The understanding of meteorological processes had made huge progress with the discovery of the stratosphere and the tropopause in Already 44 countries had agreed upon their participation in IPY-2 when the International Polar Commission met in Innsbruck in for the second time. Although the world economic crisis took its toll, the execution of the Polar Year finally was decided. Norway offered free transportation on its annual supply ship to the Norwegian radio station on Jan Mayen, established in The context and conditions of research and monitoring at the time of IPY-2 had changed dramatically compared to those obtaining during IPY In this respect at least six aspects must be considered when it comes to assessing achievements and limitations — i geopolitics and economics, ii practical benefits and concerns at the time, iii the organizational framework of the enterprise, iv logistics, including new modes of communication and transportation, v new instruments and other tools for research on and monitoring of geophysical phenomena, particularly in the domains of meteorology, geomagnetics and aurorae and vi the advent of a new hypothetico-deductive ideal of science that to some extent moderated the force of the older inductivist epistemology that had permeated the activities of IPY The occasion was an informal dinner party at the home of upper atmosphere physicist James — and mathematician Abigail Halsey — Van Allen, and their guests were Sydney Chapman —, visiting from Britain , Merle Tuve — , Lloyd Berkner — , Harry Vestine — , Wallace Joyce — and Fred Singer —.
Thousands of scientists from 65 countries were engaged in international collaboration for the purpose of expanding knowledge about the earth and outer space. The US military and national security institutions such as the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency were deeply interested and involved in providing resources, influencing research programmes and encouraging political leaders like President Eisenhower to conceive of scientific endeavour in terms of national prestige and geopolitical advantage.
Care was taken to ensure that CSAGI would remain non-nationalistic, apolitical, and geared towards a scientific agenda. The emphasis was on synchronic global measurements. As it turned out the Cold War became a veritable incubator for science, causing an upswing for several branches of geoscience on both sides of the iron curtain between east and west. Like many other human enterprises, the Polar Years left their mark in spheres that lay outside their primary purpose.
Some of the IPY-1 stations in remote locations are now of great archaeological interest. And a small number of people, some of them scientists but the majority in supporting roles, were seriously injured or lost their lives while taking part in a Polar Year. Hourly meteorological and magnetic measurements from 1 August until 1 September 13 months. In July , PRB convened a workshop to promote discussions among the federal agencies, provide a forum for their representatives to identify possible scientific activities of interest, and serve as a springboard for collaborative IPY activities.
Upon completion of the workshop report NRC, , U. Robin Bell. Some members of the U. BOX 1. IPY effort should explore new scientific frontiers from the molecular to the planetary scale. IPY program should excite and engage the public, with the goal of increasing understanding of the importance of polar regions in the global system and, at the same time, advance general science literacy in the nation. IPY activities. NSF funded or cofunded the planning and execution of a wide array of science and education activities in support of IPY.
They realized that as global temperatures have risen Figure 1. The authors of the Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment: Scientific Report ACIA, also laid out a multifaceted perspective, projecting changes in every sector from sea ice and glaciers to reindeer foraging. The projected summer opening of the Arctic Ocean raised awareness of increased access to resources and potential economic and boundary disputes. The science community knew, too, that technology had changed dramatically in the 50 years since the IGY and offered rich opportunities such as satellite and airborne remote sensing and genetic sequencing Carlson, During the IPY planning stages, the greater scientific community began to view the poles as both a harbinger of change and a key component in the global system.
In addition, as IPY was ramping up from to , many members of the public, hearing of changes in the poles and other regions, began to take the issue of climate change more seriously. This increase in awareness of climate change was not sustained, however. Around , public opinion began to shift and concern about global warming waned. In the next several years, more than 40 percent of the American public grew to feel that the seriousness of global warming was exaggerated Figure 1. Also during this period before IPY, the U. IPY thus came at a time in the United States of growing political tension regarding climate change.
IPY took place at a crucial time for polar and global climate change and helped to deliver the message that what happens at the poles affects all life on Earth. Many activities involved international contributors, and many emphasized societal implications, a new focus that included educational facets and ways to inform policy decisions. IPY garnered substantial support from science educators and enhanced interest from the public.
From outreach activities that engaged the general. Opinion polling in America suggests how people became more sure that climate scientists believed in global warming over the period , but more recently that level has declined for a variety of reasons, including the state of the economy, shifting media attention, and other factors Leiserowitz et al.
The question asked which one of the following statements do you think is most accurate—most scientists believe that global warming is occurring, most scientists believe that global warming is not occurring, or most scientists are unsure about whether global warming is occurring or not? During IPY a major transformation occurred in the perception of the poles—from the 20th century image of them as icy, white, pristine, and uninhabited landscapes to a recognition that the poles are key, interconnected components of the Earth system and bellwethers of change, and they are thus of direct relevance to the entire globe.
International Polar Year represents the culmination of a transition in the way humanity views the polar regions of Earth. What was once remote and inaccessible, romantic, and challenging, is now seen as an integral part of a changing planet. This change in perception extended beyond scientists to policymakers and the public, and in large part is attributable to IPY.
The previous IPYs were about exploration, and pushing fledging aspects of science geography, geology, geophysics, space physics further than they had gone before. While IPY retained that spirit, at a fundamental level its aim was toward integrating the poles and polar systems to the rest of a changing world. IPY planning and implementation comprised existing and enhanced scientific projects and programs as well as new initiatives, all of which fed into each other.
This analysis of U. IPY lessons and legacies therefore encompasses the period from to because all related activities, whether ongoing or newly launched, were directly or indirectly affected by the fact that IPY was under way. Research and education activities that began before IPY and continued during it provided a foundation of established research. They also benefited from IPY because they were integrated into research meetings and education and outreach activities, often with media attention. Other U. Scientists in the United States already had many international connections, and the U.
Inaugural Dissertation. Stuttgart: Vereins-Buchdruckerei. Heidke, P. Annalen der Hydrographie und Maritimen Meteorologie 60 3 : 81— Heise, G. In: P. Ehlers, G. Duensing, and G. Heise eds Schiffahrt und Meer. Herford, Berlin, Bonn: E. Mittler und Sohn. Hellwald von, F. Stuttgart: Cotta.
Hildebrandsson, H. Neumayer Internationaler Wolken-Atlas. Hamburg: Gustav W. Seitz Nachf. Riggenbach, and L. Teisserenc de Bort Atlas International des Nuages. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Kertz, W. Polarforschung 53 1 : 91— Klado, T. Komarov, V. Krause, R. Polarforschung 77 1 : 17—36 published Historisch-meereskundliches Jahrbuch 9: 7— History of Meteorology 1,— History of Meteorology 2, — Neumayer, G. Berghaus, Physikalisher Atlas, Abt. IV, Gotha: Justus Perthes 3rd edition. Berlin: Vita Deutsches Verlagshaus. Leipzig: Brockhaus, Bd.
Paseckii, V. Leningrad: Gidrometizdat. Programm Programm der Verhandlungen der vierten internationalen Polar-Konferenz in Wien, am Mitteilungen der internationalen Polar-Commission 7, — Sitzungen in London, Leipzig: Engelmann. Protokolle Protokolle der vierten internationalen Polar-Conferenz zu Wien Mitteilungen der internationalen Polar-Commission 6. Meeting in London, London: George E. Eyre and William Spottiswoode.
Rykachev, M. Morskoi sbornik 1 : 1— Rykachev M. Lekciia, chitannye v Kronshtadtskom Morskom sobranii. Sankt-Peterburg: Morskoe ministerstvo. Shostakovich, V. S atlasom iz 25 kart. Shtelling, E. Taylor, C. Arctic 34 4 : — Vize, V. Molodaya gvardiya, Moskva-Leningrad.
Weyprecht, C. Januar Petermanns Mitteilungen: — In: J. Frischauf, V. Graber, R. Klemensiewicz eds Tageblatt der Mittheilungen der kais. VIII, — Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens 3: — Mitteilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens 5 11 : — Wilczek, L. Stein, Vienna. Wild, H. Petersburg: Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Wood, R. In: D. Kane, K. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks. These reports were originally published in five different languages and each one gives a thorough description of the execution of the specific expedition, including details that for many of us are of far more interest than the meticulously noted scientific observations.
Some of the expeditions struggled to even reach their starting point — or to get back home again afterwards. Although the station was established without trouble, and ran for two whole years with great success, the relief expedition came nowhere near fetching the 25 men in the summer of The men had to attempt to make their own way southwards through the ice-filled strait between Ellesmere Island and Greenland.
One of these died soon after. Yet another experience of unplanned travel belongs to the Dutch expedition whose ship, the Varna, got locked in the ice in the Kara Sea and spent the IPY S. See also Baker Barr there instead of at their chosen site of Dickson, near the mouth of the Yenisey. At the end of December the men moved into a prefabricated house on the ice, since the Varna was leaking badly, and towards the end of July she sank. The men made their way by sledge and boat to the Russian mainland, bringing with them all the observations and reports they had made for the IPY programme.
Several of the accounts give a good illustration of how different the ice conditions in mid-summer were in many of these areas in — compared with those of today. Other expeditions again had a relatively uneventful IPY, but still their reports contain a wealth of interesting facts about their experiences, equipment, observations, extra-scientific work that came in addition to the IPY programme and connections to local populations where there were such. Weyprecht unfortunately died of tuberculosis in at the age of 42 and it fell to his friend Graf Hans Wilczek — to take the responsibility for choosing the expedition participants.
It was also Wilczek who financed much of the expedition. He was honoured by having his name placed on the valley next to the IPY station: Wilczekdalen. Jan Mayen was at this time a deserted island unclaimed by any nation. Alone in the middle of the Norwegian Sea, it measures 54 km by 2. Dutch whalers had established summer stations on various beaches in the early seventeenth century, but they were long gone and only ruins remained when the Austro-Hungarian expedition arrived on 12 July Weyprecht and Wilczek had originally chosen Novaya Zemlya as the site for the Austro-Hungarian station, but in order not to disturb Russian plans, the destination was changed to Jan Mayen.
Four other officers, a doctor, and eight assistants with such skills as carpenter, cook, sail maker, and mechanic completed the 14 while the ship Pola, which delivered them to and later fetched them from the island had a crew of Emil von Wohlgemuth at middle front Wohlgemuth Wilczek had a positive impression of the ability of sailors to live closely together in cramped conditions, work outside in all kinds of weather and obey strict routines and as expected the 13 months on Jan Mayen passed with only minor problems.
The whole provision and equipment list of around 1, articles was published in the report to this end. As Weyprecht had stated, the leader of such an expedition had to be able to form an opinion on the quality and quantity of everything from sewing needles to astronomical instruments, from meat powder to ovens and roofs. Provisions for two years were taken in case it proved impossible to fetch the group in and loading of the Pola was carefully thought out so that the most important items for an emergency stay on the island could be unloaded first, together with the materials that would be needed first on arrival.
You may have to sail around the island for a month without being able to land. However, 3 Wohlgemuth On 25 June they were back and managed to work the ship slowly towards the island. During the 13 months on the island, the expedition created the first reasonably accurate map since the whaling period, and named many of the features. When Jan Mayen became Norwegian in most of these names were kept, but given a Norwegian language form.
The station was erected in an impressive tempo, thanks both to the careful planning beforehand and the military working schedule of —, more or less regardless of the weather. The only death during the entire expedition happened on 15 July, when a sailor on the Pola succumbed to tuberculosis and was buried near to the station. The grave and massive cross of drift logs can still be seen today. The main station houses were prefabricated and shaped like upturned boats, a form that was expected to withstand strong winds and driving snow and sand in the best possible way.
The instrument houses and storage buildings were aligned together with the living quarters along the foot of the slope and with a beach full of driftwood in front. The report shows that most circumstances were foreseen and prepared for, while any surprises were soon sorted out with creative solutions. The living quarters were divided into sections for officers and ratings, as was usual for most polar expeditions of the time — the Norwegians excepted — and the careful insulation and ventilation made them as comfortable as could be expected.
Two dogs, sheep and a cock and hens were installed in their quarters and the scientific observations could start at the appointed times. Pola left Jan Mayen on 16 August and already early in September there was enough snow for a skiing competition. The group made good use of the island during their stay, attempting a climb up Beerenberg and exploring the whole island for mapping and leisure purposes.
They experienced some volcanic effects, with fumaroles and small earthquakes, skated on the frozen lagoon and hunted birds and foxes. Christmas and New Year were celebrated as they should be. The International Congress had obviously expected lively New Year celebrations as the 2nd and not 1 January was the designated first observation day of the year. The sun was under the horizon from 17 November to 25 January and the hens started laying again on 12 April.
Two polar bears were seen in the 4 Quote from a manuscript in the Norwegian Foreign Ministry archives. The spring also meant more exploring, but the constantly changing weather conditions — from frozen ground to wet rain and back again — made travel overland strenuous, and the wind and currents were dangerous for sea travel in small boats. The iron deposits in the ground disturbed the compasses and the famous Jan Mayen fog delayed mapping attempts. Wohlgemuth could report that the period early August to late July had had hours of fog, hours of rain, hours of snow and hours of drifting snow.
From September to February there were only hours of light breeze or perfectly calm weather. The average in this period was 7. Thorough descriptions are given of the clothing, footwear, sleeping bags, provisions, menus, hygiene a tub bath at least once a month for all and even the shape of buttons in order to facilitate opening and closing clothes in the cold. More than 70 reindeer skins had been bought in north Norway, but mostly they were too warm to be used. Tents, sledges, a wheeled cart and three boats assisted transport around the island and for fetching water or ice from the lagoon at the far end of Wilczekdalen.
Alcohol was a part of the daily rations: wine and rum, with watered down cognac and coffee with alcohol for longer trips. In the summer, plants containing vitamin C probably scurvy grass Cochlearia officinalis and mountain sorrel Oxyria digyna were collected and helped to keep scurvy at bay, although the varied diet anyway kept the men healthy. In addition to mapping, the expedition tried to collect at least one specimen of each animal foxes and bird, including eggs, they found on the island. They also investigated the remains of the seventeenth 17th century whaling stations and graves and erected a cross to the memory of the deceased whalers.
The Polar Year station was left in excellent condition when the Pola relieved the expedition at the beginning of August Fig. A good deal of equipment, a large amount of coal and canned food for four persons for 1 year were left for any future expeditions to the island. In addition to the fact that all the men had survived the 13 months in good health and relative comfort, they had also carried out an extensive and detailed research programme. They had enthusiastically covered both the obligatory and voluntary programmes and thoroughly explored all sides of the environment of Jan Mayen.
The island was mapped to the scale of ,, and this map was the best available until the Norwegian Polar Institute produced its , map in Barr Fig. Godthaab now Nuuk was a natural choice since a meteorological and auroral observation station had already been in activity from to The Naval Ministry chose the group of six men who were to participate in the expedition to establish a temporary geophysical observatory for meteorological, geomagnetic and auroral studies.
He had a leading career within his profession and not least through the DMI. Founded in the DMI was given the task of making geomagnetic surveys in Denmark and to monitor the daily variation of the magnetic declination. These tasks were conducted by Paulsen who later became director of the DMI — The weather observing stations in Denmark were requested to also report the occurrences of aurora. Petersen, astronomer lt.
Ryder, doctor M. Hastrup, civil engineer and chemist C. Pedersen and mechanic T. It took 4 weeks to reach the settlement at the mouth of the km long Godthaabsfjord. The local Greenlanders helped the men to erect the five prefabricated buildings on a small hill 26 m overlooking the settlement. The site had been carefully chosen because the hill was composed of almost pure gneiss with low iron content which would have disturbed the magnetic measurements.
Heights were estimated for 22 auroras and were found to range from 0. Now it is known that these results — amongst the first of their kind — were wrong, since auroras are never observed by reliable techniques below 60 km. Nielsen Paulsen Barr Adam Paulsen also observed the deflections of a compass needle during auroral activity and discussed the existence of horizontal as well as vertical electrical currents associated with auroras. Thomson England discovered that the cathode rays were actually electrons. In fact, auroras are mainly produced by energetic electron bombardment.
It did not work. The observations were discontinued on 31 August and the group made ready to be fetched by the Royal Greenland Trading Company ship. This was, however, delayed by bad weather and they were not fetched before 2 October. The return voyage was stormy, bordering on the hazardous, for three weeks and then, ironically enough, the ship was delayed by calm weather before finally arriving at Copenhagen on 3 November.
The wintering was most probably comfortable and relatively uneventful, but unfortunately this side of the Danish IPY expedition does not seem to have been recorded. A full-scale magnetic-meteorological observatory had been in operation in Helsinki since , but it could not take on the task until substantially increased funding and an administrative change early in , which turned it into the Central Meteorological Institute, opened the way. Professor N. He was particularly interested in the aurora studies part of the IPY programme. The Finnish Society of Sciences, the Central Meteorological Institute and the University of Helsinki shared the scientific responsibility while the Finnish state provided the finances through a special grant for the two-year—period, — It was therefore up to the Government, or Senate, to petition the Tsar — the Grand Duke of Finland — with regard to credit for the sum of money needed.
Wild also offered assistance in training the Finnish observers and Ernest Biese, S.
Granit, A. Petrelius and N. Sundemann attended a course for several weeks at the Pavlovsk Observatory. They could also here see the equipment, which was gathered together for the Russian expedition to take to Novaya Zemlya. It took the IPY group from mid-July to 6 August to reach the village from Helsinki — twice as long as they had expected. The IPY station they then erected consisted of four small wooden buildings for observations concerning meteorology, absolute magnetism, and two types of magnetic variation instruments 15 Nevanlinna 16 Barr The men themselves presumably lived in the village as living quarters are not stated in the report.
Near the topmost height of the mountain was placed a long copper wire, so bent upon itself as to form a series of squares within squares, having a total surface of nine hundred square metres, supported by insulated posts.
Tin points or nibs bristled out from this connecting net at distances of half a metre apart, and the whole was connected by an insulated wire running along on stakes with a galvanometer fixed in a cabin at the foot of the peak. The galvanometer was connected with the earth by the other extremity of its own circuit. Nearly every night after the installation of the apparatus, a yellow-white light illuminated the points without anything like it appearing on the heights in the neighbourhood, while the needle of the galvanometer by its motions betrayed the 17 Barr The light was analysed in the spectroscope, and gave the greenish-yellow ray that characterises the aurora borealis.
The intensity of the glow and the deviations of the needle, moreover, varied continually. In the mean time the hoar-frost, which was deposited on the wires quickly destroyed the insulation, and rendered an experiment of any duration almost impossible. The numbness of the fingers of the operators, induced by the cold, added to the difficulties of the study. This was close to the Pietarintunturi hill, which was included in the artificial aurora experiment described over. Buildings belonging to a government survey station were adapted for use as an observatory and three-bedroomed living quarters, and a discharging apparatus was installed on the top of Pietarintunturi.
The programme was reorganised to favour aurora studies over the meteorological and magnetic observations. Students U. Roos and A. Heinrichs made up the group. The station buildings at both sites were modified to suit the new emphasis on the aurora studies, and Kultala was occupied again during the winter — Clearly, despite their late start the Finnish scientists made an extremely 20 Heathcote 21 Barr and Armitage quoted in Barr Barr valuable contribution to the program of the First International Polar Year, and it is extremely tantalizing that the details of the everyday routine of the wintering and of the challenges and frustrations associated with their exciting pioneering auroral studies do not appear to have survived in any readily available form.
The magnetic data collected both from these two stations and others during the Polar Year much increased the knowledge of basic features of geomagnetic storm behaviour. It was, amongst other things, found that magnetic storms begin nearly simultaneously all over the Earth. The bill allocating funding for the expedition was passed in May In addition to this and to the IPY programme itself, the scientific work was to encompass oceanographic and other marine investigations to be carried out throughout the year by the transport vessel, which was to remain in the area.
In addition to the marine work they were also to engage in studies of geography, hydrography and natural history on and around the Cape Horn archipelago. The Beagle voyage — under the command 22 ibid. The Romanche was modified for the stay around Cape Horn with, amongst other necessities, steam radiators and cast-iron stoves.
For accommodation onshore five prefabricated huts were taken, consisting of frame structures with double walls. Provisions including wine and livestock , clothing and equipment were ample, and the observers were trained before leaving at the Central Meteorological Bureau. The departure from France on 17 July was too late for the expedition to make the official IPY programme starting date of 1 September. As with the German South Georgia expedition, a stop was made at Montevideo to adjust the chronometers and replenish supplies and coal before proceeding further south.
A week was spent here during which a French naturalist, M. Lebrun asked to join the expedition for a while and was granted permission. Tierra del Fuego was sighted on 5 September and the following day the anchor was dropped in Bahia Orange. Despite its southerly latitude, the area supported trees and bushes in the more sheltered spots and, not least, native human habitation. The French had an impression of a poor, ill-equipped group with insufficient clothing and food. In fact the only clothing each adult wore was an otter skin over one shoulder, while the children were completely naked.
Photo Denis Chevallay 48 S. Barr Owing to the already late start of the IPY programme, the first observations were taken onboard the ship while the shore station was prepared. The buildings consisted of a magnetic observatory, an astronomic observatory, a room for atmospheric chemistry, another for the tide gauge which was situated at the end of a 28 m long jetty, photographic laboratory, barometer room, the dwelling house and a store hut for food and equipment, together with a small natural history laboratory.
The establishment of the station had taken 35—40 men 45 days of hard work. The shore expedition was given the use of a steam launch to extend their radius. Romanche left the station on 28 October to continue its own programme of work. The observations for the IPY programme were made regularly from 26 September to 1 September In addition numerous natural history specimens were collected from the area. The apparatus employed by the expedition for the registration of the magnetic elements had been devised by M.
Mascart, director of the Central Meteorological Bureau, and the magnetic pavilion of wood and copper was placed at about 16 m from the nearest building, near the sea and protected from severe weather by the station hill. The interior was lined with felt on all sides, in order to keep the temperature as stable as possible. Comparisons between the magnetic and atmospheric perturbations gave no result.
There was, however, little stormy weather and no auroral displays. This latter phenomenon, according to the English missionaries, is rarely observed in Tierra del Fuego. The same perturbation was felt in Europe, thus giving a basis for comparison of the observations in the two hemispheres. An impressive comet was seen on 29 September and again on 5 October. This was the same one that was spotted by the German South Georgia expedition members. This comet can only be seen every years.
Amongst them, only ten were wellpreserved regarding the biological material as they were fixed with osmic acid 25 Scientific American Supplement. These ten samples were later transmitted for study to various French specialists of botanical algae and zoological groups and more particularly to A. Certes, a well-known protistologist. From this material, Certes described several new Protozoa, and two new nematodes. He was joined by the doctor from Romanche which also happened to arrive and they were able to bring the outbreak under control.
The Romanche then returned to Bahia Orange to check on the situation at the station before again setting off for more surveys and studies in the wider area.
The measurements from 31 October to 1 July were apparently the first long series of such measurements made in the southern hemisphere. On 6 December the Transit of Venus occurred and was recorded as far as the weather conditions allowed. Romanche was back for Christmas and could hear more of the dreadful weather conditions the station personnel were experiencing, with rain, squalls and storms as dominating features and an all-pervading dampness. Roofs got blown off or damaged by the gales, but they were rapidly repaired by the station personnel. Romanche returned a final time to Bahia Orange on 20 August to evacuate the station and the observations were stopped on 1 September.
The temperature records on the ship showed a maximum during the year of The mean recorded temperature for the year was 6. It was the raw dampness that had been the main problem, but despite this the general health had been good. The station was abandoned on 3 September, the buildings by previous agreement being donated to the Mission at Ushuaia. The oceanographic work continued on the voyage back to France and contributed to the record size of the final scientific records from the French expedition, larger than any other IPY expedition.
One reason was obviously the fact that a large ship-based expedition worked at the same time as the land station and gathered a large amount of data from both sea and land. In addition, there were extensive natural history reports as well as the optional meteorological observations.
Barr the French expedition. In addition he pleaded for stations in the southern hemisphere see Introduction, Chap. Germany, or at least Neumayer, was thus firmly involved in the IPY right from the start. It was not, however, until late November that the German government finally decided to make a firm commitment to the IPY and to appoint Neumayer to organise the national participation. At the same time Neumayer made it clear that there should be simultaneous explorations into the South Polar Regions and that Germany would have one station in the Arctic and one in the near Antarctic.
The site for the Arctic 32 Barr Information from whalers indicated that Kingua Fjord in Cumberland Sound could expect suitable ice conditions to enable the expedition to be transported both in and out again. This proved to be over-optimistic with regard to the evacuation. At the same time it was agreed that a small station at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, would be maintained by Captain I. Seemann, resident agent there for the Hamburg shipping company Kosmos. The Baffin Island group was assembled for the first time in Hamburg in early April they consisted of seven scientists and assistants, and a back-up crew of six men.
The leader was Dr. The transport ship was the Germania, which had previous polar experience from the Second German Polar Expedition to East Greenland in , having been especially built for that expedition. The original steam engine had been removed in favour of sail power, and this had so far proved adequate during supply trips to the whaling stations in Cumberland Sound.
The master, Captain Mahlstede, thus had experience from the relevant area, but this was put on trial during the conditions the IPY expedition was to meet. The loading of the ship could begin in early June and the result was a ship bordering on the over-loaded, including the prefabricated elements for the station buildings. However, Germania left Hamburg on 27 June and made it across to the Davis Strait without particular incident. Within sight of Cumberland Sound she was stopped by ice and prolonged calms and by 13 August it was discussed whether to establish the station at Upernavik on the west coast of Greenland instead, which would be consistent with the given instructions.
The next day, however, progress into the Sound was possible and Germania anchored off the Scottish whaling station in Kekerten on the 17th. The station staff advised Giese to establish his station in Kingua Fjord and after some bargaining also provided some assistance for finding a suitable site and unloading the ship.
The tidal rip at the entrance to Kingua Fjord proved to be a dangerous trial for the motorless ship, but on the 20 August they finally arrived at what seemed to be a suitable site in Shilmilik Bay. The prefabricated main station building, The first Inuit families arrived soon after the Germans and within a short time several more were tenting in the area.
One man, Okkeituk, with his family stayed on at the station as interpreter, first living in a caribou-skin tent and later building an igloo. Germania sailed for Germany on the 7th and the observation programme was started on the 15th Figs. Owing to surrounding hills, the station was without sunlight from 30 November to 14 January. The mean monthly temperature for January was — The absolute minimum was — It was, however, a dry cold and reasonably bearable.
In the spring two topographical surveying trips in the area were made using Inuit dog-sledges, and towards the end of July it was possible to use a boat. By mid-August the men were hoping for the ice to clear from the head of Kingua Fjord ready for the relief vessel, but the outlook was not good. William Barr has the theory that by this time there were obviously very serious frictions within the German group and that three of the scientists were no longer participating in the observing programme,35 but this has not been verified.
Luckily, on 7 September a group from the returning Germania arrived at the station. This included Dr. Franz Boas who had travelled with the ship prior to spending a year studying the Inuit of Cumberland Sound. He could relate that the ship lay off 35 Barr Die internationale Polarforschung — Die deutschen Expeditionen und ihre Ergebnisse, Berlin, Bd.
He contacted sealers bound for East Greenland and sent meteorological equipment with them. Duhaime, V. Once successful on funding, ships and aircraft, often carrying multinational crews, transported materiel to project destinations, often across national boundaries. For first-person and in-the-field narratives of the IGY, I used Innocents on the ice—a memoir of Antarctic exploration Behrendt ; henceforth Innocents and Opening space research—dreams, technology and scientific discovery Ludwig ; henceforth Opening space. As with the Maudheim expedition, the Norway Station expedition also expended a great deal of effort in mapping Dronning Maud Land. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. When Jan Mayen became Norwegian in most of these names were kept, but given a Norwegian language form.
There was, however, no possibility of the ship reaching the station. Instead the station was evacuated on 12 September by a whaling schooner, the observations having been terminated on the 9th. The Germania reached the next day and the return voyage to Germany started on the 16th. Barr and C. Barr mentions, Greely and his party were at this time just about to settle into their miserable winter quarters on Pim Island36 see this chapter — USA. The concrete blocks and pillars for instruments can still be seen at the station site, as can the rough stone building for the astronomical observations and an outline of the foundations of the main hut.
Others of the stone pillars have been removed to other sites and new uses in the larger district area and there are also oral traditions about the German expedition amongst the Cumberland Sound Inuit.
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Abbes, one of the scientific assistants, made important ethnological records of those who visited the station during the year, including excellent drawings of equipment and igloo design. Other results of the expedition were botanical and geological studies of the area. Karl Schrader — from Braunschweig, with deputy Dr. Will, engineer and assistent E.