They drive us to do all kinds of things not found in the animal kingdom towards those to whom we are not related - to be charitable to strangers, to look after old people and the sick, to ardently support our local sports team, and to work together to innovate and create knowledge, technology, and spectacular works of art. However, these instincts are a double-edged sword, and, Pagel contends, linked to a much darker side of our nature. For most of their existence humans have faced a continuous struggle to survive, with competition from other humans one of the main threats.
He suggests that, as a result, these societies developed hostile attitudes to outsiders, which has left a legacy on our behaviour today, in the form of xenophobia, parochialism, racism and, in some cases, a drive to carry out violence and war. The same instinct can also drive violence against group members who are seen to violate group norms. This, he argues, is because their actions are seen as threatening the sense of togetherness on which the group's survival depends. He cites the Rwandan genocide as an example of where a breakdown in a sense of shared cultural identity contributed to mass violence of this nature.
Societies have a lower sense of cultural relatedness than has been true for the much of humans' evolutionary history, and that this puts under strain social rules which have been developed for different cultures. The book closes with a brief but tantalising consideration of how our cultural psychology, developed over millennia living in relatively distinct cultural groups with shared values and allegiances, is adapting to the new age of globalization and the emergence of multi-cultural societies.
His analysis is that, on the surface, such societies have a lower sense of cultural relatedness than has been true for the much of humans' evolutionary history, and that this puts under strain social rules which have been developed for different cultures. To maintain cohesion these societies will depend upon the clear enforcement of cultural or democratically derived rules, and they will face pressure as individualistic and self-interested behaviour grows and groups seeks to break away from the whole.
However, he is hopeful that our unique social talent for cooperation with others will ultimately trump our parochial instincts and find new ways to build a sense of shared culture and purpose. At a time when culture and identity is playing an ever more salient role in domestic politics and international affairs in countries across the world, Wired For Culture provides a valuable new perspective on contemporary events. But above all, it is a highly accessible account of the epic and rapid rise of the human species in the earth's recent history. By putting the spotlight on the role of culture in our evolution, this book provides fascinating insights into the deep origins of our own behaviours, values, and identities, and of the scientific underpinnings of culture.
Indeed, you might call this a pre-history of the human soul. Cosgrove, Denis, and William L. Photography and Flight. London: Reaktion Books, Eden, David, and Menhard Saremba, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Gilbert and Sullivan. Edmonson, Belinda. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Fay, Elizabeth. Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, Who Can Stop the Drums? Urban Social Movements in Chavez's Venezuela. Frank, Jason. Garot, Robert.
dynipalo.tk: The Spectacular State: Culture and National Identity in Uzbekistan (Politics, History, and Culture) (): Laura Adams: Books. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Adams's book makes an impressive contribution to the sociological The Spectacular State: Culture and National Identity in Uzbekistan (Politics, History, and Culture) - Kindle edition by Laura L. Adams. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like.
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