Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology)

Feminist Perspectives on Science
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) book. Happy reading Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) Pocket Guide.

follow site It is in fact contradicted both by logical and historical analysis…and by massive bodies of empirical evidence'. Indeed, the continuing destitution of millions upon the pillory of development projects is striking World Commission on Dams The policy response to development-induced displacement and resettlements is depicted well in what Cernea calls his 'Impoverishment, Risks, and Reconstruction IRR Model'.

Ostrom distinguishes among frameworks, theories, and models. Frameworks identify the elements and relationships among elements for guiding analysis; theories specify the important assumptions for answering questions related to relevant phenomena; and models state the precise relationships among the variables that lead to outcomes. In many ways, Cernea's framework for analyzing displacements does little more than state the relevant elements that affect impoverishment.

It fails to provide much insight into how these different elements may themselves be related, or the extent to which their impacts on poverty depend on varying contextual conditions, despite Cernea's recognition that the context plays an important role. Cernea locates the possibility of reconstruction to address each of the eight risks and argues strongly against a program of rehabilitation based on compensation.

The impoverishment risks, according to Cernea, are landlessness, joblessness, homelessness, marginalization, food insecurity, morbidity and mortality, loss of access to common property and services, and social disarticulation. The strategy to address each risk is to counter it specifically-provide land to those rendered landless, create jobs to deal with joblessness, construct homes to remove homelessness: the prescription has directness in relation to the diagnosis that is immediately pleasing in relation to policy.

See also Cernea Cernea's analysis has four different functions: predictive, diagnostic, problem-resolution, and research. Two important gaps can be noted with respect to Cernea's framework. In viewing each source of risks as independent of other sources, the framework lacks a concerted approach to reconstruction. Thus, the analysis hints at but is ultimately silent on how a focus on land, or health, or assets can affect outcomes related to other sources of risks, or strategies to address risks.

Additionally, in focusing primarily on economic risks to livelihoods it fails to consider the political and ethical context within which displacement occurs. It can appropriately be classified into a 'reformist-managerial' mode of responses to displacement rather than a 'radical-movementist' set of responses Dwivedi The first gap is in part addressed, at least in terms of policy responses, by Kanbur's proposal in favor of generalized social safety nets in addition to project-specific safety nets. The distinction that some have drawn between the managerial and the social movement response to development is in part a recognition of the fact that even a painstakingly planned and sincerely implemented compensation package will never be equal to the task of ensuring that those displaced by development projects end up 'no worse off' than their situation before the project was implemented De Wet But it is also the result of the suspicion that mega-development projects, especially large dams and infrastructure projects, are undertaken because of their positive outcomes for a select few rather than their aggregate benefits for the national society for an especially cogent articulation of this position, see Roy Scholars focused on the human rights of the displaced and the accountability of the corporate and state actors who allow that displacement tends to reject the developmentalism inherent in Cernea's assumptions, and focus instead on grassroots organization, mobilization, and resistance to displacement in the name of development Dwivedi ; Escobar ; Routledge Their vision of just development focuses instead on concrete examples of successful or quasi-successful efforts to undermine development policies leading to displacement.

As Dwivedi argues, the s were the decade of displacement, but the s were the decade of popular resistance to displacement. Conservation of species and ecosystems requires restrictions on human influences-local, state, and corporate-in areas where species or ecosystems are to be conserved.

The literature on this theme is so complex as to brook no easy summary. For a relatively rosy assessment of the ease with which humans and wildlife species can coexist and prosper, see WWF Agrawal and Redford's survey of 37 projects attempting joint achievement of biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation finds little systematic evidence in favor of synergies between these two goals. The most popular strategy is protected areas. However, the global picture about the size and complexity of protected area classification and the impacts of different types of protected areas on human activities is at best unclear.

The number and total area of protected areas has grown enormously in the postcolonial period: more than , listed PAs covering approximately 20 million sq. The official classification and information in the World Conservation Monitoring Center WCMC database does not include areas covered by private and informal arrangements for wildlife protection that are common in many parts of the world. Some of the growth in the area under protection may reflect better reporting and record keeping and the inclusion of areas that are semi-protected. Most protected areas fall under six different IUCN categories corresponding to specific management objectives that permit increasing human use-from category 1a and 1b strict reserve to category 5 managed resource use.

This uncertainty, and lack of systematic data about what actually happens in particular categories of protected areas, is relevant for five reasons: 1 we do not know how particular management objectives translate into practices that lead to displacement; 2 the magnitude of displacement consequent upon the creation of protected areas-particularly categories 1a and 1b to 4-is unclear category 5 permits sustainable use of protected area resources, and is the least likely of the six IUCN categories of protected areas to lead to displacement ; 3 the social impacts of displacement, clearly negative and highly significant, are known specifically only in the case of a few detailed studies; 4 there is no systematic evidence of the extent to which governments and other agencies have attempted to address the condition of those who have been evicted; and finally, 5 existing knowledge about the extent to which such efforts at redress have been successful is astonishingly poor.

Colin Allen — Curriculum vitae

What knowledge we do have regarding these five issues is based mainly on more or less informed speculation and case studies. Nearly all of what we can say about the overall magnitude of conservation-induced displacement depends upon heroic extrapolation. Typically, such speculation suggests that the magnitude of conservation-related displacement is lower than what has been produced by development projects, and is possibly in the neighborhood of million people. Geisler arrives upon a figure of 8.

Using this procedure, Geisler's estimate today would have ranged between Others have taken Geisler's estimates of million displacees for Africa, and asserted a figure of 14 million displaced peoples in Africa as fact Dowie Our knowledge about these questions is based primarily upon case study evidence. In an extensive review of the impact of protected areas on people, West et al. Many of these studies are geographically clustered, with better information being available for some protected areas in India, Nepal, southern and East Africa, and the United States than for most other protected areas, and most other parts of the world.

The absence of studies from many regions may be interpreted as the absence of significant displacement in understudied regions, but it would be equally easy to suggest that the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Because the provisions relating to particular categories of protected areas are applied unevenly even within a country, residents of protected areas or those who utilize the protected areas' resources face uncertainty as to whether, when, and how they will be displaced, and with what effects.

We also know that the use of force is typically critical to displacement from protected areas and that displacement has caused impoverishment, social disarticulation, and political disempowerment. Some of the worst, and long-recognized, impacts of the creation of protected areas concern the adverse effects on the incomes of those who are displaced, even if they live within or in the vicinity of newly formed protected areas.

See, for example, the report on coercive conservation practices prepared by Hebert and Healey n. The consequences of displacement on human welfare are difficult to state with precision even though they can be inferred. By the same token, it is also difficult to know exactly how much the setting aside of protected areas has contributed to biodiversity conservation.

Various studies of protected areas provide general indications of their effectiveness. But this general conclusion hides a wealth of details and variations that prevent precise statements about the marginal gains from strict conservation, gains from partial protection, and how such gains can be balanced against the losses to those displaced from protected areas Hayes For example, some quantitative studies covering a significant number of protected areas focus more on conservation of forests rather than wildlife Naughton-Treves et al. Many other studies focus more on the extent to which existing protected areas represent biological diversity rather than the actual effective protection.

A large number of studies point to the numerous threats to protected area effectiveness Bruner et al. And finally, a large number of conservationists agree that effective biodiversity conservation must include conservation outside the boundaries of protected areas, especially in the case of marine biodiversity Allison et al. It is clear that international conservation organizations must choose to act in relation to displacement in a relative vacuum of reliable information. At best, we can infer from the limited evidence that the people displaced as a result of conservation projects are as poor or marginal as the ones displaced by development projects.

Conversely, it is also likely that policies designed to address the plight of displaces or the potential protests and mobilization that might emerge among them may be similar for both types of displacement. On the other hand, the extent to which the protected areas responsible for displacement have reliably contributed to biodiversity conservation gains is also uncertain.

Lack of systematic information about how management objectives associated with particular categories of protected areas are translated into practice, cross- and intra-state variations in the implementation of protected area provisions, paucity of quantitative or broadly comparative studies that provide information on actual effectiveness of protected areas, and lack of consensus on the metrics along which conservation effectiveness should be compared across sites means that it is impossible to balance the human costs and conservation benefits associated with protected areas in a global sense.

Even if one general measure of biodiversity decline-species extinction rates-is not well established, most observers believe it to be orders of magnitude , times greater than prehuman rates [ Balmford et al. See Colwell and Coddington and Purvis and Hector for different assessments and measures of biodiversity. McKinney reviews lessons from writings on theories of extinction.

Analogously, Myers argues for the economic importance of conservation in suggesting that the treasures of biodiversity 'can make a significant contribution to and pharmaceuticals, and to industrial processes especially in the advanced world with its greater capacity to exploit genetic resources'. But the extent to which these important arguments justify human displacement is unclear.

To become relevant in the context of displacement, they need to be coupled with two assumptions: that human presence has a negative impact on conservation, and that there is a calculus of gains and losses through which the worst effects of involuntary displacement on humans can be balanced by gains for conservation through displacement see below. In addition to these core arguments for conservation, some conservationists hint at other justifications of displacement-that there is a lot of injustice in the world, and conservation-related injustice is mild.

These justifications are merely rationalizations and fail to address the significant ethical and rights-based criticisms, sidestepping them instead. If conservation-related displacement is an injustice then its character does not change simply because there are other greater injustices in the world. Whether only a few people have been displaced because of conservation projects is an empirical question. The evidence necessary to answer it has not been collected either by critics of conservation or by conservationists themselves. Similar complaints about the lack of any reliable data are voiced by West and Brockington Most major development projects that might lead to displacement are now preceded by social impact assessments and cost-benefit analyses.

Whatever one might think of these methods and their utility, they are at least an integral component in assessing the feasibility of development projects. The most important critique against displacement is the injustice involved in the involuntary removal of disadvantaged peoples from their homes and lands: Few elite or rich households have been displaced because of protected area creation. If conservationists do not attend to this, then they strengthen the perception that conservation is a concern of the wealthy and the powerful see Brosius in this paper.

Such justice-linked criticisms undermine the moral high ground that conservationists attempt to occupy. There is a vast incongruity in the position that simultaneously attempts to protect nonhuman life and ignore the livelihoods of humans. Critics of conservation can emphasize the unethical basis of conservation simply by pointing to the incongruities related to displacement. Indeed, the increasing emphasis on poverty alleviation among international donors and aid organizations has often come at the expense of a concern with conservation. In any direct confrontation between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation, this tension suggests, advocates of poverty alleviation are likely to get greater attention.

Critics of conservation and displacement gain further ammunition for their arguments from studies that attempt to demonstrate the historical structuring role of people in natural landscapes Barthel et al. If certain small-scale human actions have contributed to biodiversity conservation, the reasoning behind protected areas that exclude all human presence is demonstrably flawed, according to these arguments.

However, such counter arguments favoring human residence in protected areas need to be more precise about the limits within which human actions can coexist with biodiversity, and the means through which such limits on human actions can be ensured-a free-for-all of human use is generally not compatible with biodiversity conservation.

Finally, other scholars argue that conservation projects that lead to displacement are likely to create anger and bitterness that lead to conservation failures see Bodmer in this working paper. Displaced peoples have strong incentives to destroy the wildlife and resources within protected areas. Given the limited capacity of most governments in developing countries to enforce existing regulations, especially in the peripheral locations where many important protected areas are located, conservation success is likely dependent on local acceptance or resistance.

Ultimately, it is an empirical question, but it is quite likely that a conjunction of strong local resentments caused by displacement or restrictions, feeble enforcement capacity, and organized poaching pose major obstacles to conservation. We denote them as negative, neutral, positive-future, and positive-historical.

These are not mutually exclusive and different courses of action may be chosen by the same conservation organization in different situations. A negative program of action signifies a more aggressive pursuit of conservation through protected areas, especially those in IUCN category 1a. Efforts to increase the size of protected areas and the rigor with which they are protected would likely result in even higher rates of displacement than is the case at present. The neutral course of action would simply change nothing in the way conservationists currently create protected areas, and do nothing about displacement that may or may not ensue.

A positive program of action would address the core criticisms of conservation-induced displacements. It would focus on specific examples in which displacement-related grievances are addressed in an exemplary manner, adopt a policy to avoid involuntary displacements as far as possible, convert involuntary displacement into voluntary agreements to move, and where such options are impossible, design compensation packages that would ensure that those suffering displacement are left 'no worse off' as a result of protected area creation. Such a positive course of action could be more or less expansive in its coverage.

It is far more likely that conservation organizations would create schemes for compensation in consultation with government agencies rather than deal with specific landowners or local residents individually. Further, even if conservation organizations create compensation mechanisms that appear satisfactory to them, their plans will always be open to criticisms if they are not formulated in consultation with potential displacees. This option would necessarily mean that negotiations would cover many more people, and in many cases the best that conservation organizations could do would be to offer compensation to the displacees.

Actually returning physically displaced peoples to protected areas would likely be difficult. Under this option, conservationists may also consider whether it is reasonable to convert some protected areas out of strict protection so that their resources become available for development. If some protected areas are redundant in terms of the biodiversity conservation they provide, de-gazetting them may result in better allocation of the scarce funds available for conservation, or even make them available for constructing compensation offers.

Choosing among the four outlined options requires striking a balance across: 1 ethical appropriateness, 2 monetary costs, and 3 political feasibility. It appears relatively easy to rank the options along the first two criteria: The first, negative course of action is ethically the least attractive option. It countenances displacement in the belief that the interests of nonhuman species deserve greater recognition than is currently the case.

Option 2, the neutral course of action, is a little better, but perhaps only marginally. Option 3, which focuses on future cases of displacement, is ethically laudable. Option 4, under which retroactive compensation is coupled with a commitment to address all future conservation displacees, is easily the most attractive option for critics of conservation-induced displacement. The ranking of these four options is also straightforward with regards to their costliness.

Option 2-neutral-is perhaps the least costly of the four because it merely assumes the status quo. Option 1 is likely to be costlier than option 2, because conservation organizations will have to spend more resources expanding and enforcing protected areas. Depending on the numbers of those who have been displaced, options 3 and 4 are likely to be costlier still, in that order, but by how much is difficult to assess. While ranking these four options on ethical and monetary criteria is easy, the difficulties are greater in assessing their political feasibility.

Even option 2-maintaining status quo-faces no small difficulties, as suggested by current controversies and critiques on the issue. It is, however, politically feasible in the short run. The ranking feasibility turns on the question of the ease with which coercive conservation can continue. Although some have argued that coercive conservation is resilient in the face of numerous challenges Brockington , the political landscape has already changed compared to the s, and seems especially inhospitable to conservation displacement today.

In a news article, Dowie writes, 'It's no secret that millions of native peoples around the world have been pushed off their land to make room for big oil, big metal, big timber, and big agriculture. But few people realize that the same thing has happened for a much nobler cause: land and wildlife conservation. One must ask by what alchemy have the names of those who see themselves as the defenders of the planet's biological heritage come to be linked in the same breath with the names of those who are more appropriately seen as its degraders.

Dowie is not alone in these sentiments. An increasingly vocal group of authors will likely continue to rake international conservation organizations over the coals for their alleged indifference to the plight of human beings, particularly those humans who already face the dust heap of history. Consider the following testimony from Joy Ngoboka: 'We were chased out on the first day the police ran into my compound. They all had guns. They shouted at me, told me to run. I had no chance to say anything…I was frightened for the children…but we just ran off in all directions. I took my way and the children took theirs.

Other people were running, panicking, even picking up the wrong children in the confusion. I lost everything. I had 31 cows and some goats and hens. They were killed cows were killed and the rest taken. They burned everything, even the bed and furniture and the kitchen. We're poor now' cited in Ozinga If one did not know that this woman was displaced by the Kabile Game Corridor, one might believe this was a testimony from a refugee displaced by war.

Larger numbers simply indicate that displacement-related injustices are common, but whether the number is a million or 10 million is less important. But the identification of striking negative images with conservation is highly prejudicial for conservation organizations from a public relations perspective. The storyline in reports on conservation-related displacements is especially juicy because it focuses on the underbelly of what is mostly seen as a noble cause-the preservation of species and landscapes.

It allows an unlikely combination of actors-left wing intellectuals, conservative economists, and populist politicians, each for very different reasons-to unite against wildlife and biodiversity conservation. In light of the above discussion, we suggest that option 1 pursue conservation more aggressively may be the least politically feasible course of action available to conservationists.

Options 3 and 4 more or less comprehensive compensation to those who are displaced are both ethically and politically more attractive because they show the willingness of conservationists to do something. Option 2 maintain status quo is likely the one with the lowest monetary costs, at least in the short run. For that reason it may appear quite attractive because it does not deviate from current conservation strategies. But it should be viewed as politically the least feasible for the long term. Indeed, a different, more compensatory choice will ultimately be forced upon conservationists if they do not respond to concerns about displacements.

  • Du bist anders (German Edition)?
  • David Hull’s philosophy;
  • Main Sections.
  • Account Options!

This quick thought experiment shows the range of currencies-ethical, monetary, and political-that need to be integrated in order to assess these four options. A global integration across all three is complicated; though it suggests that option 3 would be most likely in most cases. The example of large dams and development-related displacements is instructive in this regard, where after years of doing nothing, all major international donor organizations have been forced to adopt a policy on how to address the needs of those who are displaced by their funded activities.

Large dams are far more attractive to national governments and often have a significant constellation of politically potent economic actors in their favor. Nonetheless, because of human rights claims, it has become trickier to construct large dams in the past decade. It has become incumbent upon governments and relevant international actors to carry out studies that incorporate costs of displacement and compensation as part of the project.

If conservationists are unwilling to go where their moral compass should take them, their political future will drive them there. Although there is clear evidence that the establishment of protected areas has been critical to the conservation of rare species and endangered habitats, there are very few studies that establish a relationship between the displacement of humans from the protected areas and the marginal gain such displacement confers on biodiversity conservation.

Arguments in favor of displacement are built upon the assumption that human presence invariably impacts wildlife and biodiversity negatively. But studies have seldom focused on the extent to which this assumption is systematically correct. Therefore, generalizations asserting an inescapable conflict between biodiversity conservation and human presence in protected areas are no more accurate than those that suggest that a harmonious and sustainable relationship can and will prevail.

If the scientific basis for displacing all humans from protected areas on conservationist grounds needs additional work, images showing human beings displaced by conservation projects have undeniable negative impacts. The ethical grounds for displacement, whether pursued in the name of a larger national interest or a general social good, have always been specious. The history of development-induced displacements is a useful guide in this regard.

Rather than studying the negative social impact of protected areas on displaced peoples only once the political pressures for doing so makes it unavoidable, conservation organizations can take the lead in setting the agenda on how to address conservation-induced displacements, and by doing so follow the path that is both ethically appropriate, and good for conservation in the long run. Adamson, R. Conservation and indigenous peoples: Peeling away the misconceptions interview with Rebecca Adamson.

Accessed on April 27, Agrawal, A. Poverty, development, and biodiversity conservation: Shooting in the dark? Working Paper No. Bronx: Wildlife Conservation Society. Albert, B. Indian lands, environmental policy, and military geopolitics in the development of the Brazilian Amazon: The case of the Yanomami. Development and Change 23 1 : Allison, G. Lubchenco and M.

Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8 1 : SS Angermeier, P. The natural imperative for biological conservation. Conservation Biology 14 2 : Balmford, A. Who should pay for tropical conservation, and how could the costs be met? Oryx 37 2 : Green and M.

Measuring the changing state of nature. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18 7 : Barthel, S. Colding, T. Elmqvist and C. History and local management of a biodiversity-rich, urban cultural landscape. Ecology and Society 10 2. Baviskar, A. Between violence and desire: Space, power, and identity in the making of metropolitan Delhi.

International Social Science Journal 55 1 : Brand, L. Displacement for development? The impact of changing state-society relations. World Development 29 6 : Brandon, K. Gorenflo, A. Rodrigues and R. Reconciling biodiversity conservation, people, protected areas, and agricultural suitability in Mexico. World Development 33 9 : Brechin, S. Resident peoples and national parks. Brockington, D. Eviction for conservation: A global overview.

Conservation and Society 4 3 : Igoe and K. Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conservation Biology 20 1 : Bruner, A. Gullison and A. Financial costs and shortfalls of managing and expanding protected-area systems in developing countries. Bioscience 54 12 : Gullison, R. Rice and G. Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science : Bunnell, T. Multimedia utopia? Antipode 34 2 : Burton, P. Balinsky, L. Coward, S. Cummings and D. The value of managing for biodiversity.

Forestry Chronicle 68 2 : Cernea, M. Economic and Political Weekly 34 31 : Risks, safeguards, and reconstruction: A model for population displacement and resettlement. In: Risks and reconstruction: Experiences of resettlers and refugees. For a new economics of resettlement: A sociological critique of the compensation principle. International Social Science Journal 55 : Forced Migration Review Chambers, R. Settlement schemes in tropical Africa.

Chape, S. Harrison, M. Spalding and I. Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B-Biological Sciences : Chapin, M. A challenge to conservationists. World Watch Magazine 17 6 : Chatty, D. Conservation and mobile indigenous peoples: Displacement, forced settlement, and sustainable development.

Oxford, UK: Berghahn Books. Choudhary, K. Development dilemma: Resettlement of Gir Maldharis. Economic and Political Weekly 35 30 : Colwell, R. Estimating terrestrial biodiversity through extrapolation. De Wet, C. Economic development and population displacement: Can everybody win? Economic and Political Weekly 36 50 : Dowie, M. Conservation refugees: When protecting nature means kicking people out.

Orion online. November-December: Accessed on March 12, The hidden cost of paradise: Indigenous people are being displaced to create wilderness areas, to the detriment of all. Stanford Social Innovation Review Spring: Enemies of conservation. Range Magazine Summer: Dwivedi, R.

Displacement, risks and resistance: Local perceptions and actions in the Sardar Sarovar. Development and Change 30 1 : Models and methods in development-induced displacement. Development and Change 33 4 : Ehrlich, P. Human natures, nature conservation, and environmental ethics. Bioscience 52 1 : Escobar, A. Displacement, development, and modernity in the Colombian Pacific. Frank, G. Voluntary approaches in protection of forests in Africa. Environmental Science and Policy 6 3 : Gajaseni, J. Ecological rationalities of the traditional homegarden system in the Chao Phraya Basin, Thailand.

Agroforestry Systems 46 1 : Garikipati, S. Consulting the development-displaced regarding their resettlement: Is there a way? Journal of Refugee Studies 18 3 : Geisler, C. A new kind of trouble: Evictions in Eden. International Social Science Journal Your park, my poverty: Using impact assessment to counter the displacement effects of environmental greenlining.

In: Protected natural areas and the dispossessed. Rethinking land reform in South Africa: An alternative approach to environmental justice. Sociological Research Online 5 2 : U3-U De Sousa. From refuge to refugee: The African case. Public Administration and Development Gellert, P. Mega-projects as displacements. Mass action kinetic modeling of membrane transport networks: Our primary project is the study of Multidrug resistance transporters. We have long-standing collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline to develop a quantitative kinetic model of transcellular transport mediated by the multidrug resistance protein P-gp.

This transporter is found in many human tissues, where it is responsible for inhibiting uptake of foreign molecules, e. However, many cancer cells have acquired or amplified the gene for this transporter since it will also inhibit their uptake of chemotherapeutic agents. It is thought that this acquired resistance is responsible for much of the failure of cancer chemotherapy. P-gp has 12 transmembrane domains and a very large range of substrates, which has complicated the elucidation of its binding and active sites. Our approach is to create a rigorous analysis of its transport kinetics, which will allow a clear focus on the how compound structure and transporter mutations affect elementary rate constants of transport for this protein.

This can guide more precise structure-function relationships for P-gp and hopefully effective inhibitors. The role of TNF in neuroinflammation following spinal cord injury. Soluble TNF is believed to be proinflammatory causing demyelination and neurodegeneration while transmembrane TNF signaling is neuroprotective and promote remyelination. We are using both in vitro and in vivo approaches to understand how TNFR2 signaling in glial cells promotes remyelination. We are also interested in the peripheral consequences of spinal cord injury on the immune system and metabolism.

My research program is focused on understanding epigenetic mechanisms that govern higher order brain function via chromatin packaging in neurons. Epigenetic gene control in the brain is a fundamental mechanism for orchestrating dynamic gene expression profiles critical for cognitive function.

One of the best characterized epigenetic mark crucial for learning and memory is histone acetylation that regulates cognitive gene expression by controlling chromatin packaging in neurons. Appropriate histone acetylation homeostasis is maintained by the antagonistic activity of histone acetyltransferase HAT and histone deacetylases HDAC. Nevertheless, the specific HATs that generate these neuroepigenetic marks and their mechanisms of action in neural epigenetic gene control in the brain remain largely unknown.

Understanding such processes will likely provide safer and selective ways to promote histone acetylation mediated cognitive enhancement benefits in clinical settings. A fundamental goal in neuroscience is to understand how neural circuits are formed, maintained, and reorganized during development and throughout the life of the organism. Our lab is interested in the cellular interactions that facilitate the establishment of neural circuits, as well as the structural plasticity and reorganization of the CNS in the healthy and injured or diseased states.

In particular, we focus on the role of astrocytes, part of the larger family of astroglia in the CNS with diverse morphological and functional properties. Though historically thought to serve primarily as support cells for neurons, astrocytes are now known to play critical roles in a number of neurological processes including the formation, maintenance and plasticity of synaptic connections, and neural repair mechanisms after injury. Moreover, a subset of astroglial cells serve as the predominant neural stem cells in the adult forebrain, generating new neurons throughout life.

Our lab is interested in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that define and regulate the diversity of astrocyte function in the intact and injured or diseased CNS. We use mouse genetics to manipulate astrocyte function in vivo, and examine the subsequent effects on both neuronal and astrocyte function. Our lab utilizes conventional and confocal microscopy of fixed tissues, as well as chronic, in vivo imaging by 2 photon laser scanning microscopy to address two primary questions: 1 How do astrocytes contribute to synapse formation and reorganization in vivo?

Our research aims to bring novel insight into astrocyte biology, with the ultimate goal of providing a deeper understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating neural circuitry. Nieman B. Neuroimage 50 2 Gregorian, C. Neurosci 29 6 Saxe M. PNAS 11 PNAS 46 Dougherty, J. Garcia, A. Morshead, C. Rodriguez, J. Experimental Neurology 2 Synapse Journal of Comparative Neurology 2 We use genetic and live imaging approaches in a genetically tractable organism, C. Protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, ALS, or certain types of diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aging human population.

Protein misfolding is often implicated in these disorders, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We have shown that misfolding and aggregation of disease-related proteins e. On the other hand, these metastable proteins, encoded by genetic polymorphisms, strongly modulate the disease phenotypes. We proposed that competition for the folding resources underlies this toxic behavior.

It is currently thought that understanding such failure of protein homeostasis proteostasis is key to understanding and combating aging and neurodegeneration. My lab focuses on mechanisms that control proteostasis, using genetic, biochemical, and live imaging approaches in a metazoan C. We currently have three main research directions:. The mechanism of differential neuronal susceptibility to protein misfolding. Why only some neurons are affected in disease, when the toxic protein is often expressed in all or many neurons?

We are using C. An exciting new direction that sprung from the above work is the finding that a folding stress in the ER of neurons derails the correct targeting of neurotrophic secreted molecules to axons or dendrites. The role of natural genetic variation and physiological stress in proteostasis.

We are using wild strains of C. We are harnessing the natural, evolutionarily selected mechanisms that protect proteostasis. For example, we have identified a small heat-shock protein HSP Maintaining the ER proteostasis under physiological stress. We are studying how cells match which ER chaperones are induced during differentiation to their future protein folding needs, since different secreted proteins will need different chaperones for their efficient folding.

In collaboration with Dr.

3 replies on “David Hull’s philosophy”

Argon's and Dr. Behtea's labs — the possibility of manipulating the IRE1 activity to improve re-myelination in a Multiple Sclerosis model. My lab aims to understand the mechanisms that maintain healthy protein folding environment in the cell, and how they fail in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. The research also includes both laboratory analysis in the U. The research program also incorporates data from diverse fields, including population genetics, genomics, phylogeography, geospatial modeling, virology, and conservation science.

Research in her group is highly collaborative, and occurs within a diverse, international network that includes academic researchers, conservation professionals and decision-makers. An additional focus area is to promote multi-institutional capacity building activities that will boost biodiversity research and conservation efforts in western equatorial Africa, a region undergoing rapid climatic change and socioeconomic transformation.

Laboratory members have contributed to several activities ranging from primary research, educational outreach and conservation action planning. Notably, Professor Gonder is a principal investigator on a bold research and educational program unites more than researchers and students from the U. Trained as a systems physiologist, I am most interested in regulatory mechanisms, and particularly regulation involving the neurotransmitter serotonin 5HT during postnatal maturation. Currently I study maturation of motor systems in infant mice.

To date I have collected extensive baseline information on the maturational patterns of some 15 motor activities and simple reflexes. Some of these, such as righting reflexes and simple withdrawal reflexes, are essentially mature at birth, while others mature at various ages during the first postnatal week through weaning at 21 days postpartum. Over the same time span, locomotion matures from primitive swimming movements restricted to the forelimbs, culminating in adult gait, grooming and escape activity.

The maturation of the cerebellum is almost entirely postnatal in mice. The architecture of the cerebellar cortex is perhaps one of the best-described for a complex region of the brain, including phylogenetic studies from lamprey through primates, and maturational descriptions for mice. This elegant system of circuits matures over the same postnatal time span when new motor behaviors are appearing.

I am applying digital video to reveal details of the movements and possible relationships with cerebellar maturation. I am broadly interested in food web and ecosystem ecology. I have used stable isotopes as a tool for understanding aspects of food webs and ecosystem ecology like community structure and dynamics ecology, with a view to develop better understanding of solutions to problems such as predicting biological concentrations of contaminants.

I am also interested in Science Education. Mesha Hunte-Brown is a Jamaican National. Brown currently teaches large introductory level non-major courses in as well as open enrollment Environmental Science courses and enjoys engaging the minds of the student who has had limited exposure to the field of Biology. Aging and the mechanisms of impairment of specific CD8 T cell response in aged mice, the alteration of immune response in aged individuals. Aging is associated with decreased expansion of T cells upon stimulation. By using influenza virus, LCMV and TCR transgenic mice, I am working on the mechanisms of impairment of specific CD8 T cell response in aged mice, which may have an important implication for understanding the alteration of immune response in aged individuals.

I have developed a laboratory-based research course for undergraduates who are interested in an authentic research experience. I have initiated undergraduate research projects that study cellular, metabolic and developmental functions in Dictyostelium discoideum. Dictyostelium displays a unique life cycle comprised of unicellular amoeba that aggregate and develop into multicellular structures that harbor environment-stable spores under adverse conditions. These undergraduate research projects progress from term to term so students are welcome to continue in subsequent terms to further progress their projects or switch to other ongoing projects.

My goal is to introduce students to authentic laboratory research with the intent to encourage independent thinking and problem solving that can be applied in any context. I hope to study what key STEM skills students can learn by performing independent, but supervised and guided research projects. I hope they will gain confidence in knowing they will learn from their mistakes, become expert at time management and organization of efforts, learn to solve problems, and develop essential critical thinking skills.

During the tenure of her PhD, Svetlana studied the intricate mechanisms of mitochondria biogenesis and its role in the process of Apoptosis cell death. Since then Svetlana has continued her research endeavors in the field of Microbiology and Virology. She was involved in understanding the inner workings of Candida glabrata a pathogenic fungus, and more recently she was studying the possible mechanisms of resistance against HIV infection. Throughout her career, she has been instrumental in training several future student scientists. Being able to make them fall in love with science and research is where her passion for teaching stems from.

She is always excited to be able to guide curious minds and mentor science enthusiasts. Stem cells are critical for maintenance of adult tissues, with defects in stem cell behavior leading to cancer and tissue degeneration. Yet many aspects of stem cell regulation are still poorly understood. In particular, how the stem cell specialized environment, or niche, is capable of controlling and coordinating multiple different types of stem cells within the same tissue remains largely unknown.

In my lab, we study the simplified, easily accessible stem cell system of the Drosophila fruit fly testis to better understand niche-stem cell and stem cell-stem cell interactions. We have identified a crucial cell biological process, cytokinesis the physical separation of daughter cell membranes following cell division as a means by which the testis niche controls stem cell behavior and production of daughter cells that will contribute to the tissue. Control of germline stem cell GSC cytokinesis is regulated both by the niche and by the second population of stem cells in the testis, the somatic cyst stem cells CySCs.

This makes the fly testis an ideal system to study the coordination of stem cell behavior across multiple different populations within the niche. Using a combination of genetic, molecular and live imaging approaches, my lab is focused on addressing four main questions:. Studying each of these questions will provide critical insight into how the niche controls stem cell behavior which may have important implications for stem cell therapies , cancer treatments and ameliorating the effects of aging.

Rho GTPases, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, regulation of G protein-coupled receptors by receptor kinases and arrestins. While I have enjoyed many years of a varied and fulfilling career in biomedical research, it is teaching that is my true passion. I am incredibly lucky that this thing called my "job" is really being able to talk and think about science with my students. I can't imagine having a better professional life than this.

Outside of the classroom, I love spending time with my wife and my daughter, traveling, gardening, and listening to music. Understanding how the nervous system and brain of higher animals function is one of the most fascinating and mysterious questions in biology. Understanding the complex organization of the neurons within the brain requires the proper understanding of which genes control the development, connectivity, and function of these neurons. It also requires an understanding of which behaviors these neurons control in the organism.

In my laboratory, my students and I strive to understand the underlying mechanisms that govern these captivating questions. To do this, we utilize the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model organism. We exploit the powerful genetic and behavioral techniques Drosophila possess to better understand how genes regulate neural development in the central nervous system, and how defects in these gene affect behavior of the organism.

Through our research, we hope to achieve a better understanding of the basic processes involved in nervous system development and function, but we also hope that our findings could be translated into potential therapeutics for some of the diseases we study as well. Although my initial training was in tumor immunology, the focus of my research for more than 20 years has been the changes in immune response with increasing age.

Utilizing both mouse models and human samples, we have focused on the immune response to viruses: control of primary virus infections in mice and protection from influenza disease after vaccination of humans. We consistently demonstrate both an age-associated decrease and delay in response to virus using three different viruses, two strains of mice and humans.

While previous studies focused on intrinsic changes in the CD8 T cells, more recently the role of extrinsic factors eg. Even when we are standing still, the cells in our bodies are going places. It is now clear that an individual cell can change how it moves in response to the material surrounding it. My lab is interested in understanding how the structure of the three-dimensional 3D extracellular matrix dictates the molecular and physical mechanisms driving cell motility. For example, we discovered human fibroblasts moving through a cross-linked 3D matrix pull their nucleus forward like a piston to increase intracellular pressure and drive protrusion of the leading edge.

Using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and live cell imaging approaches, the Petrie lab aims to understand how intracellular pressure is controlled by actomyosin contractility in migrating cells in response to matrix structure. Further, we seek to establish if the intracellular pressure generation machinery in metastatic cells is abnormal compared to primary fibroblasts and test the hypothesis that defective pressure regulation promotes cancer cell invasion into 3D extracellular matrix. At the NIH, Petrie used a combination of live cell imaging and biophysical measurements in single cells to discover a new pressure-based mechanism of cell movement.

His lab continues to refine this nuclear-piston model of pressure-driven cell migration in the Department of Biology. Symbiosis is a defining feature of eukaryotic biology. Animals are no exception, exhibiting nearly ubiquitous relationships with bacterial symbionts that shape their nutrition, digestion, and defense. Many of these interactions are ancient and highly specialized, having enabled the colonization of previously inhospitable niches and the subsequent diversification of their animal hosts.

Our lab- and field-based studies focus on two research systems, aphids and ants, enabling explorations of symbiont-mediated adaptation across recent to ancient timescales. Our findings suggest the potential for defensive symbionts to drive rapid adaptation in aphid populations and the impacts of nutritional symbionts on the success of several diverse lineages of herbivorous ants. Due to defective blood vessels, tumor microenvironment is characterized by lack of molecular oxygen, glucose and glutamine. In addition, a variety of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary artery insufficiency and stroke lead to tissue ischemia.

Our working model is that tumor cells and normal cells alike have sensing mechanisms that monitor the supply status of these basic nutrients; and in response to nutrient insufficiency, the sensing mechanisms will trigger transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming, which eventually facilitates cell survival or leads to migration. These adaptive responses may contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis, but may be critical for normal cells to survive temporary ischemia.

These screening will generate the dataset which can be used to dissect the global gene expression reprogramming, regulatory network, and signaling pathways. Following these screening and bioinformatics analyses, specific genes and pathways can be chosen for further investigation. Sang also has started to dissect the signaling pathways, transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming triggered by insufficient supply of glucose and glutamine. This line of research has revealed that the activation of ER stress pathway, which involves Grp78, ATF4 and STC2, is critical for cells to survival under stress conditions.

We believe our efforts will lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to delay or prevent onset of AD. To this end we have worked collaboratively to develop novel animal models of AD that we utilize to confirm and extend our observations from cellular models. The research in the lab is carried out by post-doctoral fellows, graduate and undergraduate students that work on individual and group projects and always in constant interaction with me. I am committed to creating an interactive, nurturing and exciting research experience for all of the members of my laboratory.

Please feel free to contact myself or the members of my lab if you have any questions. The question of how cells achieve a high level of spatial organization marks a new frontier in cell biology. Most cells of the human body e. Little is known about how cell shape and asymmetry arise from individual molecular interactions. My research lab is investigating the molecular mechanisms that affect spatial organization in epithelia and neurons.

We are interested in understanding how cytoskeletal organization and cytoskeleton-dependent transport are spatially regulated. We have gained new insights into this problem by studying a family of GTP-binding proteins termed septins, which associate with the cytoskeleton and cell membranes. Unlike the monomeric small GTPases, septins polymerize into higher order filamentous structures that scaffold and restrict protein localization in the cytoplasm and cell membranes. We have discovered that septins demarcate spatially distinct regions of the cytoplasm, interacting with distinct subsets of microtubules and actin filaments.

Importantly, we have found that septins are required for the generation of epithelial and neuronal cell asymmetry and the spatial organization of a variety of cell processes e. We hypothesize that septins are key regulators of spatial organization and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory functions of septins. These projects bear significance for understanding and treating neurological disorders and cancers, in which septins are abnormally expressed. In the lab of cell biologist James Nelson, he focused on the regulation of the cytoskeleton and its functions by a novel family of GTP-binding proteins termed septins.

Elias joined the Biology Department in the fall of In his spare time, Elias has djed radio shows, written music reviews, and performed and recorded with an independent post-punk band. My research interests focus on evaluating and improving approaches to teach STEM students in higher education environments to promote learning, engagement in STEM courses, student retention, and retention within the STEM pipeline. My current work centers on evaluating approaches to increase student access to STEM experiential learning experiences, incorporating evidence-based thinking into diverse learning environments, and developing practical training opportunities to support STEM students, faculty and future faculty in their professional development.

Biology Faculty. Michael Akins. Office: PISB mra69 drexel. Research Interests: My laboratory studies the neural mechanisms underlying how organisms interact with the environment.

Defending Science with Eugenie C. Scott - Conversations with History

Specialization: Experience-dependent plasticity in the mammalian nervous system; post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in neurons. Systematic mapping of Fragile X granules in the mouse brain reveals a potential role for presynaptic FMRP in sensorimotor functions. J Comp Neurol. Dev Psychobiol. Presynaptic translation: stepping out of the postsynaptic shadow. Front Neural Circuits. J Neurosci. Curr Opin Neurobiol. Shivanthi Anandan. Office: PISB anandans drexel. Research Interests: I am interested in how photosynthetic organisms perceive and respond to environmental signals, particularly light.

Deciphering the function of putative eukaryotic-type extra-cellular matrix protein genes in cyanobacteria. Specialization: My research program uses molecular genetic and classical microbial genetics to study signal transduction pathways in marine and freshwater cyanobacteria.

Selected Publications: S. Anandan , M. Nalty, D. Cogdell and S. Golden Identification of two classes of transcriptional activator genes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Archives of Microbiology Anandan and S. Cis-acting sequences required for light-responsive expression of the psbDII gene in Synechococcus sp. Anandan and J. In Advances in Microbial Food Safety. Juneja, J. Cherry and M. H Tunick eds. ACS Books. Kimberly D. Magrini, Amit Basu, James R. Spotila, Harold W. Avery, Lawrence W. Bergman, Rachel Hammond, and Shivanthi Anandan.

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Koro, S. Microbial quality of food available to populations of differing socioeconomic status. Simara Price and Shivanthi Anandan Characterization of a novel collagen-like protein TrpA in Trichodesmium erythraeum. Waring Indoor biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals similarly alter bacterial communities from plant roots.

The TrpA protein in Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS is a non-fibril forming collagen and a component of the outer sheath. Joseph Bentz. Office: PISB bentzj drexel. Research Interests: Mass action kinetic modeling of membrane transport networks: Our primary project is the study of Multidrug resistance transporters.

Selected Publications: Kinetic identification of membrane transporters that assist transcellular transport of many P-gp substrates through a confluent monolayer of cells expressing hMDR1. Drug Metab. Fitt ing the of P-gp mediated transport across the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a Particle Swarm algorithm and establishing the functional properties of other substrate-specific transporters. Drug Met Disp, John Bethea.

Office: PISB Interleukin-7 receptor alpha contributes to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through non-hematopoietic cell lineages and altered T cell responses. In Press, Journal of Immunology. Stem Cells.

Inhibition of soluble tumour necrosis factor is therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes axon preservation and remyelination. Polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene is associated with serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentrations and postoperative opioid consumption. Glial NF-kappa B inhibition alters neuropeptide expression after sciatic nerve injury in mice. Brain Res. Valerie Bracchi-Ricard. Office: PISB vcb33 drexel. Bethea JR.

Bigford, G. Bracchi-Ricard , et al. Bracchi-Ricard, V. Johnstone, J. Zhang, Y. Laura Duwel. Office: PISB l. Felice Elefant. Office: PISB fe22 drexel. Research Interests: My research program is focused on understanding epigenetic mechanisms that govern higher order brain function via chromatin packaging in neurons. Specialization: My research program is focused on understanding epigenetic mechanisms that govern higher order brain function via chromatin packaging in neurons. Selected Publications: Panikker, P. Gulchina, Y.

Epigenetic mechanisms of synaptic NMDA receptor hypofunction during development of the prefrontal cortex of the MAM model for schizophrenia. J Neurochemistry. Jun Selected as focus article for Editorial Highlight Xu, S. Tip60 HAT action mediates environmental enrichment induced cognitive restoration. PloS ONE, 11 7 ;e Genetics 4 Editorially featured on cover as Issue Highlight Johnson, A. Journal of Neuroscience. Apr 24;33 17 Pirooznia, S. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience.

Tip60 HAT activity controls synaptic bouton growth at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Microarray analysis uncovers a role for Tip60 in nervous system function and general metabolism. The histone acetyltransferase Elp3 plays an active role in the control of synaptic bouton expansion and sleep in Drosophila. Genetics , Roman Fischer. Office: PISB roman. Specialization: Protein engineering, immunology, neuroimmunology, neurology.

Epub Mar 5. Epub Nov Epub Aug Denise Garcia. Office: PISB adg82 drexel.

Browse more videos

Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology) eBook: Philip Mirowski: Kindle Store. Editorial Reviews. Review Mirowski is usually extremely perceptive in his is Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science ( Suny Series in Economics from Science (Suny Series in Philosophy and Biology).

Research Interests: A fundamental goal in neuroscience is to understand how neural circuits are formed, maintained, and reorganized during development and throughout the life of the organism. Selected Publications: Garcia A. Tali Gidalevitz. Research Interests: Protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases, ALS, or certain types of diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent in the aging human population.

We currently have three main research directions: 1. Specialization: My lab aims to understand the mechanisms that maintain healthy protein folding environment in the cell, and how they fail in neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Biochim Biophys Acta. PLOS Genetics. Research Highlight. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, Mary Katherine Gonder. Office: PISB mkg62 drexel. Specialization: Genomics, evolutionary processes, tropical biodiversity, conservation science, educational capacity building. Selected Publications: Long-term urban market dynamics reveal increased bushmeat carcass volume despite economic growth and proactive environmental legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

Cronin, S. Woloszynek; W. Morra; S. Honarvar; J.

Shivanthi Anandan, PhD

Linder; M. Gonder ; M. O'Connor; G. The population genetics of wild chimpanzees in Cameroon and Nigeria suggests a positive role for selection in the evolution of chimpanzee subspecies. Mitchell, S. Locatelli, L. Ghobrial, A. Pokempner, P. Sesink Clee, E. Abwe, A. Nicolas, L. Nkembi, N.

Against Mechanism : Why Economics Needs Protection from Science

Anthony, B. Morgan, R. Fotso, M. Peeters, B. Hahn and M. DOI Chimpanzee population genetic structure in Cameroon and Nigeria is associated with habitat variation that may be lost under climate change. Abwe, R. Ambahe, N. Anthony, R. Fotso, S. Locatelli, F. Maisels, M. Mitchell, B. Morgan, A. Pokempner and M. Locatelli, P. Sesink Clee, H. Thomassen and M.

Prado-Martinez, P. Sudmant, J. Kid, H. Li, J.

  1. Mother Earth Had A Dream;
  2. Feminist Perspectives on Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy);
  3. Search the Directory.

Kelley, B. Lorente-Galdos, K. Veeramah, A. Woerner, T. O'Connor, G. Santpere, A. Cagan, C. Theunert, F. Casals, H. Laayouni, K. Munch, A. Hobolth, A. Halager, M. Malig, J. Hernandez, I. Hernando-Herraez, K. Pybus, L. Johnstone, M. Lachmann, C. Alkan, D. Twigg, N. Petit, C. Baker, F. Hormozdiari, M. Fernandez-Callejo, M.

Dabad, M. Wilson, L. Stevison, C. Carvalho, A. Ruiz- Herrera, L. Vives, M. Mele, T. Abello14, I. Kondova, R. Bontrop, A. Pusey, F. Lankester, J. Kiyang, R. Bergl, E. Lonsdorf, S. Myers21, M. Ventura, P. Gagneux, D. Comas, H. Siegismund, J. Blanc, L. Agueda-Calpena, M. Gut, L. Fulton, S. Tishkoff, J. Mullikin, R. Wilson, I. Gut, M. Gonder , O. Ryder, B. Hahn, A. Navarro, J. Akey, J. Bertranpetit, D. Reich, T. Mailund, M. Schierup, C. Hvilsom, A. Wall, C. Bustamante, M. Hammer, E.

Eichler, and T. Biodiversity and conservation genetics research in central Africa: New approaches and avenues for international collaboration. Anthony, P. Mickala, K. Abernethy, C. Atteke, P. Bissiengou, M. Bruford, F. Dallmeier, T. Dudu, A. Freedman, M. Hardy, J. Hart, K. Jeffery, M. Johnson, F. Pambo, A. Ley, L. Korte, S. Lahm, M. Lee, J. Lowenstein, J. Mboumba, D. Bourobou, A. Ngomanda, S. Ntie, D.