www.cwellspainting.com/includes/mobile/2581-spy-sms.php Portions of this paper have been adapted from two earlier works Slocum and Cadieux, ; Cadieux and Slocum, ; here, we develop an analysis of the social space of food justice. L'approfondissement des ressorts de l'action collective. The local scale is imagined as more ecologically viable, economically self-sustaining, and accountable . Article 2 art. L'exclusion : des mots pour le dire. Mme Elisabeth Guigou , garde des sceaux, ministre de la justice M.
Le montant mensuel de l'A. Code de l'action sociale et des familles. Remplace l'actuel Code de la famille et de l'aide sociale. Modifie notamment le code de la famille et de l'aide sociale art. Modifie l'article D. Loi no du 13 juillet d'orientation pour la ville. Adoption : FRAL L et L dudit Code.
Gabon - Social assistance and services - Regulation, Decree, Ordinance. Adoption : GABR Georgia - Social assistance and services - Law, Act. Law No. Georgia - Social assistance and services - Regulation, Decree, Ordinance. Joint Decree of the Minister of Labour, Health and Social Protection and of the Minister of Finance on establishing and implementing the rules on providing social family assistance Provides for rules on implementing Presidential Decree No.
The Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Protection shall implement and monitor the program, as set forth in the Decree, in collaboration with NGOs, and local and self-governance bodies. Germany - Social assistance and services - Law, Act. Article 1. Amendments to the Implementation of Civil Code Act par. Article 3. Amendments to the Act regulating houses rental Article 4. Entry into force. Act to amend: Act on benefits for asylum-seekers and Social Courts Act.
Amendment to the Social Courts Act changes in wording Article 3. Act to stabilize Performers' Social Charge Rates. Amendment to the Accident health reorganization Act Article 4. Amendment to the Regulation on the control of payment of contribution shares and the social charge based on the Performers Social Security Act Article 5.
Subsequent changes Article 6. Germany - Social assistance and services - Regulation, Decree, Ordinance. Makes minor amendments to wording and provisions concerning monthly allowances for youth voluntary service participants. Act on the coordination of social security systems in Europe. Sets out the rules of social assistance in Germany: Chapter 1 - General provisions Chapter 2 - Public Welfare services Chapter 3 - Assistance for livelihood Chapter 4 - Basic security for elderly and disabled persons Chapter 5 - Healthcare assistance Chapter 6 - Integration assistance for disabled Chapter 7 - Care Assistance Chapter 8 - Assistance in overcoming special social difficulties Chapter 9 - Assistance in other life circumstances Chapter 10 - Facilities equipment and services Chapter 11 - Use of income and wealth Chapter 12 - Competences of the social assistance Chapter 13 - Costs Chapter 14 - Procedural provisions Chapter 15 - Statistics Chapter 16 - Transitional and Final Provisions.
New Version of the Act on Housing Benefit. Amendment of the Act on Housing Benefits and other Acts. Adoption : DEUL Amends Law on Housing Benefits and related laws with regard to calculation of benefits. Fourth law amending the eleventh book of the social security code 4. Amends eleventh book of the social security code. Establishes cases in which welfare and similar benefits shall not be taken into account in determining claims to, and obligations to provide, carer payments.
These measures shall be executed on an experimental basis. Act to amend the Federal Act on social assistance to war victims. Inserts a new s. Membership in the SS shall constitute grounds for review if an applicant is entitled to benefits. Notification under the Federal Social Assistance Act.
Provides for assistance to meet living expenses and to cover special living situations. Concerns social assistance in general and the relationship between the different social assistance bodies, and contains special provisions dealing with disabled persons. Federal Act on Welfare Tribunals. Act of 6 October introducing a social insurance identity card and amending other Acts on social affairs. The stated purpose is to assist in unveiling illegal employment relationships and to prevent fraud.
The Act provides for measures to protect personal data.
Consequential amendments and other minor amendments are made to the Fifth and Tenth Books of the Social Code, the Ordinance on government insurance, the Act on employee insurance, the Act on pension insurance in mining, the Employment Promotion Act LS Ger. Act of 18 December on adequate financing of social insurance for artists. Transfers the administration of the artists' social insurance fund to another entity. Also adds a subsection to s. Notification of the consolidated text of the Federal Social Assistance Act.
All amendments up to 1 Jan. The Act contains provisions on meeting subsistence needs, assistance in special circumstances and various administrative matters. Act on social assistance to war victims Federal Pensions Act. An Act further to extend the legislation relating to disabled persons. Amends the Disabled Persons Act of 14 Aug. Ghana - Social assistance and services - Law, Act. Legal Aid Scheme Act, No. Adoption : GHAL Greece - Social assistance and services - Law, Act. Article 14 of the present Law regulates labour issues of employees of Detention Centres. More specifically, in its para 1, regulates the hour-plan of working days night work, day and night work on Sundays and rest days, work supplementing the obligatory week-plan and work exceeding the obligatory week-plan, the hour-plan of overtime swing shift for the personnel employed in Detention Centres and in the Service of External Safeguarding thereof during the period from Para 2 regulates the hour-plan of work beyond the five working days of the safeguarding personnel employed in Detention Centres and in the Service of External Safeguarding during the period from Para 3 introduces an exception for the remuneration due for overtime work on rest days and night work, as well as for work beyond the five working days of the personnel employed in Detention Centres provided during the years , and to be paid during fiscal year Para 4 regulates the covering of the expenditures arising from paras 1, 2 and 3.
Para 2 amends element 5. Paras 3 to 6 amend the formulation of element 5. Article 28 sets forth the creation of new organic positions for permanent personnel within the Manpower Employment Organization OAED and regulates issues regarding the allocation of the positions per sector and department and the requirements in the advertising of the posts. Para 2 enacts the following complementary measures for the year a Exemption from the payment of healthcare contributions for persons having lost the provision of benefit amounting to 30 euros and above per month; b Granting of a monthly-prepaid card to persons having lost the provision of benefit amounting to euros and above per month.
Para 3 sets the date of entry into force of the provisions of the present article as of Para 3 regulates the agreed monetary counter-performance and paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 further details on the conclusion and execution of the aforementioned contracts. Chapter A introduces measures of direct financial assistance for the benefit of persons and families living under conditions of extreme poverty, concerning the free of cost electricity reconnection and provision article 1 , a rental allowance for securing housing article 2 and a feeding subsidy article 3.
Paragraph 3 regulates the transfer of the General Secretariat of Social Insurance as a whole of Services and with all its powers, bodies, positions and personnel, from the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Health to the one of Ministry of Labour, Social Insurance and Social Solidarity. Article 30 regulates the disease benefits in kind for unemployed and underemployed persons or persons who no longer enjoy an insurance eligibility due to debts to insurance carriers. Article 32 regulates the feeding of third-country nationals temporarily accommodated in the pre-removal centres for the detention of aliens.
Article 39 adjusts the extension of term and the payroll of the auxiliary doctors on service. Chapter A: Assistance to families with 3 children Chapter B: Assistance to families with more than 3 children Chapter C: Provisions related to social solidarity issues including also provisions on the National Council on Families and Population.
Greece - Social assistance and services - Regulation, Decree, Ordinance. Adoption : GRCR Adoption : GRCL Emergency Law No.
Grenada - Social assistance and services - Regulation, Decree, Ordinance. National Insurance Benefit Amendment Regulations Statutory Rules and Orders No. As an ideal, food justice is a radical critique of capitalism, neoliberalism, colonialism, exploitation, systemic racism, and patriarchy through the different but related registers of food sovereignty, food democracy, food solidarity, feminist food justice, and fair trade e. As its name implies, food justice seeks transformative change through greater control over food production and consumption by those marginalized in society. C'est pourquoi D.
We argue that this radical critique suggests the creation of agrifood spaces different from those of the current food system but also from those produced by the dominant U. But none of these would exist were it not for the relations and processes that made them agricultural policy, systemic racism, gender relations, assumptions about health, food movement organizing. Critical to our argument, is that food justice would do so using a different praxis than what we have witnessed so far in the food movement.
Thus to create a more equitable food system, food justice would apply analyses that explicitly take power and equity into account, resulting in different processes of engagement with marginalized communities as well as a different focus of effort. It would, first, directly build on antiracist politics, not add it as an afterthought Slocum, Relatedly, it would work to create alliance on the basis of solidarity, a mode of action that is part of socio-spatially transformative practice.
In other words, these are areas where transformative change is happening or needs to occur in the ways we propose below. For practitioners interested in food justice, we suggest that these nodes also serve as focal points around which to investigate whether the spatial politics of the food movement is having a transformative effect.
These are areas, finally, around which to build solidarity. This special issue explores the connections between agriculture and food justice. We first discuss methods section 2 before we outline the food justice nodes section 3 and then define race section 4. Section 5 begins our discussion of the case studies.
There, and in section 6, we offer examples of U. We conclude with a discussion of solidarity. Our analysis in this paper derives from patterns that we independently recognized across our very different study sites and then collectively shaped into the argument we develop here.
Empirical support for our claims comes from ten years of ethnographic and survey research conducted by the authors in the urban and rural upper Midwest and Northeast U.
This research falls into the general areas of rural and urban development, antiracism advocacy, decolonizing practice, food studies education, alternative economies, and community-based, participatory action research on food policy. All three authors have carried out grant-funded analyses of food movement projects and research action as academics and activists.
The studies outlined in figure 1 provided us with a number of opportunities to investigate diverse social practices that constitute the relational spaces of the food movement. Alkon and Agyeman, and activists. We noticed that while some agreement seemed to be taking shape around what food justice means, the specifics of its practice often remained unexamined Slocum and Cadieux, In addition to research focusing on food movement advocates and, to lesser extent consumers, we have spent considerable time in conversation with farmers.
For them, the justice issues typically concern the difficulty of making a living in the face of competition, state regulation, low prices, unavailable credit, the politics of local distribution options and rising land values. Although some farmers in Minnesota are engaged in labor certification processes like the Agricultural Justice Project, small-scale farmers sometimes use their hardship to justify exploitative labor arrangements see also Harrison and Lloyd, Specifically, our approach is shaped by a feminist and anti-colonial commitment to work along with, and not merely report on, the work of marginalized people whose understandings and practices are sometimes left out of scholarship Young, ; Pratt, Committed to methods for studying and building theory that are useful to people involved in the work of creating more just food systems, we have sought to share the tools and knowledge systems of our discipline with members of the food movement as well as to learn from their perspectives Cadieux, b .
On the basis of our fieldwork, as well as the research of other scholars and practitioners, we can identify four primary nodes at which food justice organizing seeks to intervene toward a more equitable food system figure 2.
These four are the result of a collaborative effort among ourselves, but they also developed very much in conversation with the practitioners whose work we both support and critique. Specifically, they come from listening to voices often peripheral to and critical of the dominant food movement, as well as engaging with mainstream food movement practitioners. This process of scholar-activism has involved navigating our multiple positions of privilege and marginality within diverse food movement efforts.
We have wrestled with the twin desires to define food justice on the one hand, and not speak for others or limit what other groups might consider food justice on the other Cadieux and Slocum It is in this spirit that we invite scholars and practitioners to engage with our analysis, acknowledging that our understanding of food justice is largely U.
Places, she argued, are created through networks of time-space relations Massey, For our purposes a node trauma and equity as point of intervention is not just a metaphor. It indicates the space of politics where people work to change the food system structured by social relations and altered by the different praxis evident in food justice organizing. Given the principles carried forward by food justice and its kindred concepts, we would expect interventions at these points to create agrifood spaces that eventually look, feel, and act radically different from the existing food movement.
An analysis of inequality is central to food justice. For some groups, it may be most important to deal with the traumas of loss of young lives and language, land and livelihood, in order to develop the sense of identity and the capacity to build sovereignty for themselves. Building capacity to adequately acknowledge and heal trauma is an initial reckoning that, in our experience, mainly white majority groups might also undertake as part of the process of embarking on a land care or labor-focused project.
It is not only white people who need to understand inequality and trauma, though their privilege may require more hard thought. For example, if a group comprised of African Americans were to attempt solidarity with Latino farm workers, all involved would benefit from understanding how relations of race, class, and nation differently organize the spatial division of labor and control of wealth. Having begun to mention race and racial inequality, we pause here to define race. For us, however, the concept of race is necessary to expose and critique racism.
All bodies are racialized; race refers to any phenotype. Race has been and continues to be an organizing principle of many societies Morris, ; Sansone, ; Moore, ; Saldanha, ; Athreya, ; Fassin and Fassin, That is, in many places around the world, people systematically attach value to phenotype, resulting in categorization, segregation, and inequality Saldanha, The criteria for categorization may shift, but discrimination, so far, remains a constant. The spatiality of racism in the U.
The history of how capital and racism shaped U. In that process there may be an opportunity for food movement advocates to theorize its connections to institutionalized racism and act to create a different food space. When an overwhelmingly white group of residents of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, invited Whole Foods an organic, expensive grocery chain to their gentrifying neighborhood, some were aware that they would displace a supermarket that stocked foods for a diverse and less wealthy Latino population Rey, ; Anguelovski, Similarly, in South Minneapolis, Seward Coop encountered resistance to an expansion into a location between African American and Latino neighborhoods.
Our research and that of others Guthman, has seen similar instances where progressive food movement activists do not seem to understand or want to learn of these connections even though they would be loathe to knowingly create exclusive spaces. This is how white privilege works; white people disavow only explicitly racist acts, remain ignorant of how systemic racism works, and thwart methods to remove their unmerited privilege Pulido Insistence on organic or fair trade has to exist alongside an understanding of the spatial politics linking middle class white comfort to white rural poor and urban Latino diets.
However, changing the phenotype of the people demanding the organic grocery chain does not, by itself , alter the racial state, white supremacy, or the manner in which racism runs through the spaces of society. A nuanced analysis of race and racism is fundamental to a practice of food justice that changes socio-spatial relations. Aspirations to forms of fairness, as opposed to foodie consumerism, have been important to some food movement work on food insecurity and sustainable farming cf.
Paddeu, As we noted earlier, there is now increasing recognition of the need for justice to be at the heart of food organizing. In these organizations, we find that gaps develop between ideal and action, between strategy and capacity, as people struggle to translate between reflection and action. Below we provide a few defining features of the case study site and then discuss the data. Dans la Foodshed Planning Initiative au sud-est du Minnesota initiative de planification de la production alimentaire , V. Our respective studies were located in urban Minneapolis and St. Paul the Twin Cities , Minnesota and the more rural southeast part of the state.
These studies formed one part of locally-focused research into a number of food system endeavors that we each undertook. Begun in , and encompassing most of the major local food-oriented nonprofits in the area, the alliance was created to confront racial injustice in the food system as well as address competition among nonprofits for projects and funding. The research was interested in how the issue of racial inequality would be addressed in policy and programming. In the SE MN Foodshed Planning Initiative, Valentine Cadieux engaged in survey and ethnographic research involving advocates for food security, sustainable farming and a local food economy.
How the initiative dealt with the issue of racial and class inequality was one research question. Our observations are derived from these specific cases as well as previous investigations we have conducted see section 2. Un tel investissement, sans prise en compte conjointe du racisme, est un redoutable frein, comme nous allons maintenant le voir.
Minnesota is the site of considerable work on sustainable food systems  , a landscape dominated by commodity agriculture and extractive industries, and stark racial inequalities. Notably, faith-based and secular sponsorship of refugees from East Africa and SE Asia has resulted in the second highest concentration of Hmong and highest of Somali people in the U. But policy and prejudice have resulted in wealthy spaces that are more racially segregated white than poor ones Goetz, Damiano, and Hicks, The differences between African American and white graduation rates and standardized test scores, health indicators, home-ownership and unemployment are among the worst in the nation.
The dominant and best funded sustainable agriculture, food security, and anti-hunger organizations are illustrations of the critique that the food movement tends to be more white, affluent, and educated than average Minnesotans, creating white spaces where people shop and organize. This investment without a concomitant reckoning with racism is a formidable barrier as we discuss next.
The most obstructive barrier is a hesitancy to acknowledge, analyze, and address structural violence, a feature we have noted across our U. For instance, the majority of food movement leadership interviewed in the Northeast U.
And even those willing to address structural violence do not always know what to do — or what might be most effective — to change it. Twin Cities food movement advocates who joined the Minnesota Food and Justice Alliance MFJA were willing to put antiracism in their mission statement, but not to commit to analyzing how racism works and where it might be most possible to intervene. Survey results showed that members of the Southeast Minnesota Foodshed Planning Initiative were aware of the structural challenges facing migrant labor, but it was difficult to sustain interest when working groups were proposed to address these challenges.
The specific, proximate institutional barriers we found include the:. Ne pas se laisser impressionner. Vous allez rencontrer le directeur du personnel et le patron. Il faut tourner sur les divers postes. Charles Piaget. Avertissez-moi par e-mail des nouveaux commentaires. Avertissez-moi par e-mail des nouveaux articles. Je m'inscris! Entre les lignes entre les mots. Aller au contenu principal. WordPress: J'aime chargement….
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