Apple Valley 1. The House on Main Street 2. The Cottage on the Corner 3. The Orchard at the Edge of Town Mission: Rescue 1. Protective Instincts 2. Her Christmas Guardian 3. Exit Strategy 4. Deadly Christmas Secrets 5. Mystery Child 6. The Christmas Target 7. Mistaken Identity 8. Sweet Haven 1. Sweet Haven Home Sweet Home 1. Sweet Surprises 2. Bittersweet Bradshaws 1. Home with You 2. Home Again 3. Home at Last Night Stalker 2. Gone 3.
Dangerous Sanctuary 4. Lone Witness Finding Justice with Laura Scott. Secrets of Stoneley Little Girl Lost Reunion Revelations 2. Missing Persons Without A Trace 3. Cold Case Murder Protecting the Witnesses Deadly Vows On September 25, , newspaper administrator and moderator of the Nuevo Laredo enVivo network Marisol Macias Castaneda was found decapitated. A picture of an individual is the touchstone or key to their entire identity in the cyber worldand real world. For instance, if a criminal or criminal organization wanted to ensure that they arenot dealing with an undercover officer attempting to penetrate their operations, or make a one-time drug buy from a drug dealer, all they would have to do, as illustrated in the vignette, is takea picture of the individual and conduct a Web search.
Senior police officials in Australia found that, aside from putting undercover officers injeopardy of physical harm, the ease with which criminals can obtain sensitive personalinformation on undercover officers and their families can place these officers in jeopardy ofbeing corrupted or coerced through blackmail or threats. This has serious implications for future undercover operators and for the ways in which law Thetechnology applications and capabilities are commercially available to anyone with thefinancial and technical resources. Criminal organizations, such as organized crimesyndicates or drug trafficking organizations DTOs have access to large amounts of capitalthat can secure the technology at the same level of sophistication employed by lawenforcement or even the intelligence community.
Criminals or criminalorganizations can also hire private intelligence personnel to work in an intelligence gatheringor counterintelligence capacity, to provide them with increased operational and situationalawareness. The social information technology environment that is currently commerciallyavailable creates a tactical, operational, and strategic capability and capacity for criminalsand criminal organizations that was once only in the purview of state and federal lawenforcement agencies.
They now have access to multi-dimensional, interoperable, command,control, and intelligence means that potentially rival even government-level capabilities. Tweets were posted to the site ata rate of around 70 tweets every five seconds when news of the Mumbai attack broke. This is a real danger for undercover officers as social media and This very issue manifesteditself in Mumbai.
Many of the victims were physically concealed and therefore physically safe,but when they began tweeting, and news organizations were reporting the tweets and imagery,the handlers for the terrorist—based in Pakistan—were able to communicate and direct them tonumerous hiding places. Social media and social networking have proven to be very effective tools for command,control, and communication.
Law enforcement is finding it difficult to accurately detect,identify, predict, and prevent the malicious exploitation of social media. There is no magic bullet. No matter howmany layers one puts in place or how many defensive measures are placed at each layer, it isimpossible to keep every attacker out for an indefinite period of time. In the age of information prevalence, criminals, criminal organizations, and even terroristsfind themselves in the knowledge management business, competing daily with legitimatebusinesses and against law enforcement for the upper hand in understanding, deciphering,exploiting, and capitalizing on the data deluge.
Personal information traverses a staggeringvariety of computer systems and over a large number of networks. Although we might take stepsto ensure that security threats are mitigated by being careful and selective about where and howwe share personal information over the Internet, shredding mail that contains sensitiveinformation before throwing it away, and other similar measures, we are not in control of all the The objective is to place enough active and passive defensive layers between truly importantinformation, such as personal information that tends to reveal identities and affiliations, and theattacker.
Additionally, the goal is to notice or be notified that an attack is being attempted andalso to provide enough time so as to be able to employ active countermeasures such as;counterintelligence, cyber counterintelligence, operational security, and technology to preventserious damage or compromise.
Determined criminals, criminal organizations, andterrorists have demonstrated remarkable ingenuity and adeptness in furthering their disruptiveand destructive enterprises by exploiting current and emerging technologies. Thebroader implications encompass the intelligence community, the military, and the legalprofession to include prosecutors, witnesses, jurors, informants, and victims. The increasing deployment of facialrecognition devices, coupled with biometric passports at worldwide airports, seaports, traindepots, hotels, and the like, designed to detect and catch terrorists and criminals, are disrupting A further consequence for clandestinefield operatives, operating under false names and identities, such screening methods willirrevocably chain them to whatever name and passport, and facial association they used whentheir image was captured.
It would befoolish to believe that they are not. The consequences for military operations and military personnel are particularly dire. Utilizing aggregation, accretion, and geolocationtechnologies to develop and employ network analytical methods, a hostile force can easilydetermine force readiness levels, equipment, armament, mobility, technical capability, level andtype of training, operational area, and operational patterns.
In essence, Web 2. The consequences for the legal profession are also just as concerning. Social media, socialnetworks, and facial recognition technologies can now expose witnesses, victims, and informantsto threats; intimidation; physical harm; kidnapping; and, as has been experienced in Mexico,torture and murder. Whether employed individually or collectively, criminals and criminal organizations haveproven capable of manipulating and exploiting technologies to counter law enforcementundercover operations.
Law enforcement managers have to accept that Web 2. The sustainment of undercover operations and the viability of its futureemployment, as discussed above, will require an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinarycollaborative approach in order to develop adaptive and innovative responses. The capabilities The next section highlights potential options for organizational and institutional changesthat will facilitate a defense-in-depth architecture. The options for consideration focus on thefollowing: Organizational imperatives—new technologies, establishing new knowledge bases,developing cyber capabilities, and creating new units; public-private partnerships—initiatingpublic and private collaboration in strategy development; and strategic imperatives—immediate,mid-term, and long-term strategic considerations.
Organizational Imperatives Undercover Operations a. To address existing and future challenges posed by the Web 2. This capability can be a specialized unit that creates and maintains fictitious cyber profiles and integrates them with current and prospective undercover officers. This capability can be a stand-alone unit, or cross-trained cyber support section that continuously researches, tests, evaluates, and integrates new or emerging technologies to support operational security, counterintelligence, and CCI objectives.
Recruitment and Selection Traditionally, the type of undercover operation to be employed dictates how andwhere prospective undercover officers are recruited. Prospective undercover officers areidentified and selected from entry-level resources police applicants or from internal resources existing police officers with prerequisites.
For example, juvenile narcotics enforcementtraditionally required the recruitment of young officers—with high school age appearance and nolaw enforcement background. The optimal candidates for such assignments are recruited fromentry-level police applicants. For more entailed undercover operational needs, e. In the Web 2. Once employment suitability has been determined, the applicant can be cultivated for an undercover assignment.
This evaluation should include inadvertent media exposure during the course of their regular employment, and the likelihood that they could be Organizational Structure Ensuring and prolonging the security of undercover operations and the identitiesof undercover officers, now and into the future, requires organizational restructuring that maymean the creation and development of new entities within, but outside of, traditional lawenforcement organizational paradigms.
In other words, an undercover entity, with its ownhierarchy, chain of command and support capability, outside of the traditional chain ofcommand, but still within the law enforcement agency proper. This structure is inherentlyflexible and will allow for added security.
For purposes of simplicity, the new entity willhereafter be referred to as Undercover Bureau UB and law enforcement agency will be referredto as the Department. Public-Private Collaboration In the current treat environment, it is essential to develop public and private partnershipsin collaborative planning processes. These partnerships will need to evolve with the changes in the threat environment. Of particular importance in establishing a capable and effective strategic restructuringstrategy is developing a close working relationship with social media and social networkingcompanies.
Collaboration on developing procedures and protocols regarding access restrictionsand screening, an order above what is currently offered for public users, for law enforcementofficers identities and cyber profiles should be explored. As of this writing, Google hashonored numerous requests by the U. Law enforcement management, in particular, will need to develop a view on what newdistinctive competencies are called for in the future—working with and through associateddisciplines—and work towards getting strategic plans for implementation in place.
Thisimplementation can best be achieved by developing coherent and collaborative strategicimperatives to address current and future exploitation of cyber-based social and biometriccriminal tactics, techniques, procedures, and related technological asymmetries. Criminal or criminalorganizations have a say in both the development and employment of any strategic plan designedto disrupt or negate their enterprises. Law enforcement and criminals or criminal organizations While law enforcement is primarily reactive,criminals are generally proactive and, consequently, set the pace of technical and tacticaladaptation.
It is widely accepted that technology evolves at an almost exponential rate. As aresult, a key challenge for law enforcement agencies is to develop operationally and strategicallyflexible and adaptive strategies, both in inception and application, to address unexpected andunanticipated contingencies initiated by criminals.
Strategic planning and implementation principles need not be new or novel, but should befluid, flexible, and able to mirror and adjust to the constant change of contemporarytechnological conditions. Scenario-based planning, according to Michael Porter, a professor at the Harvard BusinessSchool, is a way to calculate, through plausible scenarios, reasonable outcomes.
Thus, implementing strategic restructuring strategies toestablish defense-in-depth capabilities requires law enforcement agencies to account for varyinglevels of uncertainty both from an organizational and criminal activity standpoint. Strategy is not accidental.
It is a purposeful process. Paradigm shifts are costly, time and labor intensive, and push existing knowledge base and skillsets beyond traditional comfort zones. The consequence of continuing a status quo scenario canpotentially relegate law enforcement to a permanent reactionary and ineffective governmententity. To maintain the status quo is to acknowledge and accept that criminals and criminal Options for consideration noted above are by no means comprehensive. However, theydo provide a foundation and framework for general strategic guidelines, benchmarks, direction,and operational implementation.
An effective defense-in-depth strategy to address the 21stcentury Web 2. Whether employedindividually or collectively, and exploited by criminals or criminal organizations to counter lawenforcement undercover operations, law enforcement managers have to accept that thesetechnologies represent a substantial risk. Criminals and criminal organizations have demonstrated that they are adept at rapidlyadapting to technological change and applying their strengths in unconventional but veryeffective ways.
The sustainment of undercover operations and the viability of its futureemployment, as discussed above, will require an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinarycollaborative approach in developing adaptive and innovative responses. Additionally, it willrequire transformational change in traditional law enforcement organizational culture, structure,policy, and practice.
With few exceptions, such as the employment of statistical research and analysis toolslike CompStat or recently employed intelligence-led policing concepts that attempt to bepredictive, law enforcement continues to be reactive in nature, playing catch up, particularly as itrelates to preemptive methods of utilizing technology to thwart criminal actions. Criminals andcriminal organizations continue to search for and exploit more clever and ingenious ways to reactto and counter law enforcement responses, while pushing the bounds of innovation in theunintended, and in many cases, unexpected uses of Web 2.
Indeed, as this author contends, it is clear that the technology,accessibility, and capability already exist and that criminals are poised to exploit the operationaladvantages they present. What is less clear is how law enforcement will respond to and address Buy-and-bust is defined as a policeoperation in which a transaction of money for — in this case — drugs is conducted where the suspect is immediatelyarrested. It is a blanket terminology for a number of technologiessuch as blogs, wikis, and social networks.
Brenner, America the Vulnerable, Aggregated networks provide an excellent source of auxiliary information forexploitation by criminals and criminal organizations. These can include political, economic, social andtechnological. As different trends are chosen and different combinations of forecast levels are combined, a wholespectrum of possibilities can be identified. Quick Upload. Featured Examples. Creation Tutorial. Video Tutorial. Quick Upload Explore. Case Studies.
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View in Fullscreen Report. Read the Text Version. No Text Content! Undercover officers rely heavily on their true identities not being 4 known to criminal elements. The availability of access to information is continuously 8 expanding the operational capability of terrorists, criminals, and criminal organizations byproviding command, control, and communications, situational awareness, and forcemultiplication options that were once reserved for law enforcement and the military. Facial recognition technologycoupled with aggregation and accretion technology, exploited by criminals or criminal 12 organizations potentially represents an exponential leap in intelligence and operationalcapability.
For example, in March, , the Israeli Military cancelled a planned raid on a Palestinian 13 terrorist enclave after one of its soldiers posted details of the operation on Facebook. This has serious implications for future undercover operators and for the ways in which law 14 enforcement organizations conduct recruitment and selection of police candidates.
This is a real danger for undercover officers as social media and 15 social networks help to eliminate existential layers of anonymity. Although we might take stepsto ensure that security threats are mitigated by being careful and selective about where and howwe share personal information over the Internet, shredding mail that contains sensitiveinformation before throwing it away, and other similar measures, we are not in control of all the 16 places our personal information might be exposed.