Here we study the simplest case: motion in a straight line. Here we look at kinematics in two-dimensions — specifically, projectiles and objects in circular motion.
Knowledge of Newton's laws and the ability to apply them to various situations will allow us to explain much of the motion we observe in the world around us. They are also very important for analysing things like bridges that don't move much a subject called Statics that's important in some Engineering programs. Because Newton's laws are so important, week 4 has five lessons, as well as slightly longer quizzes than the previous chapters. We return to the difference between weight and mass.
We introduce Hooke's law for elastic deformations. We consider forces between objects in contact and for convenience resolve them into their normal and frictional components — and as usual give you some problems to solve. In week 6 we explore work and energy, then power — the rate of doing work. We'll use work and Newton's second law to derive the quantity called kinetic energy. Looking at where work comes from, we'll distinguish two sorts of force — conservative and non-conservative. That will allow us to introduce potential energy and mechanical energy.
Power is the rate of doing work. We'll spend some time relating these quantities and their units to your everyday experience, relating Joules to kilowatt hours the unit used by electricity companies and kilowatts to horsepower and to human power. Once we've defined momentum we'll use momentum to analyse elastic and inelastic collisions.
Stand by for hammers, skateboards, car crashes and a bed of nails…. For as long as history — and probably much longer — people have stared at the planets and stars and wondered. Why do they shine? What keeps them moving? Why don't they fall down? So next is gravity — and how it runs the solar system, the galaxy and the universe.
Escape speed, orbits, satellite manoeuvring, black holes: yes, all of the these. Great course. Good explanations and examples. The quizes and tests are not very easy sometimes, but they do you let think again. Very enjoyable! Just the course I was looking for a long time! Great course, great professor, great opportunity of learning!
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Whenever a system is affected by an outside agent, its total energy changes. In general, a force is anything that causes a change like a change in energy or motion or shape.
When a force causes a change in the energy of a system, physicists say that work has been done. The mathematical statement that relates forces to changes in energy is called the work-energy theorem.
When the total of all the different forms of energy is determined, we find that it remains constant in systems that are isolated from their surroundings. The study of how energy changes forms and location during physical processes is called energetics , but the word is used more by scientists in fields outside of physics than inside.
Motion may be divided into three basic types — translational, rotational, and oscillatory. The sections on mechanics in this book are basically arranged in that order. The fourth type of motion — random — is dealt with in another book I wrote. The words mechanics, dynamics, statics, and kinematics are used throughout this book and heavily in the first third. Each refers to a discipline or branch of physics, thus the common suffix -ics. Mechanics Introduction Mechanics is the part of physics that is all about motion. You must be proficient with algebra. The good news is that physics will make you more proficient with algebra!
Position, Velocity, Acceleration Knowing where your object is — we call that position.
Basic Mechanics 1. Understanding Velocity and Acceleration (Basic Mechaics) - Kindle edition by Peter Martin Jones. Download it once and read it on your. Basic Mechanics. The magnitude and direction of the displacement are important, but so are the characteristics of the object's velocity and acceleration.
We write it like so. We can write it like this. As we just showed, velocity is the slope of the position graph.
Say we drive km in 1. We know that velocity is distance divided by time, giving us a velocity of kph kilometers per hour. Next, we stop for 1 hour for lunch. Then we drive another 90 km in 1. The velocity for the last part is kph. So our trip has three pieces that have velocities 80, 0, and 60 kph. We can calculate an average velocity for the entire trip; just divide total distance by total time, which is kph.
Here is a graph of the trip, plotted as distance sometimes called displacement vs. What if your position-vs-time graph looked like this:. We could still calculate an average velocity slope in red , but the slopes of each individual segment vary wildly, and even go backwards. We could calculate the slope of each little segment.
But what if the time period was made smaller and smaller? What is a derivative?
What if we let the part get smaller and smaller? As approaches zero, we call that a derivative, and we write it like this:. If not, you just need to understand the definition above and the recipe for how to calculate it below. Just as in the previous sections , a derivative is a slope.