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Ambulance Victoria is supported by approximately two thousand volunteers. In rural and remote parts of the state, volunteers help us to respond to medical emergencies. All across the state, volunteer members of Ambulance Auxiliaries raise funds and support their local ambulance service. Volunteering with Ambulance Victoria is a great way to support your community. To find out more about volunteering with Ambulance Victoria, visit www. If you are interested in volunteering with Ambulance Victoria, please contact Volunteer Administration Assistant, Sharni Bray, on 03 The Australian Volunteer Coast Guard Association is a voluntary organisation promoting safety and efficiency in the operation, navigation and maintenance of small craft.
Its objects are to promote safety in boating and the use of pleasure craft, to assist in the preservation of life and property on the waters, to assist persons on the waters who as a result of misadventure or otherwise have endangered their lives or the lives of others, to train members, and the public in the use of sea craft and seamanship.
CGV also has a planning role providing support and guidance to Government departments. St John is about saving lives through First Aid. We aim to have one person trained and equipped to provide First Aid in every home, workplace and public gathering. Newman took the initiative and booked the Birmingham Corn Exchange for a series of public lectures. He decided to make their tone popular and provide cheap off-prints to those who attended. These lectures were his Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics in England and they were delivered weekly, beginning on 30 June and finishing on 1 September Following the first edition, a number of paragraphs were removed following the Achilli trial as "they were decided by a jury to constitute a libel, June 24, Andrew Nash describes the Lectures as: "an analysis of this [anti-Catholic] ideology, satirising it, demonstrating the false traditions on which it was based and advising Catholics how they should respond to it.
They were the first of their kind in English literature. The response to the Lectures was split between Catholics and Protestants.
Catholics greeted them with enthusiasm. A review in The Rambler , a Catholic periodical, saw them as "furnishing a key to the whole mystery of anti-Catholic hostility and as shewing the special point of attack upon which our controversial energies should be concentrated. Archdeacon Julius Hare said that Newman "is determined to say whatever he chooses, in despite of facts and reason". We have the very curious spectacle of a grave religious apologist giving rein for the first time at the age of fifty to a sense of rollicking fun and gifts of humorous writing, which if expended on other subjects would naturally have adorned the pages of Thackeray's Punch.
Ian Ker has raised the profile of Newman's satire. Newman himself described the lectures as his "best written book. One of the features of English anti-Catholicism was the holding of public meetings at which ex-Catholics, including former priests, denounced their prior beliefs and gave detailed accounts of the horrors of Catholic life.
Giacinto Achilli — , an ex- Dominican friar , was one such speaker. In Achilli, author of Dealings with the inquisition: or, Papal Rome, her priests, and her Jesuits He had been "rescued" from the Inquisition by a group of English ultra-Protestants as a hero six months before the Papal Aggression crisis broke. He was received by the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston , greeted a public meeting at Exeter Hall with a specially written hymn, "Hail Roman prisoner, Hail" and given a chapel in London.
His Dealings with the Inquisition was a best seller. In his public lectures, sponsored by the Evangelical Alliance , he professed to the errors of Catholicism and to be a sincere Protestant, and his exciting account of the cruelties of the Inquisition made him a credible and popular anti-Catholic speaker. Newman therefore assumed, after seeking legal advice, that he would be able to repeat the facts in his fifth lecture in his Lectures on the Present Position of Catholics in England. In these lectures, Newman denounced various anti-Catholic utterances. Newman emphasises the importance of responding to Achilli:.
For how, Brothers of the Oratory, can we possibly believe a man like this [Achilli], in what he says about persons and facts, and conversations, and events, when he is of the stamp of Maria Monk, of Jeffreys, and of Teodore, and of others who have had their hour, and then been dropped by the indignation or the shame of mankind. I have been a Catholic and an infidel; I have been a Roman priest and a hypocrite; I have been a profligate under a cowl. I am that Father Achilli, who as early as , was deprived of my faculty to lecture, for an offence which my superiors did their best to conceal; and who in had already earned the reputation of a scandalous friar.
I am that Achilli, who in the diocese of Viterbo in February, , robbed of her honour a young women of eighteen; who in September , was found guilty of a second such crime, in the case of a person of twenty-eight; and who perpetrated a third in July, , in the case of another aged twenty-four. I am he, who afterwards was found guilty of sins, similar or worse, in other towns of the neighbourhood. I am that son of St. Dominic who is known to have repeated the offence at Capua, in or ; and at Naples again, in , in the case of a child of fi[f]teen.
I am he who chose the sacristy of the church for one of these crimes, and Good Friday for another. Look on me, ye mothers of England, a confessor against Popery, for ye 'ne'er may look upon my like again. I am the Cavaliere Achilli, who then went to Corfu, made the wife of a tailor faithless to her husband, and lived publicly and travelled about with the wife of a chorus-singer.
I am that Professor of the Protestant College at Malta, who with two others was dismissed from my post for offences which the authorities cannot get themselves to describe. And now attend to me, such as I am, and you shall see what you shall see about the barbarity and profligacy of the Inquisitors of Rome.
You speak truly, O Achilli, and we cannot answer you a word. You are a Priest; you have been a Friar; you are, it is undeniable, the scandal of Catholicism, and the palmary argument of Protestants, by your extraordinary depravity. You have been, it is true, a profligate, an unbeliever, and a hypocrite. Not many years passed of your conventional life, and you were never in the choir, always in private houses, so that the laity observed you.
You were deprived of your professorship, we own it; you were prohibited from preaching and hearing confessions; you were obliged to give hush-money to the father of one of your victims, as we learned from an official document of the Neapolitan Police to be 'known for habitual incontinency;' your name came before the civil tribunal at Corfu for your crime of adultery. You have put the crown on your offences, by as long as you could, denying them all; you have professed to seek after truth, when you were ravening after sin.
The libel charge was officially laid against Newman in November. Under English law , Newman needed to prove every single charge he had made against Achilli. Newman requested the documents that Wiseman had used for his article in the Dublin Review but he had mislaid them. He eventually found them but it was too late to prevent the trial.
Newman and his defence committee needed to locate the victims and return them to England. A number of the victims were found and Maria Giberne, a friend of Newman, went to Italy to return with them to England. Achilli, on hearing that witnesses were being brought, arranged for the trial to be delayed.
This put Newman under great strain as he had been invited to be the founding Rector of the proposed Catholic University in Dublin and was composing and delivering the lectures that would become The Idea of a University. On 21 June , the libel trial started and lasted three days. The injustice of the verdict was widely recognised:.
A second trial was not granted and sentencing was postponed. Coleridge later wrote to Keble:. It is a very painful matter for us who must hail this libel as false, believing it is in great part true—or at least that it may be. Achilli, despite his victory, was discredited. Newman removed the libellous section of the fifth lecture and replaced them by the inscription:.
I am that Achilli, who in the diocese of Viterbo in February, , robbed of her honour a young women of eighteen; who in September , was found guilty of a second such crime, in the case of a person of twenty-eight; and who perpetrated a third in July, , in the case of another aged twenty-four. Retrieved 18 September Geoffrey Rowell. His dishonesty leads to her running away and forcing herself to be independent, really for the first time in her life. They are women who look after their men, a stronger, more active version of the angel of the house. When Rochester's true history unfolds, Jane has no plan of action: she reacts and escapes.
It was during this time that he founded the Literary and Historical Society. After four years, he retired. He published a volume of lectures entitled The Idea of a University , which explained his philosophy of education. Newman believed in a middle way between free thinking and moral authority —one that would respect the rights of knowledge as well as the rights of revelation.
For a university to claim legitimacy in the larger world, it would have to support research and publication free from church censorship; however, for a university to be a safe place for the education of Catholic youth, it would have to be a place in which the teachings of the Catholic church were respected and promoted.
The University It educates the intellect to reason well in all matters, to reach out towards truth, and to grasp it. This philosophy encountered opposition within the Catholic Church, at least in Ireland, as evidenced by the opinion of bishop Paul Cullen. In Cullen wrote a letter to the Vatican's office Propaganda fide now called the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples , criticising Newman's liberal exercise of authority within the new university:.
The discipline introduced is unsuitable, certainly to this country. The young men are allowed to go out at all hours, to smoke, etc. All this makes it clear that Father Newman does not give enough attention to details.
The university as envisaged by Newman encountered too much opposition to prosper. However, his book did have a wide influence. In , Newman projected a branch house of the Oratory at Oxford; but this project was opposed by Father later Cardinal Henry Edward Manning , another influential convert from Anglicanism, and others.
It was thought that the creation of a Catholic body within the heart of Oxford was likely to induce Catholics to send their sons to that university, rather than to newly formed Catholic universities. The scheme was abandoned. When Catholics did begin to attend Oxford from the s onwards, a Catholic club was formed and, in , it was renamed the Oxford University Newman Society in recognition of Newman's efforts on behalf of Catholicism in that university city.
The Oxford Oratory was eventually founded over years later in In , Newman established, in connection with the Birmingham Oratory, a school for the education of the sons of gentlemen along lines similar to those of English public schools.
Newman published several books with the company, effectively saving it. There is even a story that Newman's novel Loss and Gain was written specifically to assist Burns. In , in a response to Thomas William Allies , while agreeing that slavery was bad, Newman would not publicly condemn it as "intrinsically evil" on the grounds that it had been tolerated by St Paul—thus asserting that slavery is "a condition of life ordained by God in the same sense that other conditions of life are".
Newman and Henry Edward Manning both became significant figures in the lateth-century Roman Catholic Church in England: both were Anglican converts and both were elevated to the dignity of cardinal. In spite of these similarities, in fact there was a lack of sympathy between the two men who were different in character and experience, and they clashed on a number of issues, in particular the foundation of an Oratory in Oxford.
On theological issues, Newman had reservations about the declaration of papal infallibility Manning favoured the formal declaration of the doctrine. George W. Russell recorded that:. When Newman died there appeared in a monthly magazine a series of very unflattering sketches by one who had lived under his roof. I ventured to ask Cardinal Manning if he had seen these sketches. In Newman began to prepare autobiographical and other memoranda to vindicate his career. The occasion came when, in January , Charles Kingsley , reviewing James Anthony Froude 's History of England in Macmillan's Magazine , incidentally asserted that "Father Newman informs us that truth for its own sake need not be, and on the whole ought not to be, a virtue of the Roman clergy.
The pamphlet has been described as "unsurpassed in the English language for the vigour of its satire". After the debate went public, Kingsley attempted to defend his assertion in a lengthy pamphlet entitled "What then does Dr Newman mean?
In answer to Kingsley, again encouraged by Badeley,  Newman published in bi-monthly parts his Apologia Pro Vita Sua , a religious autobiography. Its tone changed the popular estimate of its author, [ citation needed ] by explaining the convictions which had led him into the Catholic Church. Kingsley's general accusation against the Catholic clergy is dealt with later in the work;  his specific accusations are addressed in an appendix.
Newman maintains that English Catholic priests are at least as truthful as English Catholic laymen. Newman published a revision of the series of pamphlets in book form in ; in a combined critical edition, edited by Wilfrid Ward , was published. In the book, Newman wrote, "[T]here are but two alternatives, the way to Rome, and the way to Atheism. In the conclusion of the Apologia , Newman expressed sympathy for the Liberal Catholicism of Charles de Montalembert and Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire : "In their general line of thought and conduct I enthusiastically concur, and consider them to be before their age.
In , Newman published his Grammar of Assent , a closely reasoned work in which the case for religious belief is maintained by arguments somewhat different from those commonly used by Roman Catholic theologians of the time. In , in the republication of his Anglican works, he added to the two volumes containing his defence of the via media , a long preface in which he criticised and replied to anti-Catholic arguments of his own which were contained in the original works.
At the time of the First Vatican Council — , Newman was uneasy about the formal definition of the doctrine of papal infallibility , believing that the time was 'inopportune'. Newman gave no sign of disapproval when the doctrine was finally defined, but was an advocate of the "principle of minimising", that included very few papal declarations within the scope of infallibility. In this letter, and especially in the postscript to the second edition, Newman answered the charge that he was not at ease within the Catholic Church.
In , Newman's old college elected him an honorary fellow, and he revisited Oxford after an interval of thirty-two years, on the same day Pope Pius IX died. Cardinal Manning seems not to have been interested in having Newman become a cardinal, and remained silent when the Pope asked him about it.
The offer was made by Rome in February Newman accepted the gesture as a vindication of his work, but made two requests: that he not be consecrated a bishop on receiving the cardinalate, as was usual at that time; and that he might remain in Birmingham. While in Rome, Newman insisted on the lifelong consistency of his opposition to "liberalism in religion"; he argued it would lead to complete relativism.
After an illness, Newman returned to England and lived at the oratory until his death, making occasional visits to London and chiefly to his old friend R. Church , now Dean of St Paul's. In Newman confessed to an "extreme joy" that conservative Benjamin Disraeli was no longer in power, and expressed the hope that Disraeli would be gone permanently. From the latter half of , Newman's health began to fail, and he celebrated Mass for the last time on Christmas Day in On 11 August  he died of pneumonia at the Birmingham Oratory.
Eight days later his body was buried alongside Ambrose St. John in the cemetery at Rednal Hill, Birmingham , at the country house of the Oratory. At the time of his death he had been Protodeacon of the Holy Roman Church. In accordance with his express wishes, Newman was buried in the grave of his lifelong friend Ambrose St.
John had become a Roman Catholic at around the same time as Newman, and the two men have a joint memorial stone inscribed with the motto Newman had chosen, Ex umbris et imaginibus in veritatem "Out of shadows and phantasms into the truth" ,  which Barry traces to Plato's allegory of the cave. Newman's grave was opened on 2 October , with the intention of moving any remains to a tomb inside Birmingham Oratory for their more convenient veneration as relics  during Newman's consideration for sainthood ; however, his wooden coffin was found to have disintegrated and no bones were found.
A representative of Fathers of the Birmingham Oratory alleged that this was because the coffin was wooden and the burial took place at a damp site. He said that extreme conditions which could remove bone would also have removed the coffin handles, which were extant. Some of Newman's short and earlier poems are described by R. Hutton as "unequalled for grandeur of outline, purity of taste and radiance of total effect"; while his latest and longest, The Dream of Gerontius , attempts to represent the unseen world along the same lines as Dante. His prose style, especially in his Catholic days, is fresh and vigorous, and is attractive to many who do not sympathise with his conclusions, from the apparent candour with which difficulties are admitted and grappled; while in his private correspondence there is charm.
James Joyce had a lifelong admiration for Newman's writing style and in a letter to his patron Harriet Shaw Weaver remarked about Newman that "nobody has ever written English prose that can be compared with that of a tiresome footling little Anglican parson who afterwards became a prince of the only true church".
Around , Newman developed a distinction between natural religion and revealed religion. Revealed religion is the Judeo-Christian revelation which finds its fulfilment in Jesus Christ. Natural religion refers to the knowledge of God and divine things that has been acquired outside the Judeo-Christian revelation. For Newman, this knowledge of God is not the result of unaided reason but of reason aided by grace , and so he speaks of natural religion as containing a revelation, even though it is an incomplete revelation.
Newman's view of natural religion gives rise to passages in his writings in which he appears to sympathise with a broader theology. Both as an Anglican and as a Catholic, he put forward the notion of a universal revelation. As an Anglican, Newman subscribed to this notion in various works, among them the University Sermon entitled "The Influence of Natural and Revealed Religion Respectively", the poem "Heathenism",  and the book The Arians of the Fourth Century , also , where he admits that there was "something true and divinely revealed in every religion".
Newman held that "freedom from symbols and articles is abstractedly the highest state of Christian communion", but was "the peculiar privilege of the primitive Church. Newman was worried about the new dogma of papal infallibility advocated by an "aggressive and insolent faction",  fearing that the definition might be expressed in over-broad terms open to misunderstanding and would pit religious authority against physical science.
He was relieved about the moderate tone of the eventual definition, which "affirmed the pope's infallibility only within a strictly limited province: the doctrine of faith and morals initially given to the apostolic Church and handed down in Scripture and tradition. A biography of Newman notes that since his death in he has suffered almost as much misrepresentation as he did during his lifetime. In the Apologia he had exorcised the phantom which, as he said, "gibbers instead of me"—the phantom of the secret Romanist, corrupting the youth of Oxford, devious and dissimulating.
But he raised another phantom—that of the oversensitive, self-absorbed recluse  who never did anything but think and write. In Newman's letters and memoranda and those of his friends, a more outgoing and humorous character is revealed. Later he was active as a Catholic priest. He was a caring pastor, and their recorded reminiscences show that they held him in affection. Newman, who was only a few years younger than Keats and Shelley , was born into the Romantic generation, when Englishmen still wept in moments of emotion. But he lived on into the age of the stiff upper lip , with the result that later generations, hearing of his tears on a visit to his mother's grave or at the funerals of old friends such as Henry Wilberforce , thought him not only sensitive but melancholy.
The "sensitive recluse of legend"  had a wide currency, appearing, for instance, in Lytton Strachey 's description, in his famously debunking set of portraits Eminent Victorians , as Newman's "soft, spectacled, Oxford manner, with its half-effeminate diffidence". He was a great hater! Strachey was only ten when Newman died and never met him.
Newman's face was "remarkably like that of Julius Caesar. I have often thought of the resemblance, and believed that it extended to the temperament. In both there was an original force of character which refused to be moulded by circumstances, which was to make its own way, and become a power in the world; a clearness of intellectual perception, a disdain for conventionalities, a temper imperious and wilful, but along with it a most attaching gentleness, sweetness, singleness of heart and purpose.
Both were formed by nature to command others, both had the faculty of attracting to themselves the passionate devotion of their friends and followers. For hundreds of young men Credo in Newmannum was the veritable symbol of faith. Newman's celibacy , which he embraced at the age of 15,  also contributed to negative representations of his character,  laying him open to what he called "slurs". Kingsley, who interpreted the Biblical story of Adam and Eve as expressing a "binary law of man's being; the want of a complementum, a 'help meet', without whom it is not good for him to be",  feared and hated vowed sexual abstinence, considering it, in Laura Fasick's words, "a distinct and separate perversion".
To many members of the Oxford Movement, Newman included, it was Kingsley's ideal of domesticity that seemed unmanly. Church put it, "To shrink from [celibacy] was a mark of want of strength or intelligence, of an unmanly preference for English home life, of insensibility to the generous devotion and purity of the saints". Although Newman's deepest relationships were with men, he had many affectionate friendships with women. She was a noted beauty, who even at fifty was described by one admirer as "the handsomest woman I ever saw in my life".
Newman had a photographic portrait of her in his room  and was still corresponding with her into their eighties. Emily Bowles, who first met Newman at Littlemore, was the recipient of some of his most outspoken letters on what he felt to be the mistaken course of the extreme infallibilists and his reasons for not "speaking out" as many begged him to do. Newman also experienced intense male friendships, the first with Richard Hurrell Froude — , the longest with Ambrose St John — , who shared communitarian life with Newman for 32 years starting in when St John was John: "I wish, with all my heart, to be buried in Fr Ambrose St John's grave—and I give this as my last, my imperative will".
Newman spelt out his theology of friendship in a sermon he preached on the Feast of St John the Evangelist , traditionally thought to be the same person as the disciple John , "whom Jesus loved". In the sermon, Newman said: "There have been men before now, who have supposed Christian love was so diffuse as not to admit of concentration upon individuals; so that we ought to love all men equally. Now I shall maintain here, in opposition to such notions of Christian love, and with our Saviour's pattern before me, that the best preparation for loving the world at large, and loving it duly and wisely, is to cultivate our intimate friendship and affection towards those who are immediately about us".
In friendship, two intimate friends gain a glimpse of the life that awaits them in God. His biography is a treatise on the human and supernatural virtues that make up friendship". David Hilliard characterises Geoffrey Faber's description of Newman, in his book Oxford Apostles , as a "portrait of Newman as a sublimated homosexual though the word itself was not used ". Ellis Hanson, for instance, writes that Newman and Froude clearly "presented a challenge to Victorian gender norms ", but "Faber's reading of Newman's sexlessness  and Hurrell Froude's guilt  as evidence of homosexuality" seems "strained".
Roden is put in mind of "the late Victorian definition of a male invert, the homosexual: his Newman's homiletics suggest a woman's soul in a man's body". Roden uses the term " queer " in a very general sense "to include any dissonant behaviours, discourses or claimed identities" in relation to Victorian norms.
In a September television documentary, The Trouble with the Pope ,  Peter Tatchell discussed Newman's underlying sexuality, citing his close friendship with Ambrose St John and entries in Newman's diaries describing their intense love for each other. He expressed his hope, Newman wrote, that during his whole priestly life he had not committed one mortal sin.
For men of their time and culture that statement is definitive. Newman's burial with Ambrose St John cannot be detached from his understanding of the place of friendship in Christian belief or its long history". Bray cites numerous examples of friends being buried together. David Hilliard writes that relationships such as Newman's with Froude and St John "were not regarded by contemporaries as unnatural.
Nor is it possible, on the basis of passionate words uttered by mid-Victorians, to make a clear distinction between male affection and homosexual feeling. Theirs was a generation prepared to accept romantic friendships between men simply as friendships without sexual significance. Only with the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the doctrine of the stiff upper lip and the concept of homosexuality as an identifiable condition, did open expressions of love between men become suspect and regarded in a new light as morally undesirable".
When Ian Ker reissued his biography of Newman in , he added an afterword  in which he put forward evidence that Newman was a heterosexual. He cited diary entries from December in which the year-old Newman wrote about the temptations awaiting him when he returned home from boarding school and met girls at Christmas parties.
Ker comments: "The only 'sacrifice' that he could possibly be referring to was that of marriage. And he readily acknowledges that from time to time he continued to feel the natural attraction for marriage that any heterosexual man would". Catholicism portal. Within both the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches, Newman's influence was great in dogma. On Catholics, his influence was mainly in the direction of a broader spirit and of a recognition of the part played by development , in doctrine and in church government.
If his teaching on the church was less widely followed, it was because of doubts as to the thoroughness of his knowledge of history and as to his freedom from bias as a critic. Newman founded the independent school for boys Catholic University School , Dublin, and the Catholic University of Ireland which evolved into University College Dublin , a college of Ireland's largest university, the National University of Ireland , which has contributed significantly both intellectually and socially to Ireland.
They provide pastoral services and ministries to Catholics at non-Catholic universities; at various times this type of "campus ministry" the distinction and definition being flexible has been known to Catholics as the Newman Apostolate or "Newman movement". Newman's Dublin lecture series The Idea of a University Defined and Illustrated is thought to have become "the basis of a characteristic British belief that education should aim at producing generalists rather than narrow specialists, and that non-vocational subjects—in arts or pure science—could train the mind in ways applicable to a wide range of jobs".
The miracle was investigated and confirmed by the Vatican. A second miracle, necessary for his canonisation , was approved by the Vatican in November This miracle concerned the healing of a pregnant American woman from a life-threatening condition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English cleric and cardinal. This article is about the English cardinal. For the Bohemian-American bishop, see John Neumann. For other uses, see Cardinal Newman disambiguation. Portrait of Newman by John Everett Millais , Anglican — Roman Catholic — Cor ad cor loquitur Heart speaks unto Heart.
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This original interdisciplinary study of the cultural afterlife of John in Victorian Britain places literature, the visual arts and music in their religious context. Wheeler. Temporarily out of stock. Order now and we'll deliver when available. We'll e-mail you with an estimated delivery date as soon as we have more information.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Tracts for the Times. Aquinas , Scotus , and Ockham. Renaissance and Modern. Adler G. Main article: Canonisation of John Henry Newman. Saints portal Biography portal. BBC News. Longmans, Green, and Company. Acton and History. Cambridge University Press. Gracewing Publishing. John Henry Newman: his life and work.
Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 8 July Catholic News Agency. The Tablet.