Adolescence, 10th edition

Test Bank for Adolescence 10th Edition by Steinberg
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Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence 10th Edition Test Bank.docx

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MMD PV. Tenkomori's Parody PV. A is too subjective B is too mechanistic C neglects individuals D undervalues emotions A eclectic B multidisciplinary C self-selected D multicontextual Page 20 Answer Key 1.

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Page 21 Page 22 What is a developmental theory? Identify the three things discussed in the text that a theory can do. Freud's theory of psychosexual development and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development are two examples of psychoanalytic theory. First, describe two similarities of the theories. Second, describe two differences between the theories. First, describe classical and operant conditioning. Second, name the researcher who identified classical conditioning and the researcher who identified operant conditioning.

Explain social learning theory. Where does it come from, and what does it emphasize? Then, describe the concept of modeling and indicate at least three reasons that a model is likely to be copied. List Piaget's four stages of cognitive development in order, and explain what Piaget believed causes intellectual advancement. Define information-processing theory. According to this theory, what is the process that underlies cognition? Name and describe each of the five levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs in order.

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Describe the two biologically based drives associated with evolutionary theory and explain how selective adaptation relates to this theory. Define Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and how it relates to learning. Provide two examples. Page 2 Name four kinds of theories and describe how they have contributed to science's understanding of human development. Page 3 Answer Key 1. A developmental theory is a systematic statement of general principles that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older. Theories can produce hypotheses, generate discoveries, and offer practical guidance.

Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Define developmental theory Defines developmental theory Gives a vague definition of developmental theory Does not define a developmental theory Identify the three things a theory can do Tells the three things a theory can do Tells two things a theory can do Tells one thing or nothing that a theory can do 2. Both Freud and Erikson had stage theories based on the belief that adult problems echoed childhood conflicts.

However, Erikson's psychosocial theory had eight stages, while Freud's psychosexual theory had just four. Erikson named two polarities at each stage, and his stages encompassed the entire lifespan, while Freud's ended at adolescence. Erikson's theory also emphasized the influence of family and culture, while Freud's theory emphasized unconscious sexual urges. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Describe similarities States that both men had stage theories based on the idea that adult problems echoed childhood conflicts States that both theories had stages Does not describe accurately how the theories are similar Describe differences States at least two ways in which the theories differed States one of the ways in which the theories differed Does not state a way in which the theories differed or does not accurately describe how the theories differed 3.

Classical conditioning is a process by which a person learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful stimulus, gradually reacting to the neutral stimulus with the same behavior as the meaningful one. Pavlov is associated with classical conditioning. In operant conditioning a person performs some action and then a response occurs. If the response is pleasurable, the person is likely to repeat the action.

If the response is unpleasant, the person is unlikely to repeat the action.

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Skinner is associated with operant conditioning. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Describe classical and operant conditioning Correctly describes both types of conditioning Correctly describes one type of conditioning Cannot describe either type of conditioning or confuses the two types Page 4 Name the researchers associated with each Correctly names Pavlov and Skinner Correctly names Pavlov or Skinner Cannot name either Pavlov or Skinner or confuses who belongs with each type of conditioning 4.

Social learning theory is an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.

Modeling is the central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them. Models are people; they are most likely to be copied if they are admired, powerful, nurturing, or similar to the observer. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Explain social learning theory States that the theory is an offshoot of behaviorism and how everyone learns by observation and imitation States that everyone learns through observation and imitation Is vague about the definition of social learning theory Describe modeling Clearly describes how modeling is implicit in social learning Describes imitation but not modeling Fails to describe modeling Give reasons why a model is apt to be copied Lists three of the four reasons Lists two of the four reasons Lists one or none of the reasons 5.

The four stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. According to Piaget, cognitive equilibrium causes intellectual advancement because humans seek mental balance. Disequilibrium can cause cognitive growth if people change their thinking through assimilation or accommodation.

Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts List the stages of cognitive development Lists the four stages in order Lists three of the stages in order or confuses the order of two of the stages Lists two or fewer stages or has the stages out of order Explain cause of intellectual advancement Understands how people seek cognitive equilibrium and that disequilibrium can cause assimilation or accommodation Understands that people seek cognitive equilibrium Does not adequately explain Piaget's beliefs about intellectual advancement 6.

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Information-processing theory is a perspective that compares human thinking processes to a computer's analysis of data, including sensory input, making connections to stored memories, and output. Information-processing scientists believe that cognition begins with 1 input picked up by the five senses.

Table of Contents

Compared to her late-maturing peers, which of the following statements is most likely to be true for Nadia? Nadia is less likely to be the victim of rumors and gossip. Request Username Can't sign in? Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Describe similarities States that both men had stage theories based on the idea that adult problems echoed childhood conflicts States that both theories had stages Does not describe accurately how the theories are similar Describe differences States at least two ways in which the theories differed States one of the ways in which the theories differed Does not state a way in which the theories differed or does not accurately describe how the theories differed 3. A only described development in childhood B believed that adult problems reflect childhood conflicts C emphasized family and culture in his stages D was a psychoanalytic psychologist 4. This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 54 pages.

It proceeds to 2 brain reactions and 3 making connections to stored memories, and 4 concludes with some form of output. Page 5 Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Define information-processi ng theory Gives the definition of information-processin g theory Knows that information- processing theory compares cognition to computer processes Gives an incorrect or vague definition of information-processin g theory Explain the process Tells four of the steps in the process Tells two of the steps in the process Tells less than two of the steps in the process 7.

Vygotsky stated that all adults teach children the skills expected by their society and culture. Apprenticeship in thinking is how Vygotsky described the more skilled members of the society acting as tutors or mentors to help a person develop skills. Guided participation is the method used by parents, teachers, and entire societies to teach novices apprentices the skills and habits expected within their culture.

Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Define apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation Gives a definition for each term Gives a definition for either term Confuses the two terms Give an example of each Offers an example for each term Offers an example for either term Confuses the two examples 8. Level 1 is physiological needs, which is having access to things such as food, water, clothing, and shelter. Level 2 is safety, which is protection from harm, both physical and emotional. Level 3 is love and belonging, which is having a social network such as friends and family and possibly a religious community.

Level 4 is esteem, which is being respected by oneself and others. Level 5 is self-actualization, which is reaching one's full potential being creative, spiritual, curious, and appreciative of one's environment and others. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Name levels Names five levels in the correct order Names three levels in the correct order Names two or fewer levels in the correct order Describe levels Describes five levels Describes three levels Describes two or fewer levels 9.

According to evolutionary theory, every species has two long-standing, biologically based drives: survival and reproduction. A basic idea from evolutionary theory is selective adaptation, which proposes that humans today react in ways that helped their ancestors' survival and reproduction millions of years ago.

Thus, some of the best human behaviors—such as cooperation and self-sacrifice—may have originated long ago when groups survived because they took care of one another and other groups died out when they didn't take care of each other. In one version of selective adaptation, genes for traits that aid survival and reproduction are the ones most commonly selected over time, thereby allowing the species to thrive.

Description

Laurence Steinberg (Author) I think this book does a wonderful job taking readers through biological, cognitive, and relationship changes during adolescence. My professor required this text for Adolescent Psychology and drew almost directly from the sections for quizes/exams. Adolescence 10th Edition (Tenth Edition By John W. Santrock) on dynipalo.tk * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Adolescence 10th Edition, John W.

Page 6 Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Identify the drives associated with evolutionary theory States the two biologically based drives States either survival or reproduction Cannot identify either survival or reproduction Explain selective adaptation Explains both aspects of selective adaptation human behaviors and genes Explains either aspect of selective adaptation Does not adequately explain either aspect of selective adaptation The approach taken by most developmentalists is to apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory.

Childhood aggression should be explained from at least two competing theories: psychoanalytic e. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Define eclectic perspective Understands that most developmentalists apply aspects of multiple theories States that most developmentalists apply aspects of two theories Cannot define the eclectic perspective Describe its use to explain childhood aggression Explains childhood aggression based on three or more theories Explains childhood aggression based on two theories Explains childhood aggression based on one theory The zone of proximal development is the set of skills, knowledge, and concepts that a learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help.

A mentor breaks a large task down into its parts, and then motivates and assists the learner to achieve it, one step at a time. Some frustration is permitted, but the learner must be actively engaged, never passive or overwhelmed.

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Mentors continually push for more competence by urging the learner to try something just a little harder rather than make a large leap. Examples include a person helping another learn how to tie one's shoes, swim, ride a bike, or ice skate. This is why physical therapists tailor exercises to their patients' current abilities. Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Define zone of proximal development and how it relates to learning Defines the term and explains clearly how it relates to learning describes mentor and learner Defines the term and somewhat explains how it relates to learning describes mentor or learner Does not define the term or cannot explain how it relates to learning fails to describe mentor or learner Provide examples Provides two examples Provides one example Does not provide an example Cognitive theory helps scientists to understand how intellectual processes and thinking affect people's actions.

Behavioral theory or behaviorism has shown the effect that immediate responses and associations have on human learning. Sociocultural theories show how one's culture, social interaction, and environment impact one's behaviors. Page 7 Psychoanalytic theory has made scientists aware of the importance of social and emotional experiences during early childhood.

Universal theories stress those things that all humans share despite their culture, location, or era such as the desire for safety and love.

Psychology in Everyday Life

Good 5 pts Fair 3 pts Weak pts Name theories Names all four: cognitive, sociocultural, behavioral, psychoanalytic, and universal theories Names three of the theories Names one or two of the theories Describe how theories contributed to understanding Describes how each of the four theories have added to science's knowledge of development Describes how two of the theories have added to science's knowledge of development Describes how one of the theories has added to science's knowledge of development Jason learned that emotions impact performance. From this, he developed the idea that students who are sad when they take a test will perform poorly compared to those who take it while happy.

After visiting the doctor's office several times and receiving a shot each time, Erin now tenses and cries when her mother pulls into the doctor's parking lot. Tanner received praise for his aggressive defense in the basketball game. This encouraged him to play aggressive defense in the next game. Tim watches his dad mow the lawn. After a few minutes, Tim takes a toy lawnmower and begins following his dad, row by row. Each developmental theory has received severe criticism.

Fine is trying to explain childhood aggression. He says that children might learn aggression by observing it, but they also may be expressing aggression because being aggressive may allow them to survive long enough to reproduce. In explaining childhood aggression, Dr.

Page 5 Answer Key 1. Erik Erikson Erikson Erikson Erik Erikson Universal Humanism Abraham Maslow Maslow Carl Rogers Rogers