance described here were no mere lip service.
They were practiced by cooperative associations, known as hevrot in Hebrew Auerbach , p. Benjamin H. Auerbach, who wrote about the hevrot operating in Halberstadt in the nineteenth century, interprets such associations in the context of Jewish ethics:. It is a fact that the first characteristic sign of the presence of a pious Jewish community is the existence of associations in their midst; they secure within the community the three pillars on which, according to the words of the wise, the world rests: knowledge of the Torah, religious and human personal service, and giving alms Torah, avoda, and gemilut chassadim ; specifically in creating a special association for each branch of assisting others.
These special associations can be more active within those three very large spheres of influence , p. Auerbach points out that the encouragement of these tasks was not to be achieved primarily through financial contributions, but through collectively coordinated voluntary activity in person Auerbach , p. Auerbach names the groups active in Halberstadt around Members of one association visited the sick, supported them financially, and assisted the dying. Hirsch B. It seems that this association was devoted primarily to the task of reading, and possibly to making clothes for the dead and visiting the sick , p.
A soup kitchen was added at the beginning of the twentieth century Auerbach , p. All these activities are in line with the Jewish belief that people have a fundamental ethical obligation to their co-humans. Both in the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds, these obligations are defined as the exercise of mercy, hospitality, supporting the poor, visiting the sick, making peace, providing comfort for the grieving, and arranging funerals for the dead Steppe , pp.
Associations such as the hospital visit society [ chevrat bikkur cholim ] existed precisely for this purpose Lewy Morgenstern was aware of such entities Lordick , p. Despite the differences between them, they all wanted to combine the care of the elderly and sick with the creation of vocational training institutions and merge child welfare with their educational ideas. Clearly, their social commitment in this regard went far beyond any of the positive obligations defended by philosophers.
Indeed, behind their political and scholarly pursuits was a belief in the need for Jewish social ethics. Susman criticises the passivity of most women towards the beginning of the war and urges them to become involved in the revolution. Susman begins her essay by asking why so few women in Germany were interested in politics, and discounts disenfranchisement and their lack of a public voice as reasons. But Susman argues that women are capable of being political and, given the politics of the time, their involvement was more needed than ever before.
Any responsibility with regard to large life events as a whole was remote; their purpose here was that of serving faith.
But faith can be moral only as religious behaviour; i. This situation was created because of inadequate education, and Susman pins the blame on Protestantism, as underlined by her reference to Luther. Yet the question remains why topics such as assistance, hospitality, empathy, care, listening, and help were confined to the margins of German-language philosophy until well into the s. Consequently, the German-language thinkers who endorsed ideas of mercy, benevolence, hospitality, assistance, and help went mostly overlooked in the second half of the twentieth century Conradi b.
About years after Hermann Cohen wrote about what it means to relate to co-humans as neighbours, the psychologist Carol Gilligan wrote an empirically based study that introduces the idea of care as a specific way of viewing the world b , p. In this, Gilligan shares common ground with Herman Cohen, who believes that assisting others results from an awareness that is developed over time.
She interprets communication and care not so much as activities but as aspects of a viewpoint Conradi a. The emphasis on awareness, not feelings, distinguishes Gilligan significantly from Schopenhauer and probably also from Buber. Social workers must not allow their knowledge and skills to be used for inhumane purposes, such as torture, military surveillance, terrorism, or conversion therapy, and they should not use weapons in their professional or personal capacities against people.
This includes not abusing their positions of power and relationships of trust with people that they engage with; they recognize the boundaries between personal and professional life and do not abuse their positions for personal material benefit or gain. Decisions should always be informed by empirical evidence; practice wisdom; and ethical, legal, and cultural considerations.
Social workers must be prepared to be transparent about the reasons for their decisions. Social workers and their employing bodies foster and engage in debate to facilitate ethically informed decisions. The Codes of Ethics are in the national languages of the different countries.
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More national codes of ethics will soon be added to the ones below:. The International Federation of Social Workers IFSW is a global organisation striving for social justice, human rights and social development through the promotion of social work, best practice models and the facilitation of international cooperation. Call for Papers! What is Social Work? All IFSW policies including the definition of social work stem from these ethical principles. Promoting Human Rights Social workers embrace and promote the fundamental and inalienable rights of all human beings.
Promoting Social Justice Social workers have a responsibility to engage people in achieving social justice, in relation to society generally, and in relation to the people with whom they work. This means: 3. Promoting the Right to Participation Social workers work toward building the self-esteem and capabilities of people, promoting their full involvement and participation in all aspects of decisions and actions that affect their lives. Respect for Confidentiality and Privacy 6.
Recently is has also been argued that the claim to universality denies to self-sufficient cultures and religions an equal concern for their particular social self-awareness. From the legitimate expectation of mutual respect for cultural differences, the binding norms of universal principles are called into question. This can frequently lead to a cultural relativism that precludes ethical judgment from the outside about injustices thought to be occurring inside of those cultures.
The Italian philosopher of law, Norberto Bobbio, defends the U. Universal Declaration as fully sustaining the legitimacy of common human rights criteria. Through which international institution? Since , the International Court of Justice in the Haag can always mentioned first. In the future, NGOs non-governmental organizations , among them many social work institutions, will play increasingly more important roles. Codes of Ethics in Social Work Social work in this context can be engaged in multiple fields of action: through professional counseling; critical advocacy, corrective intervention, scholarly research, and as a partner in client negotiations and referrals.
Silvia Staub-Bernasconi mentions all of these functions of social work in numerous publications, with a special emphasis on the international dimension. Ethik Sozialer Arbeit. Ein Handbuch Paderborn, p. Social justice is the essential foundation upon which human beings can live in dignity. Human dignity has been for centuries a central theme of philosophical, religious, and political theorizing; the theorizing has often been grounded in social struggle.
While various religions have honored the concept of human dignity, this has generally been fraught with contradiction inasmuch as the particularity of any specific faith community and its believers functioned as an exclusionary mechanism often derogative of those outside of it. A secularized concept of human dignity was known to the ancient world of course, but the more modern view is perhaps most notably and inseparably bound up with the Enlightenment. According to Kant, a dignified human life presupposes that all adult humans are accorded guarantees of equal rights and mutual respect as autonomous members of society.
Only a discursive and reciprocal agreement among free and autonomous individuals within the public sphere about the nature of social justice could establish human social dignity. Human, Social, and Political Dignity: The Triple Mandate The social work profession must understand itself much more explicitly as needing to be engaged in human rights work.
Instead, they represent a challenge for further social action.
Without the standards and criteria furnished by the philosophy of human rights, it is very difficult to challenge the tyranny and unfreedom, starvation and poverty, the exploitation and destruction of natural resources, racism and other forms of oppression, which manifold forms of domination accept as natural and normal. Given that the latter impacts are global phenomena endangering the entire planet, it is more important than ever to have a universally valid and applicable alternative.
In his estimation the political-economy of the U. It is an effort to realize freedom, justice, and human empowerment. Critical social theory has disclosed definite contradictions in the social work profession historically. Yet the history of the social work profession has displayed a core commitment to universal ethical goals grounded in human rights principles. Works Cited Bobbio, Norberto.
Das Zeitalter der Menschenrechte. Berlin: Wagenbach. Centre for Human Rights of the United Nations. Human Rights and Social Work. New York und Geneva.
Human Rights and Social Work. The admission requirements must be met in all cases. A secularized concept of human dignity was known to the ancient world of course, but the more modern view is perhaps most notably and inseparably bound up with the Enlightenment. She interprets communication and care not so much as activities but as aspects of a viewpoint Conradi a. Critical social theory has disclosed definite contradictions in the social work profession historically. Soziale Arbeit, 46 4 , — Leo Baeck is another thinker who considers social equality to be a fundamental ethical idea.
German translation: Menschenrechte und Soziale Arbeit. Fachhochschule Ravensburg-Weingarten. Forst, R.