wordpress-11600-25562-61098.cloudwaysapps.com/sapphire-the-atlantians-the-sapphire-series.php He also paraphrases verse 9 an incident in a text that has been lost about Satan and Michael the Archangel quarreling over the body of Moses. Their destruction prophesied 14— Concluding Doxology 24—25 . The Epistle of Jude is held as canonical in the Christian Church. Conservative scholars date it between 70 and Some scholars consider the letter a pseudonymous work written between the end of the 1st century and the first quarter of the 2nd century because of its references to the apostles  and to tradition  and because of its competent Greek style.
The first historical record of doubts as to authorship are found in the writings of Origen of Alexandria , who spoke of the doubts held by some, albeit not him. Eusebius classified it with the "disputed writings, the antilegomena. Not a lot is known of Jude, which would explain the apparent need to identify him by reference to his better-known brother. As the brother of James the Just, it has traditionally meant Jude was also the brother of Jesus, since James is described as being the brother of Jesus.
For instance Clement of Alexandria c. There is also a dispute as to whether "brother" means someone who has the same father and mother, or a half-brother or cousin or more distant familial relationship. This dispute over the true meaning of "brother" grew as the doctrine of the Virgin Birth evolved. Debate continues as to whether the author of the epistle is either, both, or neither. Some scholars have argued that since the author of the letter has not identified himself as an apostle and actually refers to the apostles as a third party, he cannot be identified with Jude the Apostle.
Others have drawn the opposite conclusion, i. The Epistle of Jude is a brief book of only a single chapter with 25 verses. It was composed as an encyclical letter —that is, one not directed to the members of one church in particular, but intended rather to be circulated and read in all churches. The wording and syntax of this epistle in its original Greek demonstrates that the author was capable and fluent.
The epistle is addressed to Christians in general,  and it warns them about the doctrine of certain errant teachers to whom they were exposed. The epistle's style is combative, impassioned, and rushed. Many examples of evildoers and warnings about their fates are given in rapid succession. The epistle concludes with a doxology , which is considered by Peter H. Davids to be one of the highest in quality contained in the Bible. Part of Jude is very similar to 2 Peter mainly 2 Peter chapter 2 , so much so that most scholars agree that there is a dependence between the two, i.
Because this epistle is much shorter than 2 Peter, and due to various stylistic details, some writers consider Jude the source for the similar passages of 2 Peter. Some scholars who consider Jude to predate 2 Peter note that the latter appears to quote the former but omits the reference to the non-canonical book of Enoch. The Epistle of Jude references at least two other books, with one being non-canonical in all churches and the other non-canonical in most churches.
Verse 9 refers to a dispute between Michael the Archangel and the devil about the body of Moses.
Some interpreters understand this reference to be an allusion to the events described in Zechariah —2. Verses 14—15 contain a direct quotation of a prophecy from 1 Enoch The title "Enoch, the seventh from Adam" is also sourced from 1 En. Most commentators assume that this indicates that Jude accepts the antediluvian patriarch Enoch as the author of the Book of Enoch which contains the same quotation. However, an alternative explanation is that Jude quotes the Book of Enoch aware that verses 14—15 are in fact an expansion of the words of Moses from Deuteronomy The Book of Enoch is not considered canonical by most churches, although it is by the Ethiopian Orthodox church.
According to Western scholars, the older sections of the Book of Enoch mainly in the Book of the Watchers date from about BC and the latest part Book of Parables probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Book of the Bible. Not to be confused with Gospel of Judas. Matthew Mark Luke John.
Significantly, Michael dared not bring against him a reviling accusation. Michael did not mock or accuse the devil. If Michael dared not bring against him a reviling accusation against the devil , how much more should these certain men not speak evil of dignitaries. But these speak evil of whatever they do not know; and whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves.
But these speak evil : In contrast to Michael, who would not even speak evil of the devil, these certain men spoke evil, especially when they rejected authority and spoke against dignitaries. Their evil speech was made worse by their ignorance. Since they also spoke against dignitaries and rejected authority, these certain men did not know about true spiritual leadership and authority — so they found it easy to speak evil against it.
Whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves : These certain men pretended to be spiritual, but their only knowledge was really natural. Even what they knew naturally , they still used to corrupt themselves with an unspiritual mind. Brute beasts can be smart or clever in an instinctive way, but they obviously do not have spiritual knowledge. It was the same way with these certain men. Each of the sons of Adam and Eve brought an offering to the Lord. Cain being a farmer brought an offering from his harvest.
Abel being a shepherd brought an offering from his flocks. Many people assume that because Abel brought a blood sacrifice and Cain brought a grain sacrifice, that the difference between the two offerings was sacrificial blood. But the real difference was between faith and unbelief.
Hebrews makes this plain: By faith Abel offered to God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts; and through it he being dead still speaks. But his sacrifice was offered without faith, and therefore it was unacceptable to God. You can give to God whatever you have or whatever you are, but you must offer it in faith.
The way of Cain : Genesis says that after God rejected his sacrifice, Cain was very angry, and his countenance fell.
He became angry because he knew he was rejected by God. In a fit of anger Cain murdered Abel, and then he lied about it to God. The way of Cain : Jude says that Cain typifies a way that the certain men follow in. It is the way of unbelief and empty religion, which leads to jealousy, persecution of the truly godly, and eventually to murderous anger. There is no greater curse on the earth than empty, vain religion; those who have a form of godliness but denying its power 2 Timothy No wonder Paul added, and from such people turn away!
Many Christians are afraid of secular humanism or atheism or the world. But dead religion is far more dangerous, and sends more people to hell than anything else. These certain men were in the way of Cain , which is the way of dead religion. During the time of the Exodus, Israel advanced to the land of Moab, after defeating the Amorites. The first delegation from King Balak arrived and God told Balaam to have nothing to do with them.
After the first visit another, more prestigious delegation came with great riches. Balaam wanted to go with them and God allowed him to go. Balaam lusted after the riches and prestige offered to him and God gave him over to his own sin. God warned Balaam to turn back when he was on the way to see Balak. Yet his heart was set on the rich reward King Balak promised and he continued on.
Balaam even ignored a talking donkey, sent to warn him to turn back. Balaam knew that he has done wrong. He continued on, refusing to see that when God says no, we must take it as a no. Instead, God gave Balaam what his sinful heart desired. When he was unsuccessful in cursing Israel, Balaam advised Balak on how to bring Israel under a curse. Instead of trying to have a prophet curse Israel, he should lead her into fornication and idolatry and then God would curse a disobedient Israel.
Balak did just that, sending his young women into the camp of Israel to lead Israel into sexual immorality and idolatry. Therefore Balaam was guilty of the greatest of sins: deliberately leading others into sin. Worse yet, he did it for money. Greedily in the error of Balaam for profit : The greedy error of Balaam was that he was willing to compromise everything for money. The certain men Jude warned about had the same heart. Many Christians would never deny Jesus under persecution, but might deny Him if offered a large sum of money. There is not a single sin that corrupt man will not commit for the sake of money.
Covetousness is such a dangerous sin that it killed Jesus — 30 pieces of silver helped put Jesus on the cross. This is a strong picture of excessive indulgence. But Paul also uses the same term for the extravagant way God loves us: the love of God has been poured out in our hearts Romans He was a prominent man in Israel, and one day came to Moses, saying, You take too much upon yourself, for all the congregation is holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them. Why then do you exalt yourself about the congregation of the LORD?
Numbers Korah and his followers resented the authority God gave to Moses and Aaron. Moses then proposed a test: each group took censers for burning incense and came before the Lord. When they both came before God, the Lord told Moses to step away. Then, the ground opened up and swallowed Korah and his followers. After that, fire came down from heaven and burned up all of his supporters. They all perished. Rebellion : Korah was a Levite, but not of the priestly family of Aaron. As a Levite, he had had his own God-appointed sphere of ministry, yet he was not content with it.
He wanted the ministry and the authority of Moses. Korah needed to learn this essential lesson: we should work hard to fulfill everything God has called us to be. At the same time, we should never try to be what God has not called us to be. When the certain men rejected authority and spoke evil against dignitaries, they walked in the rebellion of Korah. These three men came from quite different backgrounds: Cain was a farmer, Balaam was a prophet, and Korah was a leader in Israel.
Apostasy is never confined to one group of people. These are spots in your love feasts, while they feast with you without fear, serving only themselves. They are clouds without water, carried about by the winds; late autumn trees without fruit, twice dead, pulled up by the roots; raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame; wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.
Spots in your love feasts : The early Christians often met for a common meal, something like a potluck dinner. They ate greedily at the love feasts while others went hungry. At the Agape Feast, everybody brought what they could — some a little, some a lot; but they all shared it together. For some slaves who were Christians it might have been the only decent meal they regularly ate. The selfishness of these certain men spoiled the fellowship. Many who would never eat selfishly at a church meal still come to church concerned with serving only themselves.
They were shepherds of a sort — but only shepherding themselves. Clouds without water, carried by the winds : Clouds without water are good for nothing. They bring no life-giving rain and they only block out the sun. They exist just for themselves. The certain men were like these clouds. Once while driving by a factory, my daughter Aan-Sofie looked at the billows of white smoke coming from the smoke stacks. Late autumn trees without fruit : By late autumn , trees should have fruit. But these certain men did not bear fruit even when they should.
They were like trees that only take instead of give. Raging waves of the sea : For modern man, the sea is often a thing of beauty. But to ancient man, especially in Biblical cultures, the sea was an unmanageable terror. Isaiah expresses this idea: But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.
These certain men were busy and active like the raging waves of the sea , but all it brought was foaming up their own shame. Busyness is no mark of correctness. The fruit of these men was like the foam or scum at the seashore. Jude has in mind the ugly shoreline after a storm has washed up all sorts of driftwood, seaweed and debris.
Jude converted countless others to the faith as well. Begin reading God's Word ad-free with instant access to your new online study library. Grunewald passed away the following day. Judah uses Old Testament and Jewish literature to demonstrate how rebellious people receive divine justice and warn against rebellious, corrupt teachers who reject God's messengers. In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. Jude Novena - Day 1 Join in praying the St. Looking for Something?
Wandering stars : Like comets streaking through the sky, these certain men astonished the world for a time, and then vanished into darkness. An unpredictable star was no good for guidance and navigation. Even so these deceivers were useless and untrustworthy. Blackness of darkness forever : This described their destiny. Unless they repent, they would end up in hell — and be there forever.
The punishment of hell is forever because a mere man is paying for his own sins, offering an imperfect sacrifice which must be repeated over and over again for eternity. A perfect man can offer a single sacrifice; but an imperfect man must continually offer a sacrifice. Our obligations to God are infinite and can therefore only be satisfied in Jesus, an infinite person.
The ancient book of Enoch was not received as Scripture, but it was highly respected among both the Jews and early Christians. But because they contained many famous testimonies concerning Jesus Christ, the Jews out of malice suppressed and abolished the whole book. Jude did not quote from Enoch to tell us anything new, but to give a vivid description of what the Bible already teaches.
The Apostle Paul also quoted non-Biblical sources on at least three different occasions Acts , 1 Corinthians and Titus To convict all who are ungodly : In this quotation from the book of Enoch Jude emphasized the words all and ungodly. God is coming to judge all of the ungodly. To execute judgment on all : Many people take the judgment of God lightly. Am I accountable to Him? Think of someone arrested for a crime, with a date to appear in court — but made absolutely no preparation for his appearance before the judge.
That person would be a fool. These are grumblers, complainers, walking according to their own lusts; and they mouth great swelling words, flattering people to gain advantage. But you, beloved, remember the words which were spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ: how they told you that there would be mockers in the last time who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts. Grumblers, complainers… they mouth great swelling words, flattering people : Jude noticed that their methods all revolved around words. On top of their questionable lives, they were essentially a people of deception, departing from the foundation of Jesus Christ, and the apostles and prophets.
These are grumblers, complainers : These people were complainers. It has rightly been observed that whenever a man gets out of touch with God, he is likely to begin complaining about something. They are discontented even with the gospel. The bread of heaven must be cut into three pieces, and served on dainty napkins, or else they cannot eat it; and very soon their soul hates even this light bread.
There is no way by which a Christian man can serve God so as to please them. Flattering people : These certain men knew how to use smooth, flattering words to get an advantage over other people. They would say anything — good or bad — to get an advantage. But you, beloved, remember : We are to be different. We are to remember what Jesus and the apostles said, which were spoken by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ.
The word of God is always the answer to dangers in or out of the church. The apostles had warned that just these things would happen; and even more so as the day approaches: For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine, but according to their own desires, because they have itching ears, they will heap up for themselves teachers; and they will turn their ears away from the truth, and be turned aside to fables 2 Timothy Mockers… who would walk according to their own ungodly lusts : Those who live according to their own ungodly lusts love to mock those who want to please God.
These are sensual persons : Essentially, these men were not spiritual ; they were carnal and insensitive to the Holy Spirit. Sensual in this context has nothing to do with sexual attractiveness. It describes the person who lives only by and for what he can get through his physical senses, and he lives this way selfishly. Who cause divisions : These certain men had an instinct to separate themselves and make divisions.
Not having the Spirit : This same description could be written over many churches, or church projects, or evangelism campaigns, or home groups, or even individual Christian lives. The church and the world truly need genuinely spiritual men and women today.
Significantly, Jude does not tell us to attack the certain men who are a danger to the church. Instead, he tells us to focus on our walk with the Lord, help others affected by the certain men, and to focus on God. We simply are to pay the certain men no attention, except for what is necessary for our warning. God will take care of them. But you, beloved, building yourselves up on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.
Keep yourselves in the love of God : We know that God loves even the ungodly Romans But we should understand what it means when the Bible says that God loves the ungodly. The significance of the idea that God loves us all has been twisted considerably. The sun is always out there, always shining, but they are never in a position to receive its light or warmth. An example of this is the Prodigal Son of Luke 15, who was always loved by the father, but for a time he did not benefit from it.
Building yourselves up on your most holy faith : This is one way that we can keep ourselves in the love of God.
It means to keep growing spiritually, and to keep building up. It means that we cannot wait for spiritual growth to just happen, or expect others to make us grow. Jude has shown us the frailty of men and how deceivers even infiltrated the church. If you entrust your spiritual growth to someone else, it will not only hurt your spiritual growth, but it may also lead you astray. Others can help provide an environment conducive for spiritual growth. But no one can make another person grow in his relationship with the Lord. On your most holy faith : The most holy faith is the same as the faith once for all delivered to the saints Jude 3.
Jude is talking about growing on your most holy faith. We grow on the foundation of the truth. Praying in the Holy Spirit : This is another way to keep ourselves in the love of God. The battle against wrong living and wrong teaching is a spiritual battle, requiring prayer in the Holy Spirit. Many of our prayers are directed by our own needs, by our own intellects, or by our own wishes and desires.
But there is a higher level of prayer: Likewise the Spirit also helps in our weaknesses. For we do not know what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself makes intercession for us Romans The Holy Spirit may help us pray by giving us the right words to say when we pray.
He may speak through groanings which cannot be uttered Romans Or the Holy Spirit may do it through the gift of tongues, a gift God gives to seeking hearts, which want to communicate with Him on a deeper level than normal conversation. Looking for the mercy of Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life : This is a third way that we can keep ourselves in the love of God.
And on some have compassion, making a distinction; but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire, hating even the garment defiled by the flesh. On some have compassion : Jude begins here to tell us what we must do with those who have been influenced by these certain men. We need to make a distinction , based on where they are coming from. Certainly, on some have compassion. Using wisdom we approach different people in different manners. By being sensitive to the Holy Spirit, we can know when we should comfort, and when we should rebuke.
Christians should not abandon a friend flirting with false teaching. They should help him through it in love. The means we continue to love them. No matter how bad a person is, or how misleading and terrible their doctrine, we are not allowed to hate them — or to be unconcerned for their salvation. Compassion often means watching over someone, helping them with accountability. Others save with fear : This second group must be confronted more strongly — but in fear , not in a sanctimonious superiority.
You may need to pull them out of the fire , but never do it in pride. This outward look is important. It demonstrates that we are not only concerned for our own spiritual welfare. It proves that we genuinely care about other Christians who are edging towards significant error. Now to Him who is able to keep you from stumbling, And to present you faultless Before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy, To God our Savior, Who alone is wise, Be glory and majesty, Dominion and power, Both now and forever.
Now to Him : Jude closes the letter with a famous doxology a brief declaration of praise to God. Perhaps his original readers thought that with so much false teaching and immorality around, very few Christians would ever reach heaven. Here he reminds them that the answer lies only in the power of God.
In the same manner, if we keep connected with God, we cannot fall. He keeps us safe. By comparing passages of Scripture, we also find out who is really responsible for our safe keeping. Jude began the letter by addressing those who are preserved in Jesus Jude 1. Then he exhorted Christians to avoid dangerous men and to keep themselves in the love of God Jude 21 Here at the end he concluded with the recognition that it is ultimately God who keeps us from stumbling and falling.
Paul put the same idea in Philippians work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure. But you can always tell the people He is working in, because they are working also. He calls us to a partnership with Him. We can be presented before Him with exceeding joy.