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Bennett, Colin. Benson, Megan. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 58, no. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 57, no. Benson, Todd. Pacific Historical Review 60, no. Benton, Lee David. Chronicles of Oklahoma 62, no. Bergherm, Brent Gary. Arkansas Historical Quarterly 62, no. Berthrong, Donald J. Kansas History 12, no. Arizona and the West 21, no. Bess, Jennifer. American Indian Quarterly 37, no. Agricultural History 88, no. Western Historical Quarterly 46, no. Bieder, Robert E. Indiana Magazine of History 95, no. Bieloh, Christina. Chronicles of Oklahoma 87, no. Bigart, Robert.
Montana: The Magazine of Western History 60, no. Arizona and the West 23, no. Medary, ". Montana: The Magazine of Western History 62, no. Bigglestone, William E. Minnesota History 45, no. Bigler, David L. Utah Historical Quarterly 62, no. Bilka, Monica. Western Historical Quarterly 48, no. Biolsi, Thomas. American Indian Quarterly 15, no. Birk, Douglas A. Minnesota History 46, no. Bolton, Charles S. Booth, Peter MacMillan. Journal of Arizona History 46, no. Bowden, David. Chronicles of Oklahoma 74, no. Bowes, John P. Michigan Historical Review 34, no.
Brady, Benjamin R. American Indian Quarterly 38, no. Brand, Lauren. Diplomacy in the Old Southwest". Bray, Kingsley M. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 55, no. South Dakota History 40, no. Nebraska History 66, no. Nebraska History 83, no. Nebraska History 75, no.
Bremer, Richard G. Wisconsin Magazine of History 66, no. Breu, Mary. Alaska History 18, no. Brigham, Jay. Journal of the West 40, no. Bromert, Roger. South Dakota History 14, no. South Dakota History 8, no. Bryson, Thomas A. Prologue 4, no. Buecker, Thomas R. Eli Paul. Williamson's Account of the Pawnee Removal". Chronicles of Oklahoma 65, no. Buice, David. Prologue 10, no. Burch, Susan. Journal of Social History 50, no.
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Crazy Horse and Black Robe Woman Part One: War of the Mormon Cow - Kindle edition by Richard Jepperson, Ken Mundie, Jeff Peters, Stuart Lowder. Crazy Horse and Black Robe Woman Part One: War of the Mormon Cow eBook: Richard Jepperson, Ken Mundie, Jeff Peters, Stuart Lowder: dynipalo.tk: Kindle.
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Florida Historical Quarterly 78, no. Drury, Clifford M. Idaho Yesterdays 22, no. Ducker, James H. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 91, no. Ducker, John. Dudley, Shelly. Gila Valley Irrigation District". Western Legal History 26, no. Duffield, Lathel F. Chronicles of Oklahoma 80, no. Dungan, Ron. Journal of Arizona History 36, no. New Mexico Historical Review 81, no. Dunlay, Thomas William. New Mexico Historical Review 56, no. DuVal, Kathleen. Journal of the Early Republic 26, no.
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Periodical 11, no. But he denied it and the result was that we had a fight. Original brown cloth gilt. Schwartz, E. Category Portal Commons. The Sioux were determined to exterminate all the pioneers on the western frontier. For the next four months, Crazy Horse resided in his village near the Red Cloud Agency ; the attention that Crazy Horse received from the Army drew the jealousy of Red Cloud and Spotted Tail , two Lakota who had long before come to the agencies and adopted the white ways.
Pacific Historical Review 84, no. Journal of the West 56, no. Elliott, Jack D. Journal of Mississippi History 62, no. Journal of Mississippi History 61, no. Ellis, Clyde. Pacific Historical Review 70, no. Historian 58, no. Chronicles of Oklahoma 72, no. Ellis, Mark R. Ellis, Richard N. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 19, no. Emmerich, Lisa E. Great Plains Quarterly 13, no. Engh, Michael E. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 34, no.
Farr, William E. Great Plains Quarterly 21, no. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 53, no. Farrell, Richard. Associates NAL Today n. Fearon, Peter. Feaver, Eric. Prologue 7, no. California History 71, no. Fierst, John T.
Finger, John R. Journal of Southern History 47, no. Fisher, Andrew H. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 49, no. Western Historical Quarterly 28, no. Fisher, Dexter. American Indian Quarterly 5, no. Flores, Dan. Journal of American History 78, no. Foley, William E. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 29, no. Foster, Martha Harroun. Not all Americans approved of the attacks and the government court-martialed Chivington. Jis to think of that dog Chivington and his dirty hounds, up thar at Sand Creek.
His men shot down squaws, and blew the brains out of little innocent children. You call sich soldiers Christians, do ye? And Indians savages? What der yer spose our Heavenly Father, who made both them and us, thinks of these things? But I never yet drew a bead on a squaw or papoose, and I despise the man who would. And many of the very tribal elders who advocated for peace were murdered in the massacre. Historian Ari Kelman researched how living descendants, local residents, and the National Park Service worked together to construct an appropriate memorial. They beheaded, disemboweled, scalped, and castrated all troops except for one young bugler, whom they respectfully covered with a buffalo robe after his futile attempts to fend off attacks with his horn.
Such mutilations were traditional among American Indians, just as they were in Europe, early America, and around the world. In the resulting Treaty of Fort Laramie , the vast lands granted to the major Plains tribes in the Treaty of the same name shrunk considerably, ostensibly to ensure civilization. Lakotas occupied the Black Hills after pushing out Kiowas and Crows in the 18th century.
Holdouts led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse refused to move onto the reservations, condemning those who took wasichus Whites up on their offers of free food and supplies. President Ulysses S. However, documents in the Library of Congress and U. Military Academy Library demonstrate how gold motivated Grant to condone war in behind the back of Congress and the public and undermine the Fort Laramie Treaty.
He cherry-picked a hawkish inner cabal that circumvented the normal chain-of-command, avoiding those like W. Renewed war ensued that included perhaps the most ignominious battle defeat in U. George Armstrong Custer, ca. Unlike many of the earlier cavalry attacks, the warriors were well armed this time. Unlike the single-shot Springfield s used by the 7th Cavalry, these repeating rifles could fire off magazines of twelve to sixteen rounds before having to be reloaded. A skilled soldier was lucky to shoot that many rounds in a minute with the Springfield and, when it jammed, he could only use it as a club.
Several Crow Indians, enemies of the Sioux, also fought with Custer. Let them fight. There will be plenty of fighting left for us to do. The U. In , the Supreme Court awarded damages to Lakotas for their lost land, an unclaimed settlement now worth over a billion dollars with accrued interest. They hope someday to reclaim the Black Hills instead. They hoped Indians would disavow coffee, sugar, and bacon, for instance, or other items they relied on Whites for. Ghost dances offended Whites and, in , the Army mowed down Sioux dancers at Wounded Knee, South Dakota with a Gatling gun , an early automatic weapon, and buried them in a mass grave.
Wounded Knee marked the end of 19th-century Indian resistance on the Plains. Adding insult to injury, reservations shrank in size. In , the government opened up much of Oklahoma, originally set aside as one large reservation, in one of the great land rushes in history. Sooners , or Boomers , were white squatters who rushed across the border to claim land before it officially opened.
Many that left reservations had trouble adjusting, especially those in big cities surrounded by noise, lights, and crowded streets. The list was the product of intense talks with Indians and traders around Fort Laramie. That this is our American Horse is confirmed by the next name, that of his father Sitting Bear. A document generated by the investigative commission indicates that in spring a nascent peace faction of Northern Oglalas was formed, seating four men as Wakichunze or Deciders to head their village organization.
At the end of the year American Horse was one of the peace envoys to visit Fort Laramie in the preliminary treaty talks. In a report by Indian Agent A.
Chamblin he notes the visit in late December by a sizeable deputation of Brules and Oglalas, the latter including American Horse, "one of the Red Clouds' leaders in war parties. In early April Indian messengers located several villages of Lakotas then preparing to deal with the Peace Commission. Clustered around the northwest edge of the Black Hills were several Oglala camps, as follows:.
Oyoucapos, Ogallala, 75 lodges on Head of N. Fork of the Cheyenne River. This is an early indication of American Horse's following becoming semi-independent from the larger Bad Face band. In February the 66 lodge camps of American Horse by now a Shirt Wearer, seated as such in summer was among the Oglala camps gathered near Ft. Laramie during the talks to locate Red Cloud Agency. Something seems to have happened at this stage, because two more detailed lists were prepared by civilian and military authorities, one in March and one in December Neither one lists American Horse or his father Sitting Bear.
It is as if their camp had broken up and been absorbed by other bands. Interestingly, Red Cloud was counted at 78 lodges in February. When recounted the following month "Red Cloud's band" was enumerated in three camps, one of 35 lodges headman Big Foot the Oglala , one of lodges headman Brave Bear , Red Cloud's brother-in-law , and one of 53 lodges headmen Big Foot and Yellow Breast. Although unclear, it seems that the American Horse camp had been absorbed into the Red Cloud camps.
In March Lt. Forsyth reported on the military takeover of Red Cloud Agency No. In so doing he transcribed a working document of Agent Saville's, used as a basis in assessing rations at the agency. The Bad Face band is there rated at a total of lodges certainly inflated , comprising nineteen sub-bands. Among them are American Horse, 14 lodges, and Sitting Bear, 7 lodges. Sometime between spring and summer , the American Horse camp became identified with the Loafer band. Perhaps this reflects a distancing from Red Cloud's ongoing feud with agent Saville?
After the final settlement of the Oglalas at Pine Ridge Agency, there is a final shift in American Horse's affiliation. Beginning in the Oglala bands settled along the creeks draining north into White River. The major bands settled as follows:. American Horse and his band settled along the west fork of Medicine Root, near the Kiyaksa. Pine Ridge interpreter John Colhoff , very knowledgeable about Oglala bands and headmen, consistently identified American Horse as chief of the Kiyaksa band. Could one or more of those wives Ephriam told us about, married in the 80s, have been Kiyaksa?
Alternatively, was American Horse's mother a Kiyaksa? So were American Horse and Tangle Hair half-brothers? The source of Ancestry. I wonder if they have kept a family tree or something Ricker interviews of the University of Nebraska Press.
The inscription says:. Chief American Horse with Squaw No. Photo Co Chadron Neb. From the same book: "American Horse told Ricker that his grandfather was ninety-six years old when he died in Col Hatch from Sgt. MacKenzie on October 25, The bearer of this letter, American Horse, a chief of the Loafer Band of the Sioux, is the man who killed Sioux Jim, a member of his band who refused to be arrested by the troops, for which reason I think him a very good Indian and I wish you would have him well treated when at your Post.
I wish you would also have Mr. James to introduce him to the Comanche Chiefs as a friend of mine and tell them to treat him well and take him Buffalo hunting if he wishes to go American Horse thinks his sister is with the Southern Cheyennes. Please give him a line to Agent Miles and ask him to assist him all he can, as he is a very good Indian.
I've been told that Mari Sandoz also mentioned a sister of American Horse being married to a Cheyenne in Cheyenne Autumn , but I have to check that - what's more, I don't have that book. Incidentally, in the preface of this interview dated August 13, , Ricker speaks of the "two wives" of American Horse thus corroborating Ephriam's notes on American Horse being married to Sleep and Josie only after and of two daughters named Alice "put to school when she was seven and not released till she was seventeen" and Julia. About American Horse's grandfather: It would be interesting to get the whole census and get his name, supposing that he was living with American Horse who had at least another brother.
It shouldn't be forgotten that it was American Horse's grandfather who began keeping the family's wintercount. Julia American Horse. Charles American Horse. I can't remember seeing too many photos of a "squaw" dance. American Horse should be the man standing left with the cane. Here there are two of the latest pictures of American Horse:. American Horse, December American Horse, The usual image from this session features Buffalo Bill in place of Sgt.
American Horse joined Buffalo Bill's Wild West at least for the Staten Island tour as attested by some pictures and newspaper reports but I don't know if he toured with Cody in later years. I remember reading somewhere that one or two of American Horse's sons joined the Wild West Show one of them would be the Native leading the "Sioux Ghost Dance" in the Edison video but can't remember where I got this info right now.
I'll check in the next days. A photograph of him taken by Gertrude Kasebier around appears in Fleming and Luskey. Here are two photos from the Beinecke Library:. I think I got an idea about the identity of the boy after reading "Cincinnati" on the bottom corner of the picture. The great chief was pleased and dictated to his young friend the following letter, in which was inclosed a photograph of himself and wife and daughter. The letter reports only the boy's name, Edwin. Most probably, American Horse visited him in while en route to Carlisle. The pictures of American Horse taken at Carlisle portray him in more or less the same regalia he wears in Dietmar's pictures, see below.
American Horse, Carlisle, Red Cloud and American Horse were east on business, however, not with the show. Is the Godkin [photo below] the earliest American Horse portrait, or was the delegation earlier? When was he working? It can't have been much later than 77 or And another from I don't have specific information about Godkin's activity, but yes, in that portrait American Horse looks quite the same he does in the delegation picture, at least if you mean this one:.
In a rush but I wanted to say that the earliest photo including American Horse, that I'm aware of, is the one taken during the delegation visit to Washington, featuring leaders from Red Cloud, Spotted Tail, and Cheyenne River agencies, outside the Treasury Building. American Horse is seated on the ground in the front row. A less known picture of American Horse:. I've finally managed to scan the picture of the Lakota delegation to Washington.
American Horse is marked with number 53; at his left n. In the front row, first from left, R. Second from left is Commissioner for Indian Affairs J.