Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition)

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Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition) book. Happy reading Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. 744) (French Edition) Pocket Guide. This partnership will allow Artprice to project highly pertinent Art Market News and Information on a weekly basis. By reaching more than 1. It is often used to indicate a global marketing strategy with local relays. Cision Ltd. NYSE: CISN is a leading global provider of earned media software and services to public relations and marketing communications professionals. Beijing — Art Market: Artprice launches subscriptions via the Artron. Beijing — following the mention of different dates by third parties, Artprice wishes to clarify today, December 18, that the official start date of marketing of Artprice subscriptions in China via our loyal institutional partner Artron 9 years of collaboration is 1 January not a holiday in China.

As of that date, Artprice will appear on Artron. This is standard practice for the million WeChat users in China. To fully meet the payment requirements of Chinese Internet users, Artprice also offers an Alipay platform that it has developed, enabling it to reach 1. Source Alipay — Alibaba Group. Alipay is also a real-time payment system platform running on a QR Code system.

The seller provides a Qrcode, which the buyer scans with his mobile to accept the transaction. The payment is made instantly and the invoice arrives by email or text message. As of end January , Artprice will communicate a calculated projection of its sales turnover for Over nine years, Artprice has translated hundreds of millions of data from its data banks into Mandarin. In June , China already had no less than 1. The development of mobile internet in China has been exceptionally fast and in June the country boasted 1.

Founded in , the Artron Art Group is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. According to the Artron Group and its founder-Chairman Mr. The founders and Chairmen of both companies, Mr. Wan Jie and Mr. Thierry Ehrmann, with their enthusiasm for art, will create a Silk Road linking the Chinese and Western art markets on the principle of respect and mutual cooperation. The two groups will build a global, diversified and professional exchange platform in the Art Market, which will ultimately promote the sustainable development of the Global Art Market.

Artron and its Chairman Mr. Speaking in front of his senior executives and top management, Mr. Over the past nine years, Artprice has translated hundreds of millions of data from its proprietary databases into Mandarin. Artprice has decided to enter the Chinese market through the front door with a humility that has clearly been lacking in many Western listed companies. Any other strategy would have been a fatal mistake. In order to comply with law CL97, Artprice spent two years rewriting all its databank code in order to eliminate all US and European corporate source code containing cookies, tags, metadata, backdoor elements amongst other elements.

Since Monday morning, Artprice is one of the very few Western companies to possess a WeChat profile reserved for companies operating under Chinese law. WeChat is used by more than 1. The statistics concerning China are eye-watering: a population of over 1. China had initiated the project.

According to CNN, this project encompasses 68 countries representing 4. Artron is a very powerful company and, for those interested in Art or the Art Market, Artron is completely unavoidable in China. Net is the most respected brand in the Chinese art world. The involvement of Artron and its Chairman Mr.

Wan Jie in Art in China is completely uncontested. He is also Vice-Chairman and Founder of the Institute of the famous Forbidden City, where he and thierry Ehrmann visited government offices that are closed to the public during the recent trip to Beijing. It is therefore a great honour for Artprice to have been chosen by Artron and its Chairman Mr. Wan Jie. Artron appreciates the work conducted by Artprice and has validated its place as World Leader in Art Market Information. That is why Artprice subscriptions will be distributed in China, with a huge potential for new customers.

According to Artron and its Chairman Mr. Wan Jie, the only legitimate way to approach this colossal mission was to team up with a recognised and globally authoritative third-party certifier like Artprice, as World Leader in Art Market Information. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces, 4 municipalities, 5 autonomous regions, and 2 Special Administrative Regions. Similarly, Artprice will be accessible via Artron. With this major breakthrough, Artprice will further strengthen its position as World Leader in Art Market Information.

In the context of this extraordinary alliance with Artron and the massive potential for new customers in China, Artprice is anticipating a major boost to its sales and profits. In this context, Artprice, with the assistance of Artron, has just translated million data into the Chinese currency, the Renmimbi RMB. Naturally the primary objective of this translation process is to facilitate the purchase of its data by its new Chinese clientele, presented by Artron.

This captive clientele is accustomed to using Alipay and WeChat 1. This informed decision has been carefully deliberated and enjoys unanimous support within the Group. In Mr. In view of the radical change in scope anticipated, Artprice is naturally moving towards an IPO of its subsidiary artmarket.

Since then I have spent 30 years patiently studying the Middle Kingdom. Beyond this satisfaction, I have had the immense pleasure of knowing Mr. Wan Jie, a founding Chairman with whom I share the same vision regarding the democratization and promotion of art in the world. Artron will soon be publishing a documentary-report explaining all the meetings, discussions and agreements between the Artprice and Artron teams in Beijing.

The selected candidate not a member of the Ehrmann family has all the confidence of thierry Ehrmann, who remains CEO and Chairman of the Group. This informed decision has been carefully deliberated and enjoys the unanimous support with the Group. After seven years of collaboration, cultural exchange and regular trips between China and Europe, the two founders and presidents of Artron and Artprice, WAN Jie and thierry Ehrmann who are exactly the same age and share the same commitments , share the same vision of the Global Art Market and the same passion for Art within the context of a loyal and mutually respectful friendship.

Artron is celebrating his 25 th anniversary. Established in , Artron Art Group celebrates its 25th anniversary this year. Artprice is the world leader in Art Market Information since with 4,, members. A series of development agreements in principle 10, soon to be delivered was discussed and. The scope of the 10 new development agreements discussed on 12 October will have a structural impact on the Global Art Market and on Art History, according to Art historians, in a way that no-one could have imagined. At the same time, Artprice and Artron are on the verge of an extraordinary evolution during which, from a shareholder perspective, Artprice will change in dimension — economically, financially and historically — as of Artron produces all the catalogues of Chinese auction houses and handles the postal or digital mailing of these catalogues to their final customers.

It will be possible for Artprice subscriptions, sold exclusively by Artron in China, to directly reach the target audience. Similarly, Artprice will be featured on the homepage of Artron. Net which, according to many studies, is the most respected brand in the Chinese art world. In order to conform to Law CL97, Artprice spent two years rewriting all its data bank code in order to eliminate all US and European corporate source code containing cookies, tags, metadata or backdoor elements amongst other elements. It has managed to penetrate the core of the Chinese Intranet.

What was discussed on Friday 12 October far exceeds what was originally planned. To understand the power of Artron and its unavoidable position in China, follow the link to this video in English…. China has a huge advantage over the West because it is building its market economy directly on the Internet. Artprice, as the world leader in Art Market information, had to be central to its market. About Artprice:. The City of Light wants to take full of advantage of its prestige and bring back buyers from around the world… it wants to recapture the high-end market.

This ambition requires profound change and deep market restructuring , a process that has already begun. The future of Paris is today far more dependent on the FIAC and on the performances of the major Anglo-Saxon auction houses than on its traditional structures like Drouot and the Salon des Antiquaires. With 60 galleries French galleries among a total of , the FIAC ensures that French creation is not forgotten at the fair.

But booths are expensive in the Grand Palais and the quality of the galleries is extremely high. The auction houses have long understood the importance of organising prestige sales in parallel with the major fairs in order to take full advantage of the concomitant gathering of art professionals and collectors. Others, including Leclere and Cornette de Saint Cyr, are waiting till the end of the event, but will be active as of Monday 22 October.

The major houses hope the spillover from the Paris FIAC will be as beneficial as that from the Frieze on London sales earlier in the month. However, overall, the initial results of the autumn season are extremely positive, often adding value, occasionally showing restraint… proving that the high-end market is capable of selecting the best pieces and of curbing price growth even for the most fashionable Contemporary artists. The Paris major auction sales will therefore be held in a particularly favourable context. A full market is now active on 5 continents.

The Artprice Contemporary Art Market Report , an indispensable tool for anyone attending the big autumn fairs, particularly the Frieze and the Fiac, is available free of charge at the following address:. Period analysed : 1 July — 30 June The 66, transactions hammered over the 12 — month period reflect a market of unprecedented intens ity. Key figures:. The Contemporary Art Price Index posted an increase of Contemporary Art auction results were recorded in 59 countries la st year. Available for free online, the new Artprice Contemporary Art Market Report provides decision support tools via four chapters that analyse the evolution, the organization and the latest trends in the Contemporary Art Market.

The four chapters explore the hottest topics in the global market and provide answers to questions that any art lover, collector, professional or curator who is active in the Contemporary Art Market might have. The principal drivers of this growth are ever-stronger demand for works by the stars of Contemporary art and a proliferation of supply in a particularly favorable economic context. Africa and its diasporas. In the news. Laure Prouvost already has a brilliant career with a superb CV: she studied at Central Saint Martins cinema and Goldsmiths College, received the Max Mara Award in followed by an exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery, before winning the famous Turner Prize in Top C ontemporary works sold at auction July — June Top C ontemporary artists by a uction turnover July — June In order to study this reality, Artprice — the world leader in art market information — has developed a new method of analysis and a range of decision support tools in collaboration with its econometrists , its editorial team and it art historians.

This Contemporary Art Market Report its 21st since goes straight to the heart of this fascinating issue… the role of artists in the modern era. I believe we can safely agree with the poetic understanding of this role enunciated by the philosopher Giorgio Agamben: that a Contemporary artist is he who firmly holds his gaze on his own time so as to perceive not its light, but rather its darkness … a role that is being revived from a long slumber.

In a standardi s ed and globali s ed world, the C ontemporary artist brings us that extra soul which we are constantly in need of. En effet, on compte un taux de satisfaction de Copyright www. H1 Global figures. Artprice, the world leader in Art Market information since , has systematically analysed and digested the results of more than 3, auction sales around the world. This half-year report covers public sales of Fine Art painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, prints and installations. Read Artprice. Since then, it has been operating against a backdrop of negative interest rates that undermine the value of savings and, more recently, in a global context of heightening geopolitical tensions.

During these past 18 years, the Art Market has managed to adapt to reality, not only avoiding its own collapse in the face of financial crises, but actually creating a genuine investment safe-haven without forming a speculative bubble. The attractive returns on art over the last few years have outperformed many other investments and the Art Market has become an independent, liquid and efficient market on all continents. Despite a relatively unfavourable economic context, the global art market has shown signs of buoyancy, driven by a powerful combination of investment logic, speculative buying, passion collecting and insatiable demand for major signatures from new museums around the world.

These growth drivers rely heavily on easy access to reliable Art Market information such as provided by Artprice pioneer and global leader in the field and have been boosted by a whole series of underlying phenomena. Another massive Art Market driver is the new-era museum industry new museums per year that has become a significant economic reality in the 21st century. The global Art Market has also posted linear growth. The Art Market is an efficient, historical and global market whose capacity to resist economic and geopolitical crises requires is now beyond doubt. Our 20th Global Art Market Annual Report is once again the fruit of an alliance between Artprice, world leader in Art Market information, founded and directed by thierry Ehrmann, and Artron, its powerful Chinese institutional partner, directed by Wan Jie.

The result is the only truly global art market report providing reliable insight into both the Western and the Eastern art market. No other organisation or team is currently capable of such high quality processing and interpreting of macro- and micro-economic metadata in a Big Data environment.

The Report can be downloaded in pdf format free of charge at Artprice. France in 4th place accounted for 5. This news was clearly expressed at the annual meeting of auctioneers that took place at the end of The French authorities are working towards a complete overhaul of the much-contested and obsolete regulatory framework that governs public auction sales in France. There can be no doubt that this initiative is part of a new reform dynamic that will lead to the adoption of a new legal framework as of The removal of a major administrative impediment that is unique in Europe would indeed allow the French art market to begin the lengthy process of recovering the position it held for over a century in the global art market.

End of quote. More museums opened between and than in the previous two centuries, and demand for museum-quality works is one of the key factors in the spectacular growth of the Art Market. Chinese artists represent The rest are Europeans Considering the macro and micro-economic data, the last 18 years have confirmed the Art Market as a refuge against economic and financial turbulence, generating substantial and recurring returns.

This new index covers the Top artists in all three major segments: Old Masters, Modern and Contemporary, from all over the world. However, this level of return is not restricted to works by star artists. The Internet Microsoft estimates over 5 billion people connected worldwide has now become the principal and definitive forum for auction operators worldwide who are using it to consolidate their market shares on all continents. The Art Market is an efficient, historical and global market whose ability to withstand economic and geopolitical crises is now beyond any doubt. It is BPI-labelled scientific national French label.

Today we exceed , likes on Facebook. Artprice confirms the million likes in the first quarter ! No one can compete. Absolute freedom of speech. Discover Artprice in Video. The index essentially identifies the top-performing artists at auction over the previous five years who satisfy a key liquidity criterion at least ten works of comparable quality sold each year. The relative weight of each of the artists is detailed in Appendix 1. The composition of the index does not change during the year. The contribution of each artist to this result provides additional information.

This purely objective criterion allows identification of the most stable segment of the Art Market with a built-in evolution mechanism annual adjustment. With its intranet connecting it with more than 6, Auction Houses, Artprice is the only organisation in the world that can process this data and produce an index based on a highly complex series of calculations. From to , four artists joined the index and four left as with stock indices :. For example, in , there was only one Chinese artist in this list Zhang Daqian compared with 18 in This average annual return of 8.

Over the last 20 years, the art market has massively increased in liquidity and has grown to now be widely appreciated as a genuinely efficient market to which Artprice — as world leader — has substantially contributed. And scandal sells. Artprice reacts to the decision on 14 December by the powerful American Federal Commission of Communications FCC that repealed the principle of Internet neutrality. Indeed, Artprice has always categorically rejected online advertising, considering it negative for Internet users, because, unlike the television where viewers are passive, Internet users are by nature active and see online advertising as an annoying obstacle to their search for information.

Similarly the purchase of content with a credit card takes an unimaginably long time and is a very tedious process that is getting more and more complicated as the years go by. Each time, the turnover of the publisher was multiplied by a minimum of 5 times within 2 months it took the DGAT — French General Directorate Telematics Affairs — 45 days to implement the switch. In the area of accounting, Artprice itself has irrefutable proof that the kiosk system boosts revenue very significantly.

In short, despite these major handicaps, the company generated a better revenue, on a like-for-like basis, than Artprice, until Moreover, concerning France, Artprice has undeniable scientific and economic evidence that during the Minitel era, the French Ministry of Telecommunications via its State subsidiary Transpac experienced substantial Teletel data flow problems.

In the Telecom Ministry invested heavily via Transpac to ensure the smooth flow of content from the server centres to the 14 million Minitel users. In simple terms, the FCC ruling now allows Internet operators in the world, including the 13 root servers in the US because the Internet is indeed under American tutelage to guarantee the reliability of contents from A content servers in the world to Z end customers with a perfectly controlled flow, which was not the case until the vote to repeal Internet neutrality.

The AFP dispatch, released a few minutes ago, also reported the capital information through its international news feed. Also, no one will dare doubt the statement of a senior official at the French Ministry of Culture. The new economic science — taught by Artprice — is relentlessly pushing prices up. Our conviction about the evolution of the art market started with a simple observation: the exponential nature of art museum openings around the world. In an Artprice meta-study revealed that more art museums opened between January and December than during the entire 19th and 20th centuries.

It also revealed that roughly new art museums are being built every year on 5 continents, each with international vocations and each with at least 4, artworks. Indeed, soft-power rivalry is leading the art market inexorably towards spectacular new auction results. In our well-documented view, we are likely to see results around the billion dollar threshold by Indeed, thanks to its direct Intranet link to major Auction Houses, Artprice is aware of plans for prestige sales in the near future. Indeed, the new record has immediately ratcheted high-end art prices with a number of works fetching significantly higher than their estimates.

Artprice has long predicted the formation of a new economic model within the art market, a model that is now clearly emerging because the art market has become efficient, mature and liquid and is now an appropriate subject for sophisticated econometric and technical analysis. This remarkable break with tradition by a secular institution represents a major milestone for the future of the art market as it mutates into a proper market economy with the Internet serving as its primary market forum auction sales are becoming increasingly dematerialized.

Tourists flock to admire the painting in the Louvre. It is also one of the few paintings entirely created produced by one of the greatest artists in history. Rarity, celebrity, technical perfection, a cocktail that makes its value difficult to estimate. An expert and two auctioneers interviewed by FranceInfo made a rational calculation based on quantifiable variables. Artprice hereby predicts that the Art Market will definitively change price scale in In view of the above, Artprice confirms that in the Art Market will definitely change its price scale, both in the terms of total turnover and in terms of spectacular new records for Old Master, Modern and Contemporary artworks sold in prestige catalogued sales that will fetch around one billion dollars.

According to our econometrics department over artists should substantially renew their their auction records in The face of the Art Market, which Artprice has become an integral part of as the World Leader in Art Market Information for 20 years, has now definitively changed. Artprice a 20 ans. Alors oui, Artprice a 20 ans! Artprice is 20 today. A legendary organisation in many respects, Artprice experienced the most extraordinary IPO in the history of the Paris stock exchange, reaching a capitalization in excess of EUR million within hours.

It has suffered severe corrections as well, notably after the new-tech stocks crash in , nine-eleven, the 2nd Gulf War, the financial crisis of and a number of other exogenous events, and its iconoclastic approach has made it the target of lengthy lawsuits brought by monopolistic behemoths riding on centuries of Art Market omerta and opacity. Artprice has survived a climate of irrational animosity from certain quarters, sometimes involving outlandish fantasies; but each attack has made the company stronger… and wiser.

Using the Internet — a domain in which its parent company Groupe Serveur has been a dominant pioneer since — Artprice has completely transformed the Art Market. Artprice has built the largest Art Market databank in the world with a almost State-sized archive base. In , Artprice set up the largest Standardized Marketplace for artworks in the world.

It has become global leader in Art Market Information by providing, among other services, real-time streams of Art Market information for more than 7, media outlets such as the financial news agency Bloomberg. It has also given insight to its 4. This also applies to the 6, Auction Houses it works with, loyal partners in their contribution with Artprice. Hippolyte Mireur 19th century and Enrique Mayer 20th century whose carefully-compiled registers of art market exchanges are now a part of Artprice?

Over 20 years of historical and legendary combat, Artprice has opened the gates of the Temple of Art to the profane. Ten or so years ago, a famous Art Market historian and sociologist told me that Artprice was immortal, not for its economic function, but rather for the irrevocable changes it has brought to the Art Market and, therefore, to Art History. Artprice has demonstrated that art does have structured and highly sophisticated price mechanisms, in an efficient market that is substantially more rational and mature than many other markets.

So yes… Artprice is now 20… an age of freedom and exploration; an age in which the emerging new world can dance on the ashes of the old economy that has not yet understand it is already dead. Artprice may be 20, but it has already acquired a years of experience, wisdom and combative energy. We know — as our mentor Marcel Duchamp taught us — that our fiercest critics are the biggest contributors to the global success of Artprice. As a final word: Artprice has never modified its capital structure and has repeatedly designated myself, its Founder, as its CEO and principal shareholder.

The exponential growth of the Internet and the current paradigm shift — unique in the history of modernity — continue to fuel my belief that Artprice is still very much in its early stages. On the whole, the Contemporary Art Market is substantially profitable over the medium and long terms.

  1. Moby Dick (Radici) (Italian Edition);
  2. Related titles;
  3. Le Curé de village (French Edition).

Despite several corrections, our price index shows that the segment has retained its earlys vitality. The chronic financial and economic crisis affecting the world economy since — clearly illustrated by the widespread recourse to negative interest rates — makes the Art Market look like a desert oasis. At a global level, the Art Market was in better shape in H1 , ending two consecutive years of slowdown. Artprice has been global leader in Art Market information since This half-year report covers all public sales of Fine Art painting, sculpture, drawing, photography, printmaking, installations.

According to thierry Ehrmann, founder and CEO of Artprice, Since , the art market has been functioning with outstanding maturity, resisting the NASDAQ crisis, the nine-eleven attacks, the second intervention in Iraq and of course the unprecedented financial and economic crisis that began in It has also resisted a significant increase in global geopolitical tensions and the emergence of a negative interest rate environment that hurts savings. During the past 17 years, the Art Market has shown its capacity to adjust to conditions, thus avoiding the kind of meltdowns seen in the financial sphere.

For a number of years now, the financial returns on art have outperformed other investments, and the Art Market has become an independent, liquid and efficient market on all continents. Another massive Art Market driver is the new-era museum industry new museums per year that has become a significant economic reality in the 21 st century.

The Art Market is an efficient, historical and global market whose capacity to resist economic and geopolitical crises requires no further proof. ARTE: An enormous Christmas tree resembling a giant butt plug, a machine that defecates five-star meals, an icon immersed in urine and staged corpses — subversive, trash, provocative or insulting? Thierry Ehrmann, the man behind The Abode of Chaos dixit The New York Times , artist and founder of Artprice, features in 9 short episodes that decode the most media-hyped scandals in the Contemporary art field… scandals that inevitably guarantee blockbuster exhibitions.

Over recent years, Artprice frequently heard artists, beneficiaries, copyright managers, art market professionals, valuers, museums, art historians, sociologists, collectors and art lovers of all kinds express their wish to share their knowledge and their private documentation. In total, this community represents a hard core of some 12 million regular contributors who will have to register with Artprice to monitor the evolution of their pages and check, modify or supplement the available information. You can find this new art market data source on: wiki.

This operation, which Artprice has been preparing for almost a year, represents a major contribution to Art Market history, and a contribution that is free of charge. Moreover, for Artprice it represents an opportunity to significantly expand its subscribed client-base to a pool of 12 million authorized contributors. Atprice is the global leader in art price and art index databanks. Contact : Josette Mey : e-mail : ir artprice. Les versions allemande, italienne, espagnole et chinoise sont aussi disponibles.

English Version. Agence de Protection des Programmes. Boursica: We already published in-depth interviews with you on June 5 and October 9, Today we are at the beginning of March and bidding started on Artprice nearly a month and a half ago. What are your impressions so far? Thierry Ehrmann: Before we begin, I should warn readers that some of the themes discussed in this interview are followed directly on from our discussion on June 5, and October 9, which are therefore the basis for this third interview.

At the end of this struggle we have finally managed to impose a situation of free competition via the now famous law of 20 July Thierry Ehrmann: No. Thierry Ehrmann: Artprice has a unique set of art market standardization processes based on a broad range of Intellectual property patents sui generis software patents, copyright, etc , which allows us, via the Marketplace Normalized, to match supply and demand in real time, either in a fixed price environment or an auction environment.

In the latter case, we are not responsible for the auction because we are not linked to the parties buyers and sellers. Boursica: Returning to the last month and a half. What have you seen in seven weeks? Thierry Ehrmann: Our initial challenge, and it by no means an easy one, was to gather an offer of 5, lots for the auction opening day on January 18, The total value of the works amounted to more than million euros with prices ranging from a few hundred euros to tens of millions of euros.

The reactions we have received from the art market principal players to our latest auction platform in have been fast and remarkably positive; however there is still a small hard core, mainly centered around Drouot, that has given us a distinctly hostile reception and the old guard has deployed means of harassment and threats that are really out of place in modern Europe. Boursica: Let's talk about this "remarkable positive" reaction, as you say. Thierry Ehrmann: We were rapidly congratulated by a whole generation of Gallery owners, Auction Houses, Art Dealers, Artists, Collectors and Enthusiasts who have realized that nothing will be the same as before.

In the days that followed our launch, our internet bandwidth traffic and volume of logs multiplied almost fivefold. We have had testimonies and contributions of an unrivaled intensity. It is clear that for a whole generation of art market players — aged 25 to 50 roughly speaking — Artprice, with its giant client database 1. We have established unprecedented discussions with a number of these market players who have had the courage to re-think their entire sales process.

Boursica: What is the objective of these discussions and what will be their outcome in practice? Thierry Ehrmann: For these art market players it amounts to a complete overhaul of their business model. They have suddenly discovered that they have a de facto firepower substantially greater than that offered by the client lists of the largest auction houses or famous galleries.

Trapped within their own client lists and obliged to spend fortunes attending international art fairs to attract clients on other continents, suddenly, via Artprice's Standardized Auction Marketplace, they have discovered a new economic paradigm that impels them to migrate permanently to the Internet, which is now the best and most efficient way to conquer the five continents. Thierry Ehrmann: They understand that their economic model, namely the practice of high margins with a limited number of sales due to a limited customer base, is changing.

Some are considering partially closing their galleries or secondary showrooms; others will close their physical auction rooms. They are discovering, from a macroeconomic viewpoint, that the art market, which has grown from , collectors after the WWII, to million "art consumers" today, can now be reached within minutes from their homes or offices. They can, therefore, very substantially reduce their margins, that were previously prohibitive, and multiply their turnover in proportions that they did not imagine before because they lacked the necessary and heavy financial means as well as a deep knowledge of the Internet.

In six weeks, we have managed to brush aside lots of doubts and inhibitions. Economically, the story has only just begun: bearing in mind the fourteen days of auction, the settlement to the trusted third party approximately 15 days for international transfers and the finalization of the sale between the buyer and the seller who gives the final release instruction, we are just beginning to receive the commissions from late January when we launched our auction brokerage service.

So we will certainly be posted good surprises soon, because the offer on our Standardized Auction Marketplace is constantly growing and has been regularly since it opened January 18, Boursica: Do you know what the major Anglo-Saxon auction houses think of your business model? Who better than Christie's to confirm this? Boursica: You mentioned doubts and inhibitions. Could you be more specific? Thierry Ehrmann: Indeed, particularly a major problem concerning the trusted third party. We selected the world's leading trustee Escrow.

Their modus operandi is absolutely perfect but Escrow is handicapped by only accepting the US dollar, which was a significant drawback, mainly for our European customers. We therefore chose, in record time, a second trustee, after a tender, which is Transpact in the UK, who handles the USD, the Euro and the Pound Sterling and which became available as of mid- February. But we still have the problem of the language barrier. Whereas our customers have access to Artprice in six languages, both of the websites of our two trusted third parties are in English only which turns out to be a real obstacle because the sums involved are very important and our customers want, from a legal and practical perspective, to fully understand all the steps and procedures of escrow and release with the trustee.

Boursica: But why not choose a trusted third party for each linguistic area? I must confess that no bank or similar establishment, particularly in France, has so far been able to satisfy our specifications, despite the fact that the sums involved will eventually be colossal and that, in the digital economy, the notion of a trusted third party, is already applicable to many other groups and economic activities, quite different from Artprice and the Art Market. This reflects, among other things, a certain failure of the French economy to adapt to the digital and de facto global economy in which we are now living ….

Thierry Ehrmann: Under the Act of 20 July concerning online auctions, and notably Article 5 transcribed in Article of the French Commercial Code paragraphs 2 and 3 , it is essential that the trusted third party that holds the sequestered funds and then releases the funds be fully independent from Artprice, both legally and capitalistically. But I can assure you that we have demonstrated to our two trustee partners, the high number of clients who arrived on the web page of the trusted third party and then dropped of the transaction because they feel that transferring large amounts of money without a complete mastery of the text in their own language represents a significant risk.

Thus by proving to them exactly how much business they were losing we have managed to convince them to translate their web pages and their computer APIs into the languages used by Artprice French, English, German, Italian, Spanish and Chinese. Thierry Ehrmann: Yes, in essence, everything is there.

But Artprice has a very strong corporate culture of building systems that are concrete, simple and inexpensive in human resources. We deliberately leave a significant proportion open to a wide variety of extensions based on information from our Customer Service that is a real advantage for analyzing customer requests from all countries. The biggest danger is developing monolithic software that is trapped within a colossal specification imposed by force on international customers. The big mistake the French often make is trying to impose a product according to its own tastes. Artprice has an opposite practice and we believe that customers and the market are our best prescribers and advisers.

This approach seems simple and yet very few groups in France adopt it. Boursica: You mentioned in a press release that the current online offer already corresponds to your forecast for Is that still the case? Thierry Ehrmann: Indeed, we had expected new lots presented each day, corresponding to an average of 90, lots per year. It should be noted that for a large auction house, a handsome catalogued sales never exceeds to lots offered and on average it takes months of preparation, whereas for Artprice it takes 12 hours on average.

That is worth thinking about…. Boursica: Why not transfer the Standardized Fixed-Price Marketplace to the auction platform directly? This would bring in turnover that you already own, and which would be substantial and immediate for Artprice. Thierry Ehrmann: Indeed, the question arose and we had a real debate at the heart of Artprice. As creator of the Standardized Fixed-Price Marketplace I considered that its massive volumes represent a genuine ecosystem since January and that we should make a smooth transition, without forcing our loyal customers.

Boursica: You seem very sure of your premise. Could you develop this idea? It would, in my opinion, be mad to force these market players, who have strong personalities and are perfectly capable of forming an opinion themselves, onto the art auction market. In fact, this notion is confirmed everyday as we see natural migrations to the auction platform. Thierry Ehrmann: We have already been extremely patient waiting for France to decide to write a European directive into domestic law. Thierry Ehrmann: In fact, all of our existing and major shareholders are almost more patient than we are.

In the unlikely event that one day a number 2 arrives on the market, the hard rule that I have been practicing for 25 years with regard to online business would apply, i. Boursica: Will we see a report with the extraordinary general meeting of 30 March which was not in the calendar? Thierry Ehrmann: Yes, indeed. This EGM will definitively set in stone the success of our economic transformation that is now a certainty for us. First of all, after 16 years of work, we have become the world leader in art market information with 1.

In early we have acquired the conviction that the heart of our business are the Standardized Fixed-Price and Auction Marketplaces and that these activities generate an optimal level of profitability. Boursica: Some of our readers have suggested that a capital increase will be announced at the EGM. Is this the case? I thought you were against the idea. Thierry Ehrmann: There is no question of a capital increase but only of a stock option plan in order to attract the rare and atypical profiles we are seeking for our Standardized Auction Marketplace activity.

It is clear that we are seeking the best people from the somewhat exclusive world of the art market and we want to give ourselves the power to attract these people. Similarly it makes perfect sense to reward employees of Artprice who have committed so much of their time to the business. Unlike the vast majority of listed companies, we have no debt whatsoever, no overdraft, no short, medium or long term loans outstanding, no bank covenants or financial instruments to repay such as equity warrants or other derivatives.

At the same time we have an excellent cash position and a negative working capital requirement. Boursica: A few days ago, you published your art market report. How is it that all the French and international media and institutions only quote Artprice when talking about the art market? Is the due to some kind of lobbying? With this normalization and more than 3, auction houses that are connected to our secure intranet, we are the only news agency Art Market Insight to be able to provide macro-economic data, prices and indices based on the repeat sales method and over one hundred benchmarks that allow more than 6, media each year to understand the art market via objective and comprehensive figures.

Thierry Ehrmann: Take for example China, where we are by far the only ones capable of gathering and processing information in a market where the language barrier and the habits and customs make it a difficult and delicate task. Thierry Ehrmann: No, quite the contrary, on a systematic and contractual basis, the press and broadcast media are obliged to quote their Internet sources with our code and to comment on our methodology.

We estimate that each year we save between 16 and 18 million euros by not having to buy advertising space which, in any case, would not have the same relevance because nothing can replace press agency content which has a much deeper impact than advertising, however clever it may be. As regards market research destined specifically for the media, insurance companies or private banks, this is of course billed at an appropriate tariff.

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Yes, in the framework of the launch of our auction activity, we certainly received very good media coverage, but we have also decided to implement for the year , a campaign plan focused on the art press, whereby we select in each key country the leader and co-leader as well as TV network campaigns that are highly targeted on art and the luxury sectors. Although it is available on your website, could you tell us briefly what is its basic conclusion?

Thierry Ehrmann: The first lesson is its title: "Art has never sold as well as in ". In addition, the unsold ratio was at its lowest. China is way ahead of the United States generating Chinese artists are ranked highest in both our Top 10 and our Top Look for example at the habitually top-ranked artist in the West, Pablo Picasso.

For the first time, in decades is not even in the top-3, having been relegated to 4th place. As for France, nothing new, the continuous contraction, over and over again. The number of auction results above the million-dollar line is continuing to grow worldwide, particularly in Asia. Boursica: The art market is therefore like gold… is it a safe haven? Thierry Ehrmann: Yes, this phenomenon has been severely tested by the economic crisis that started in and the near-collapse of the financial world in In effect, the art market has shown great maturity and performance.

Speaking of million-dollar results, how long do you think it will be before we see a 7-figure result on Artprice…an event that would indeed be momentous? Thierry Ehrmann: Seven-figure results on Artprice are an absolute certainty, given our discussions with major players in the art market. So it's only a matter of time. One guess I will make…. I have often been asked this question. France was the world number 1 in the 60's but alas, it has continued to lose ground. Some numbers: its Contemporary art market weighs just over USD 13 million a year, which on a global scale, is tiny.

On a good day New York or London are capable of generating more from just one cataloged sale than France can in an entire year. We have had very personal experience of this in our 16 years of litigation and ten legal procedures from which we have emerged victorious after years of waiting. Thierry Ehrmann: Economically, the die is cast and we have a Californian highway in front of us.

On the legal front, without being vindictive, we have to finalize some issues where the economic damage we have suffered must lead to a compensatory process. Likewise, some unsuccessful claims deserve to be matched by counterclaims. In addition, we are firmly maintaining our criminal complaint with the Competition Authorities against French auction houses for non-competitive practices with new elements since late January Thierry Ehrmann: In fact, a handful of former Parisian auctioneers, mainly at Drouot, with its judicial scandals and repeated indictments.

I ask you…Since when has an initial legal notification been delivered in the form of a press release, without any advance notification through the courts? For me the mission of the CVV is important, but it should conduct its missions in strict compliance with the legal and adversarial procedure under French law. Things being what they are, we suspect that the afore-mentioned small group of former auctioneers close to Drouot, angered by the consequences of the law of 20 July and in particular Article 5, which I just mentioned, intentionally misled the CVV that has worked in recent years with scarce resources, and has had the courage to initiate a real debate on the inexorable decline of the French auction market.

You should know that we have received extremely violent threats from a few players who cannot bear to see their margins and markets collapse. My natural insight and many years of experience allow me to observe with complete equanimity that such manifestations of hate and anger prove that we have hit exactly where the profit is buried.

Boursica: So with your help, among others, has Internet therefore devoured the art market? In our case, we started Artprice when there were less than 30 million Internet users and there are now over 2. But above all, the statement by the Head of Christie's about Artworks and Internet is an excellent reference for us. The mobile Internet suits Artprice perfectly, because our customers are nomadic by nature and needs information in the heat of the action, as experts, insurers, dealers, auction houses, customs services, and of course collectors and amateurs buying or selling in galleries or at auctions.

In , more than 3. Thierry Ehrmann: We are only at the beginning of the dematerialization of the old economy. Let me quote my old master Pythagoras, the first philosopher for whom everything was numbers with the exception of essences that are unquantifiable, inexpressible human emotions that have nothing to do with numbers. Hence…beyond the number of Internet users… almost every commercial transaction can be dematerialized… Artprice with the Art Market is a perfect example.

In fact, you will see that the world is heading two distinctly complementary directions: dematerialization and sustainable development. The only real answer to the energy crisis is dematerialization. Thierry Ehrmann: In the s, through our parent company, Server Group, which is one of the earliest pioneers of the Internet since according to Time Magazine , we have worked in compliance with European directives and the CNIL French Data Protection Authority on the concept of data mining, but we have now moved to the concept of "Big data" with data storage units measured in petabytes.

This data is generated in real time; it comes from all countries in continuous streams, is meta tagged, but heterogeneously, and come from very diverse deconstructed non-predictive sources. Boursica: What is the difference between Big data and Data mining? Are we talking about the same thing? Thierry Ehrmann: No, I'll explain why. The concept of Big data has Data mining as a subset, but with the collection — in compliance with the rules of personal data protection — of billions of data logs previously considered non-core, whereas in fact, as soon as we saw how the cost of the petabyte terabytes was diminishing, we realized that the data mining exploitation of this a priori less qualitative and considered negligible data, could in fact produce uncommonly rich data.

We can now understand complex and immediate phenomena and quickly provide products and services that literally follow the demand of our tens of millions of free or paid visitors. Boursica: Specifically, what types of applications may "Big data" be able to provide? Thierry Ehrmann: We were able to measure, for example, since the opening of the Standardized Auction Marketplace on January 18, , not only the sheer number of visitors who had never visited Artprice before, but also, by examining hundreds of millions of logs as of January 18, , to understand why these new customers came only now, i.

What changes everything in this analysis is that our target is no longer measured in millions of subscribers, as is the case now, but tens of millions of art consumers on mobile phones such as iPhones or Android OS Google phones. Thierry Ehrmann: Well this is it! Boursica: Regarding your social network Artprice Insider, how far have got with that? Thierry Ehrmann: This social network, built with sociologists and network professionals, will be the opposite of Facebook; professionals and Artprice members will appear under their real names and Artprice Insider will be coupled to the Standardized Fixed-Price and Auction Marketplace.

No, not exactly. I would say that this network is more akin to a think tank or a Brain box. The strength of Artprice Insider will be its capacity to foster original ideas, to bring together a pool of experts, to be a forum for expertise, to feed the debate concerning the art market and to encourage the emergence of new concepts. In short…Absolutely every aspect of the art market needs to be re-invented, having been totally asleep until the arrival of the Internet. Now here is a small scoop: there will be live contributions from members of the top Market Makers of the art market on Artprice Insider.

Once again, I would say that my direct connection with creative processes helps me enormously in my relations with artists and art market players. Artprice could not exist or succeed without being totally immersed in the field of art. Anecdotally, among our , visitors per year, there are a significant number of shareholders and customers; so I can enjoy weekends of discussions and exchanges that are highly relevant to Artprice outside the work context.

With a touch of humor, I can say that I do a 63 hour week. That said, this choice, which I accept with lucidity, can explain many things that some do not fully appreciate. Boursica: What about your stock price in ? And what are you expecting in ? Thierry Ehrmann: In my humble opinion, few managers of listed companies in Europe anticipated their stock market progressions in as accurately as we did.

Naturally, I say this with all the usual reservations, disclaimers and warnings that apply to such predictive declarations, particularly with respect to exogenous events. Boursica: You said recently that certain funds might be interested in Artprice. Can you tell us more? Thierry Ehrmann: Without transgressing the principle of confidentiality between the parties, our switch to the SRD Long Only segment means that many funds that are statutorily prohibited from taking positions in French companies on the SRD can now acquire lines in Artprice. These funds have a very different approach to the French funds and essentially approach valuation through the stock market comparison methodology.

Logically therefore, we are compared with a number of different companies including Sotheby's which is the only publicly-traded auction company in the world. Thierry Ehrmann In our first interview in June , we gave you computing elements with specific examples of valuation methods that are more than years old N. I would say we are like a company that is preparing an IPO on the Nasdaq, with, as a significant advantage, the maturity and experience gained from 11 years of outstanding and irreproachable performance on a regulated market. It's very exciting and extremely motivating.

Boursica: And your agreements in Asia… how is that dossier progressing? In March , we are starting a long campaign in China involving nearly 40 meetings with major Chinese auction houses with whom we share much in common, including the dematerialization of the art market, and they think like us, that the notion of physical auction houses is outdated in compared with the Internet and in particular our Standardized Auction Market Place which will have its own HQ in our future offices in Hong Kong.

Asia, which I have known well for 20 years, moves at a very different pace to the West. It takes much longer to gain the confidence of your future partner. But, at the same time, Asians are capable of setting up a business at speeds that would make most Westerners panic. I think that Artprice is well positioned in Asia where we are considered forward-thinking, far ahead of the old Anglo-Saxon auction houses that are seen by Asians as sometimes overtaken by events.

Boursica: Since you mention the old Anglo-Saxon houses, what is your relationship with them now and especially since January 18, ? Thierry Ehrmann: The balance of power that was established in with the Standardized Fixed Price Marketplace Standardized has changed considerably. It seems that the two economies physical and digital have each conducted in-depth reflections on their future. It is true that the confrontation between the old economy and the digital economy in sectors other than the art market have advanced the debate.

Once again, the die is cast, with nearly three billion Internet users compared with 50 million in , hence my theory of the economic paradigm shift. In the art market sector, I recall anecdotally that the New York authorities issued recommendations to wealthy New Yorkers to avoid a number of locations, including auctions, due to the "Occupy Wall Street" demonstrations. That said, the big auction houses are gradually liquidating their real estate or prematurely terminating their leases.

The second point is that the big auction houses have all invested in the Internet, usually via two or three investment plans, systematically involving hundreds of millions of dollars, with generally unsatisfactory and sometimes disastrous results. The third point involves the recognition of a historical actor like Artprice and the ability to imagine, for the first time, a true sharing of the art market. They therefore need to take a pragmatic approach by moving closer to us.

Of course, we respect them, but we cannot do anything other than refer to our Asian partners who have long anticipated the situation and therefore have no further problems to resolve. It is however quite possible that we will manage to find common ground because there is now a younger generation of senior management running these old houses who are not letting the ghosts of the past get in their way and are finally taking action.

I firmly believe that in our shareholders will have plenty of good and occasionally surprising news. Thierry Ehrmann: Without revealing any secrets, we have key players who, with great maturity, have decided to progressively adopt us as a white or gray label. It is obvious that within these frameworks, the transfer of revenues from traditional companies that have been operating art auctions for many years, using our Standardized Auction Marketplace for their own account, is likely to have a significant impact on our share price.

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lions of readers around the world in English, French, and a Bonne lecture! Livres Canada Books est fier de vous présenter l'édition de . –1–– –8. Softcover. C$ English. 6 x 9. pages secrets L' auteure comprend très bien les jeunes filles; elle en a trois et elle arrive . doesn' t add up. Course 1, Bad Daddy: Taboo Forced Submission (She Comes First Book 1), Secrets de filles 1 - 9 bonnes résolutions (Planète Filles t. ), by stacey.

Currently, this is the type of scenario we are experiencing on a regular basis: the CEO of a large international auction house retires and is replaced by a new CEO of 35 who, immediately after his audit, approaches us with a real desire to do big business, whereas his predecessor, close to retirement age, considered Artprice in the best of cases as nothing more than an art world UFO.

Once again, patience has been an essential element in the success of Artprice since its inception. Thierry Ehrmann: In such cases, we work as an IT services house and central server and we charge recurring fees for hosting and for the use of our software and proprietary databases. Boursica: Finally, a last word. How much would you say today?

Artprice is the global leader in databank on Artprices and indices with more than 27 million indices and auction results covering , artists. Artprice permanently enriches its databanks with information from 4, international auction houses and auctioneers and publishes a constant flow of art market trends for the main news agencies and 6, international written media.

For its 1. Quelles sont vos impressions?

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Pediatric, 84, Does methylphenidate induce overfocusing in hyperactive children? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, Methylphenidate and cognitive flexibility : Dissociated dose effects on behavior and cognition in hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, Hypodopaminergic function influences learning and memory as well as delay gradients. Asperger's syndrome. Autistic children's ability to interpret faces : a research note. The challenge of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome.

The flavour of emotions. Opportunities and risks in e-therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 12, Religion in China : Universism, a key to the study of Taoism and Confucianism. New York : G. The Tao of physics : An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism. Berkeley : Shambhala Publications. WONG, E. Teachings of the Tao. Teasing, body image, and self esteem in a clinical sample of obese women.

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Addictive Behaviors, 19, Teasing in hierarchical and intimate relations. Just teasing : A conceptual analysis and empirical review. Tarabulsy George M. Collaborateur de Moss et Tessier. Contingency detection and the contingent organization of behavior in interactions : Implications for socioemotional development in infancy. Attachment state of mind, students' learning dispositions, and academic performance during the college transition.

Developmental Psychology, 41, Another look inside the gap : Ecological contributions to the transmission of attachment in a sample of adolescent mother-infant dyads. Attachment-based interventions for maltreating families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78, Adolescent motherhood, maternal sensitivity and early infant development. Logdson Eds. Haupauge, NY : Nova Publishers. Tarbox Rachel S. Collaboratrice de Friman, Ghezzi et Williams.

Assessment and treatment of elopement : a replication and extension. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 2 , Extended diaper wearing : effects on continence in and out of the diaper Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37 1 , The effects of token reinforcement on attending in a young child with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 21, Effects of three-step prompting on compliance with caregiver requests. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 4 , The effects of blocking mouthing of leisure items on their effectiveness as reinforcers.

Revue philosophique, 24, Revue Philosophique, 27, Les lois de l'imitation. L'opinion et la foule. Tardif Jacques Tardif Maurice Tardif. Collaborateur de Meirieu. L'apport de la psychologie cognitive. Paris : ESF. Le transfert des apprentissages. Collaborateur de Gauthier, Karsenti et Lessard. Perspectives internationales. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. Le travail enseignant au quotidien. La profession d'enseignant aujourd'hui. Collaborateur de Nagel et Suppes. The semantic conception of truth and the foundations of semantics. Logic, methodology and philosophy of science.

Stanford : Stanford University Press. Paris : Armand Collin. Collaborateur de Creswell et Teddlie. Mixed methodology : Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. The new era of mixed methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 1 , Exploring the nature of research questions in mixed methods research.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 3 , Mixed methodology across disciplines. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2 1 , Putting the human back in "human research methodology" : The researcher in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4 4 , Collaborateur de Maurice et Schalock. Psychologie Canadienne, 41 2 , Adaptive behavior assessment and the diagnosis of mental retardation in capital cases. Applied Neuropsychology, 16, Intensity of support needs in relation to co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

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Exceptionality, 18, Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 42, What is in a name? Tatham Thomas A. Collaborateur de Barrett, Hineline et Wanchisen. Generalization of behavioral history across responses in the reversal of the effects of d-amphetamine and cocaine on the punished responding of squirrel monkeys. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, Shock avoidance but not DRL history reverses the effects of cocaine on punished behavior of squirrel monkeys. Effects of fixed and variable ratios on human behavioral variability.

Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59 2 , Shock postponement reverses the effects of cocaine on the punished pecking of pigeons. Behavioral history : A definition and some common findings from two areas of research. The Behavior Analyst, 21, Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalence. Tattoos and ratings of personal characteristics.

Psychological Reports, 90, Piercings and tattoos : psychopathological aspecs. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 51 , Taub Gordon E. Collaborateur de Keith et McGrew. TAUB, G. Identifying g : The current role of intelligence. S A confirmatory analysis of the factor structure and cross-age invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third edition.

Psychological Assessment, 16 1 , 85— Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32 3 , Improvements in interval time tracking and effects on reading achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 44, Effects of improvements in interval timing on mathematics achievement of elementary school students. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 29, Taupe : Animal. Seismic sensitivity in the desert golden mole Eremitalpa granti : a review. Journal of Comparative Psychology, , Voir aussi Animal.

On the tautology of the matching law. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15 2 , Tautology in evolution and ecology. American Naturalist, , Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York : John Wiley. Time, rate and conditioning. New York : Wiley. Behavior rate. Response rates at a survey. Anger : The misunderstood emotion. The mismeasure of woman.

The longest war : Sex differences in perspective. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The mismeasure of woman : Why women are not the better sex, the opposite sex, or the inferior sex. New York : Simon and Schuster. The redbook report on female sexuality. New York : Delacorte. General equilibrium model of heterogeneous local property taxes. Journal of Public Economics, 8, Taxation and economic growth. National Tax Journal, 49 4 , Optimal taxation and the structure of preferences. Econometrica, 49, The Journal of Socio-Economic, 34, Giving to government : Voluntary taxation in the lab.

Journal of Public Economics 95, International taxation and intra-firm pricing in transnational corporate groups. A theory of optimal inheritance taxation.