But beyond prose, Alencar wrote for the theater as well. As asas de um anjo treats the question of social values and morality through the story of Carolina, a high-class prostitute who finds redemption in familial love and chastity. This play does not follow the realist mold of many of his other dramatic compositions but rather is Romantic in its conception. Accordingly, the play should reflect the noble sentiments that the nation was capable of inspiring in its citizens.
The play was put aside and languished until its debut in Thematically, the essays parallel the play, since they appeal to the nationalism of its audience and rail against the evils of colonial domination - be it political or cultural. Nonetheless, whereas in the drama the final act foreshadows the possibility of political emancipation, the articles paint a bleaker picture and the cultural elites of Brazil are deemed hopelessly alienated from their socio-historic realities.
For Alencar, the fervent nationalist, the poor reception of his play was akin to a rejection of Brazilian culture. In his opinion, his patriotic play was lost on an audience that continued to posses a colonized mentality. In Brazil, this law affected more then five hundred Jesuits. Samuel, the protagonist, and his machinations to emancipate Brazil from Portuguese colonial rule.
In the fourth act however, it is revealed that the main character is none other than the Vicar-General of the Jesuit order in Brazil. Samuel disguises himself in order to secretively and thus more effectively carry out his plan to create in Brazil a utopian society, free from colonial rule and its intolerant culture but nevertheless subordinated to a Jesuit ideology.
Por Outros Caminhos: Romance (Portuguese Edition) - Kindle edition by Sérgio Neville Holzmann. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC. (O Caminho da Robustez - Livro n 1) (Portuguese Edition) - Kindle edition by habilidades de luta especiais, é diferente de todos os outros rapazes da sua.
As a reward for his successful campaign, Gomes Freire de Andrade received the title of Count of Bobadela. In this frame of reference, colonial authority, represented by the menacing shadow of Pombal and, more concretely through the figure of the Count of Bobadela, the uncompromising enforcer of colonial rule, is cast as a doubly tyrannical power, subjugating its overseas dominions not only politically and economically but also threatening religious freedom within its colonies. The despotic control of the European metropolis is therefore portrayed not only as stifling but also as intolerant, since it does not allow for any type of dissension or power sharing.
This description of Brazil as a realm of religious and ethnic forbearance asserts a moral dichotomy between colonial metropolis and colony. In casting Brazil as a promised land of tolerance and freedom, Samuel reverses the hierarchical logic in which the colonized country is seen as culturally inferior when compared to the colonial metropolis.
In the tenth scene of the third act, the protagonist declares that it is the Brazilian nature itself that inspires thoughts of freedom. Nature is a fundamental aspect in the formation of national identity. This association between nature and nationalistic sentiment is common in Brazilian Romanticism. The latter is the result of the former. Samuel calls attention towards what he perceives to be the natural deficiency of the Old World, indicating the relationship of dependency between a decadent Europe and a generous, vital Brazil. The model whereby the colony has a dependent and derivative culture is therefore inverted.
Nonetheless, despite his lofty ideals, critics Bier Appel , Aguilar have noted that the figure of Samuel is morally ambivalent. At one level, the main character possesses a visionary quality that endows him with a heroic, quasi supra-human stature. In this context, political emancipation is portrayed as the result of the gradual but inexorable development of a national consciousness. Thus, through Samuel, Alencar suggests that the longing for freedom is ingrained in the national psyche. Even though they fulfilled an important role in the establishment and propagation of European culture in the New World, the Jesuits, in their zeal to convert the indigenous subjects, also had several confrontations with other European settlers, including members of the colonial authority in Brazil.
During colonial times and after independence, such theories created, in the popular imagination, the perception of the Jesuits as duplicitous, Machiavellian figures. It was precisely the suspicion that the members of the Company of Jesus planned to establish an independent state within Portuguese colonial dominions that lead the Marquis de Pombal to declare their expulsion from Brazil in Both novels contain sinister Jesuit villains.
In the tenth scene of the third act, the Count of Bobadela accuses the religious order of greed and of treason.
Desiring to expand the worldly power of his order, Samuel wants to extend this sovereignty to the entirety of Brazil. According to him. Oscillating between noble impulses and Machiavellian behavior, Samuel cannot completely fulfill the role of the romantic, foundational father of the nation. His dream imperils what Alencar believed to be the fundamental principle of the nation: the heterosexual family.
For Samuel the romantic union between spouses must give way to the patriotic union between the nation and its citizens. In Foundational Fictions. In these romances, the family is seen as the basis of the newly emerging societies. Familial bonds not only helped the demographic growth of recently formed states but; at least in the idealized realm of fiction, also consolidated the alliances between different segments of the divided, post-colonial societies.
According to Sommer, the fecund unions between diverse segments of society told a tale of national reconciliation and, therefore, created a stratagem for a prosperous future. We generally think of a text as a sequence of words and punctuation, not characters:. The tags consist of some syntactic information, followed by a plus sign, followed by a conventional part-of-speech tag. Let's strip off the material before the plus sign:. Here's a function that takes a word and a specified amount of context measured in characters , and generates a concordance for that word. We already know that n is the most common tag, so we can set up a default tagger that tags every word as a noun, and see how well it does:.
Evidently, about one in every six words is a noun.
Let's improve on this by training a unigram tagger:. The sentence tokenizer can be trained and evaluated on other text. The source text from the Floresta Portuguese Treebank contains one sentence per line.
We read the text, split it into its lines, and then join these lines together using spaces. Now the information about sentence breaks has been discarded. We split this material into training and testing data:. NLTK's data collection includes a trained model for Portuguese sentence segmentation, which can be loaded as follows. It is faster to load a trained model than to retrain it. Now we can use these to filter text. Let's find the most frequent words other than stopwords and print them in descending order of frequency:.
Type the name of the text or sentence to view it. Type: 'texts ' or 'sents ' to list the materials. Tudo nessa f mim mesmo.
We can automatically generate random text based on a given text, e. Texts as List of Words A few sentences have been defined for you. Processing Tasks Simple Concordancing Here's a function that takes a word and a specified amount of context measured in characters , and generates a concordance for that word.