enter The following illustration of a largemouth bass shows some of the common internal features that are used to describe the differences between fish that are explained in more detail below. As different as a man may be from a fish, both creatures share some fascinating similarities in basic structure and function. And the closer one looks, the more complex life becomes. The smallest units of life are microscopic cells , and some organisms--such as an ameba--are no larger than a single cell. In larger multicellular creatures, individual cells that are similar in structure and perform a specific function are grouped into tissues , and tissues may be grouped into even more complex and specialized structures called organs.
These organs perform the basic bodily functions such as respiration, digestion, and sensory reception. Man and fish share such organs as the brain, stomach, liver, and kidneys. Other organs appear in different forms in different organisms; for example, the lungs in humans and the gills in fish are very different but both provide the same basic function of respiration.
Finally, some organs such as the fish's swim bladder are simply not present in man. Below are descriptions of some of the organs identified on the above diagram, along with their functions. A number of other vital organs, such as the spleen and pancreas, may also be present but are smaller and more difficult to locate. A largemouth bass destined for the frying pan makes an excellent specimen because this species is large enough for easy examination.
For anglers brave enough to do some investigating while filleting their next fish, a fascinating learning experience awaits! Don't forget to examine the stomach content, as this can give clues to what the fish was feeding on, where in the water column and what lures to present. For instance, small shad probably came from open water and a shad-imitating lure may be your best bet; crayfish would suggest working a soft plastic along the bottom. The primary structural framework upon which the fish's body is built; connects to the skull at the front of the fish and to the tail at the rear.
The spine is made up of numerous vertebrae , which are hollow and house and protect the delicate spinal cord. Connects the brain to the rest of the body and relays sensory information from the body to the brain, as well as instructions from the brain to the rest of the body.
The control center of the fish, where both automatic functions such as respiration and higher behaviors "Should I eat that critter with the spinning blades? All sensory information is processed here. One of the fish's primary sense organs; detects underwater vibrations and is capable of determining the direction of their source. A hollow, gas-filled balance organ that allows a fish to conserve energy by maintaining neutral buoyancy suspending in water. Fish caught from very deep water sometimes need to have air released from their swim bladder before they can be released and return to deep water, due to the difference in atmospheric pressure at the water's surface.
Most freshwater anglers in Florida need not concern themselves with this! Species of fish that do not possess a swim bladder sink to the bottom if they stop swimming. Allow a fish to breathe underwater.
These are very delicate structures and should not be touched if the fish is to be released! Filters liquid waste materials from the blood; these wastes are then passed out of the body. The kidney is also extremely important in regulating water and salt concentrations within the fish's body, allowing certain fish species to exist in freshwater or saltwater, and in some cases such as snook or tarpon both.
Break down digest food and absorb nutrients. Fish such as bass that are piscivorous eat other fish have fairly short intestines because such food is easy to chemically break down and digest. Fish such as tilapia that are herbivorous eat plants require longer intestines because plant matter is usually tough and fibrous and more difficult to break down into usable components.
A great deal about fish feeding habits can be determined by examining stomach contents. This organ with fingerlike projections is located near the junction of the stomach and the intestines. Its function is not entirely understood, but it is known to secrete enzymes that aid in digestion, may function to absorb digested food, or do both.
The site of waste elimination from the fish's body. It is also the entry to the genital tract where eggs or sperm are released. This important organ has a number of functions. It assists in digestion by secreting enzymes that break down fats, and also serves as a storage area for fats and carbohydrates. The liver also is important in the destruction of old blood cells and in maintaining proper blood chemistry, as well as playing a role in nitrogen waste excretion. Circulates blood throughout the body. Oxygen and digested nutrients are delivered to the cells of various organs through the blood, and the blood transports waste products from the cells to the kidneys and liver for elimination.
In adult female bass, the bright orange mass of eggs is unmistakable during the spawning season, but is still usually identifiable at other times of the year. The male organs, which produce milt for fertilizing the eggs, are much smaller and white but found in the same general location. The eggs or roe of certain fish are considered a delicacy, as in the case of caviar from sturgeon. Provide movement and locomotion.
This is the part of the fish that is usually eaten, and composes the fillet of the fish. If you would like more information, Sea World has a nice site about bony fishes, their anatomy and physiology. The Florida Museum of Natural History also has an outstanding site. Skip to main content. Report Issues Report fish kills, wildlife emergencies, sightings, etc. Go Outdoors Florida! External Fish Anatomy The following illustration of a largemouth bass shows some of the common external features that are used to describe the differences between fish that are explained in more detail below.
Internal Fish Anatomy The following illustration of a largemouth bass shows some of the common internal features that are used to describe the differences between fish that are explained in more detail below. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets.
Various species such as conger , lobster , sea urchin , octopus and cuttlefish are illustrated. He would fight against the murmillo , who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident. In India, the Pandyas , a classical Dravidian Tamil kingdom, were known for the pearl fishery as early as the 1st century BC. Their seaport Tuticorin was known for deep sea pearl fishing.
The paravas , a Tamil caste centred in Tuticorin, developed a rich community because of their pearl trade, navigation knowledge and fisheries. The Moche people of ancient Peru depicted fisherman in their ceramics. From ancient representations and literature it is clear that fishing boats were typically small, lacking a mast or sail, and were only used close to the shore.
In traditional Chinese history, history begins with three semi-mystical and legendary individuals who taught the Chinese the arts of civilization around — BC: of these Fuxi was reputed to be the inventor of writing, hunting, trapping, and fishing. Relief of fishermen collecting their catch from Mereruka's tomb, 6th dynasty. Moche fisherman. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru. Gillnets existed in ancient times as archaeological evidence from the Middle East demonstrates. This allowed the net to suspend straight up and down in the water.
Each net would be suspended either from shore or between two boats. Native fishers in the Pacific Northwest, Canada, and Alaska still commonly use gillnets in their fisheries for salmon and steelhead. Both drift gillnets and setnets also have been widely adapted in cultures around the world. The antiquity of gillnet technology is documented by a number of sources from many countries and cultures.
Japanese records trace fisheries exploitation, including gillnetting, for over 3, years. Many relevant details are available concerning the Edo period — Nowadays Gillnets are not used in modern fisheries due to the new regulations and laws put on the commercial fishing industry. The Gillnets would not only kill targeted fish but also bycatch. Bycatch is when you catch an untargeted species. This is why Gillnets have been permanetly removed. One of the world's longest lasting trade histories is the trade of dry cod from the Lofoten area to the southern parts of Europe , Italy , Spain and Portugal.
The trade in cod started during the Viking period or before, has been going on for more than years and is still important. Cod has been an important economic commodity in an international market since the Viking period around AD. Norwegians used dried cod during their travels and soon a dried cod market developed in southern Europe. This market has lasted for more than years, passing through periods of Black Death , wars and other crises and still is an important Norwegian fish trade.
The Basques also played an important role in the cod trade and are believed to have found the Canadian fishing banks in the 16th century. The North American east coast developed in part due to the vast amount of cod, and many cities in the New England area spawned near cod fishing grounds. Apart from the long history this particular trade also differs from most other trade of fish by the location of the fishing grounds, far from large populations and without any domestic market.
The large cod fisheries along the coast of North Norway and in particular close to the Lofoten islands have been developed almost uniquely for export , depending on sea transport of stockfish over large distances.
The trade operations and the sea transport were by the end of the 14th century taken over by the Hanseatic League , Bergen being the most important port of trade. William Pitt the Elder , criticizing the Treaty of Paris in Parliament , claimed that cod was "British gold"; and that it was folly to restore Newfoundland fishing rights to the French. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the New World, especially in Massachusetts and Newfoundland, cod became a major commodity, forming trade networks and cross-cultural exchanges. In the 15th century, the Nut developed a type of seagoing herring drifter that became a blueprint for European fishing boats.
This was the Herring Buss , used by Dutch herring fishermen until the early 19th centuries. The ship type buss has a long history. The first herring buss was probably built in Hoorn around The last one was built in Vlaardingen in The ship was about 20 metres long and displaced between 60 and tons. It was a massive round- bilged keel ship with a bluff bow and stern , the latter relatively high, and with a gallery.
The busses used long drifting gill nets to catch the herring. The nets would be retrieved at night and the crews of eighteen to thirty men  would set to gibbing , salting and barrelling the catch on the broad deck. The ships sailed in fleets of to ships  to the Dogger Bank fishing grounds and the Shetland isles. They were usually escorted by naval vessels, because the English considered they were "poaching". The fleet would stay at sea for weeks at a time.
The catch would sometimes be transferred to special ships called ventjagers , and taken home while the fleet would still be at sea the picture shows a ventjager in the distance. During the 17th century, the British developed the dogger , an early type of sailing trawler or longliner , which commonly operated in the North Sea.
The dogger takes its name from the Dutch word dogger , meaning a fishing vessel which tows a trawl.
Dutch trawling boats were common in the North Sea, and the word dogger was given to the area where they often fished, which became known as the Dogger Bank. Doggers were slow but sturdy, capable of fishing in the rough conditions of the North Sea. They could carry a tonne of bait, three tonnes of salt, half a tonne each of food and firewood for the crew, and return with six tonnes of fish.
An anchor would have allowed extended periods fishing in the same spot, in waters up to 18 metres deep. The dogger would also have carried a small open boat for maintaining lines and rowing ashore.
A precursor to the dory type was the early French bateau type, a flat bottom boat with straight sides used as early as on the Saint Lawrence River. Anecdotal evidence exists of much older precursors throughout Europe. England, France, Italy, and Belgium have small boats from medieval periods that could reasonably be construed as predecessors of the Dory. Dories appeared in New England fishing towns sometime after the early 18th century. Lightweight and versatile, with high sides, a flat bottom and sharp bows, they were easy and cheap to build. The Banks dories appeared in the s.
They were designed to be carried on mother ships and used for fishing cod at the Grand Banks. The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than ever before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks that was occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon.
The Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig , which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were also sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water. The great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of 'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough , Hull , Grimsby , Harwich and Yarmouth , that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the 'largest fishing port in the world'  by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in , which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world, influencing fishing fleets everywhere. Their distinctive sails inspired the song Red Sails in the Sunset , written aboard a Brixham sailing trawler called the Torbay Lass.
These trawlers were sold to fishermen around Europe, including from Holland and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet. Although fishing vessel designed increasingly began to converge around the world, local conditions still often led the development of different types of fishing boats.
The Manx nobby was used around the Isle of Man as a herring drifter. The fifie was also used as a herring drifter along the east coast of Scotland from the s until well into the 20th century. The bawley and the smack were used in the Thames Estuary and off East Anglia , while trawlers and drifters were used on the east coast.
Herring fishing started in the Moray Firth in The peak of the fishing at Aberdeen was in with steam trawlers, though the first diesel drifter was introduced in In paddle tugs were being used to tow luggers and smacks to sea. The earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith in March , when he converted a drifter to steam power. In , he built the first screw propelled steam trawler in the world. This vessel was Pioneer LH She was of wooden construction with two masts and carried a gaff rigged main and mizen using booms, and a single foresail.
Pioneer is mentioned in The Shetland Times of 4 May In he completed Forward and Onward , steam-powered trawlers for sale. Allan argued that his motivation for steam power was to increase the safety of fishermen. However local fishermen saw power trawling as a threat. Allan built a total of ten boats at Leith between and Twenty-one boats were completed at Granton , his last vessel being Degrave in The first steam boats were made of wood, but steel hulls were soon introduced and were divided into watertight compartments.
They were well designed for the crew with a large building that contained the wheelhouse and the deckhouse.
The boats built in the 20th century only had a mizzen sail , which was used to help steady the boat when its nets were out. The main function of the mast was now as a crane for lifting the catch ashore. It also had a steam capstan on the foredeck near the mast for hauling nets. The boats had narrow, high funnels so that the steam and thick coal smoke was released high above the deck and away from the fishermen. These funnels were nicknamed woodbines because they looked like the popular brand of cigarette.
These boats had a crew of twelve made up of a skipper , driver, fireman to look after the boiler and nine deck hands. Steam fishing boats had many advantages. This was important, as the market was growing quickly at the beginning of the 20th century. They could travel faster and further and with greater freedom from weather , wind and tide. Because less time was spent travelling to and from the fishing grounds, more time could be spent fishing. The steam boats also gained the highest prices for their fish, as they could return quickly to harbour with their fresh catch.
The main disadvantage of the steam boats, though, was their high operating costs. Their engines were mechanically inefficient and took up much space, while fuel and fitting out costs were very high. To cover these high costs, they needed to fish for longer seasons.
The higher expenses meant that more steam drifters were company-owned or jointly owned. As the herring fishing industry declined, steam boats became too expensive. Steam trawlers were introduced at Grimsby and Hull in the s. In it was estimated that there were 20, men on the North Sea. The steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until The last sailing fishing trawler was built in in Grimsby.
Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. During both World Wars, many fishing trawlers were commissioned as naval trawlers. Fishing trawlers were particularly suited for many naval requirements because they were robust boats designed to work heavy trawls in all types of weather and had large clear working decks.
One could create a mine sweeper simply by replacing the trawl with a mine sweep. The Royal Navy ordered many naval trawlers to Admiralty specifications. Shipyards such as Smiths Dock Company that were used to building fishing trawlers could easily switch to constructing naval versions. As a bonus, the Admiralty could sell these trawlers to commercial fishing interests when the wars ended. Armed trawlers were also used to defend fishing groups from enemy aircraft or submarines. The smallest civilian trawlers were converted to danlayers. In , the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen.
The drum was a circular device that was set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. The powered drum allowed the nets to be drawn in much faster, so fishermen were able to fish in areas they had previously been unable to go into, thereby revolutionizing the fishing industry. During World War II , navigation and communication devices, as well as many other forms of maritime equipment depth-sounding and radar were improved and made more compact.
These devices became much more accessible to the average fisherman, thus making their range and mobility larger. It also served to make the industry much more competitive, as the fisherman were forced to invest more into their boats, equipped with electronic aids, such as radio navigation aids and fish finders. During the Cold War , some countries fitted fishing trawlers with additional electronic gear so they could be used as spy ships to monitor the activities of other countries. The first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern.
The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in at Aberdeen. The ship was much larger than any other trawlers then in operation and inaugurated the era of the 'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons.
Lord Nelson followed in , installed with vertical plate freezers that had been researched and built at the Torry Research Station. These ships served as a basis for the expansion of 'super trawlers' around the world in the following decades. The introduction of fine synthetic fibres such as nylon in the construction of fishing gear during the s marked an expansion in the commercial use of gillnets. The new materials were cheaper and easier to handle, lasted longer and required less maintenance than natural fibres. In addition, fibres such as nylon monofilaments become almost invisible in water, so nets made with synthetic twines generally caught greater numbers of fish than natural fibre nets used in comparable situations.
The early evolution of fishing as recreation is not clear. But for the early Japanese and Macedonians , fly fishing was likely to have been a means of survival, rather than recreation. It is possible that antecedents of recreational fly fishing arrived in England with the Norman conquest of The earliest English essay on recreational fishing was published in , shortly after the invention of the printing press. The essay was titled Treatyse of Fysshynge wyth an Angle ,  and was published in the second Boke of Saint Albans , a treatise on hawking, hunting, and heraldry. These were major interests of the nobility, and the publisher, Wynkyn de Worde , was concerned that the book should be kept from those who were not gentlemen, since their immoderation in angling might "utterly destroy it".
During the 16th century the work was much read, and was reprinted many times. Treatyse includes detailed information on fishing waters, the construction of rods and lines, and the use of natural baits and artificial flies. It also includes modern concerns about conservation and angler etiquette. The earliest English poetical treatise on Angling by John Dennys , said to have been a fishing companion of Shakespeare, was published in , The Secrets of Angling.
Footnotes of the work, written by Dennys' editor, William Lawson, make the first mention of the phrase to 'cast a fly': "The trout gives the most gentlemanly and readiest sport of all, if you fish with an artificial fly, a line twice your rod's length of three hairs' thickness The art of fly fishing took a great leap forward after the English Civil War , where a newly found interest in the activity left its mark on the many books and treatises that were written on the subject at the time.
The renowned officer in the Parliamentary army , Robert Venables , published in The Experienced Angler, or Angling improved, being a general discourse of angling, imparting many of the aptest ways and choicest experiments for the taking of most sorts of fish in pond or river. Another Civil War veteran to enthusiastically take up fishing, was Richard Franck. He was the first to describe salmon fishing in Scotland, and both in that and trout-fishing with artificial fly he was a practical angler. He was the first angler to name the burbot , and commended the salmon of the River Thames.
Compleat Angler was written by Izaak Walton in although Walton continued to add to it for a quarter of a century and described the fishing in the Derbyshire Wye.
It was a celebration of the art and spirit of fishing in prose and verse; 6 verses were quoted from John Dennys 's earlier work. A second part to the book was added by Walton's friend Charles Cotton. Walton did not profess to be an expert with a fishing fly; the fly fishing in his first edition was contributed by Thomas Barker, a retired cook and humorist , who produced a treatise of his own in ; but in the use of the live worm , the grasshopper and the frog "Piscator" himself could speak as a master.
The famous passage about the frog, often misquoted as being about the worm—"use him as though you loved him, that is, harm him as little as you may possibly, that he may live the longer"—appears in the original edition. Cotton's additions completed the instruction in fly fishing and advised on the making of artificial flies where he listed sixty five varieties. Charles Kirby designed an improved fishing hook in that remains relatively unchanged to this day.
He went on to invent the Kirby bend, a distinctive hook with an offset point, still commonly used today. The 18th century was mainly an era of consolidation of the techniques developed in the previous century. Running rings began to appear along the fishing rods, which gave anglers greater control over the cast line.