At the beginning, the FFS wanted to negotiate with the government but since no agreement was reached, the maquis took up arms and its representatives swore not to give them up as long as democratic principles and justice were a part of the system.
As a consequence, the insurrection was a failure in because it was hugely repressed by the forces of the ALN directed by Houari Boumediene. Approximately deaths were counted amongst the maquis. In , protesters mounted several months of demonstrations in Kabylie demanding the recognition of Berber as an official language; this period has been called the Berber Spring. In —, the Kabyle conducted a school boycott, termed the "strike of the school bag".
In June and July , they protested, in events that turned violent, after the assassination of singer Matoub Lounes and passage of the law requiring use of Arabic in all fields. In the months following April called the Black Spring , major riots among the Kabyle took place following the killing of Masinissa Guermah , a young Kabyle, by gendarmes. At the same time, organized activism produced the Arouch , and neo-traditional local councils.
The protests gradually decreased after the Kabyle won some concessions from President Abdelaziz Bouteflika. On 6 January , Tamazight was officially recognized in Algeria's constitution as a language that was equal to Arabic. The geography of the Kabyle region played an important role in the people's history. The difficult mountainous landscape of the Tizi Ouzou and Bejaia provinces served as a refuge, to which most of the Kabyle people retreated when under pressure or occupation.
The Kabyle people are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers . Kabyle, Berber people of Algeria inhabiting a partially mountainous region stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the southern slopes of the Great Kabylie mountains and from Dellys to Cape Aokas. Numbering about 2,, in the late 20th century, they are mainly Muslims with a.
They were able to preserve their cultural heritage in such isolation from other cultural influences. The region was repeatedly occupied by various conquerors. Romans and Byzantines controlled the main road and valley during the period of antiquity and avoided the mountains Mont ferratus. The Regency of Algiers , under Ottoman influence, tried to have indirect influence over the people makhzen tribes of Amraoua, and marabout. Algiers also has a significant Kabyle population, where they make up more than half of the capital's population.
It is part of the Atlas Mountains and is located at the edge of the Mediterranean. As second and third languages, many people speak Algerian Arabic , French and, to a lesser degree English. During the first centuries of their history, Kabyles used the Tifinagh writing system. Since the beginning of the 19th century, and under French influence, Kabyle intellectuals began to use the Latin script. It is the basis for the modern Berber Latin alphabet. After the independence of Algeria , some Kabyle activists tried to revive the old Tifinagh alphabet.
This new version of Tifinagh has been called Neo-Tifinagh , but its use remains limited to logos. Kabyle literature has continued to be written in the Latin script. More information about this seller Contact this seller 1.
Hardcover, no jacket, slight dust soiling and shelf wear, good. More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Published by Private Printing About this Item: Private Printing, Condition: Fair. Some staining on cover; author name penned in on title page; Algeria; 8.
More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Condition: Used: Good. Good ex-library book. Besides the usual labels and stamps this book also has mild general shelf-wear due to age. This is good reading copy. We protect your purchase with damage-resistant double-layer bubble-wrap packaging where possible. Your purchase helps fund small charities in Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4.
Published by Privately printed, S. About this Item: Privately printed, S. Hard Cover. Condition: Good. Spine rubbed, head and heel of spine and corners of boards lightly bumped, dustsoiling to covers and page edges, foxing to page edges and endpapers, previous owner name, underlining in text through about p. Size: 8vo. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5.
Published by Read Books, United Kingdom Condition: New. Language: English.
Brand new Book. So little has been known of the mountain people of Algeria and that little has been so inaccessible that this careful study of the kabyles is most welcome at this time. Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing many of these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.
Seller Inventory LHB More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Published by Private Printing, New York From: T. Condition: Near Fine. Green cloth; 8vo 8" - 9" tall; pages. More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. A little general wear.
More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. Published by Private About this Item: Private, Light spotting on front. Behold, it is he who sinks into the dustbin of history while the Kabyle people remain this free and proud people who refuse to bend. However, the end of this infamous dictator must not hide certain truths that must imperatively be remembered if we want to apprehend the future and build it in the interest of the peoples that make up Algeria.
Here are a few :. He has only sacrificed the window now cracked system to better spare the heart of the system, that is to say, himself and his acolytes.
It should be remembered that Gaid Salah was the arm who attended the 4 mandates of the dictator Bouteflika in his dirty work. He supported the fifth term until the gigantic popular mobilization forced him to sacrifice his friend and ally, Bouteflika. The popular mobilization that has been confirmed this Friday to refuse all forms of clan alternation and demand the departure of the system is encouraging, but it is imperative to define what the system.