Second, the arrival of the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs signals that development has multiple economic, social and environmental dimensions, beyond income. And development outcomes embrace the interdependence amongst national, regional and international levels.
These realities trigger a fundamental rethinking of how countries — at all levels of development — should interact with one another in the changing global landscape. Development in Transition DiT embraces a movement to better design policies, practices and partnerships both at home and internationally.
It seeks to build the machinery of a new international co-operation — a fresh multilateralism — fit for the purpose of promoting sustainable development for all. These subsidies are an inefficient mechanism for redistribution of the declining export rents from fossil fuels.
Revenues from the taxation of fossil fuel production and consumption as well as savings from subsidy reforms should be invested in productive uses supporting social development and economic diversification. Investments in renewable energy can be one of the sectors driving diversification of the Indonesian economy and its fiscal transition away from fossil fuels.
Indonesia is one of the few developing countries that can boast of reducing fiscal dependence on revenues from fossil fuel production while growing and diversifying both the economy and government revenue base. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Indonesia experienced a drop in government revenues from upstream oil and gas—from 35 per cent of the total revenues 7 per cent of GDP in to just 6 per cent less than 1 per cent of GDP in However, the country faces several challenges in moving further towards a fiscal system supporting clean energy and a sustainable economy. Fuel consumption taxes VAT and motor fuel tax generate just a third of the value of fuel and electricity subsidies 0.
A lot of barriers remain in the way of renewable energy development. This publication makes a first attempt at an integrated analysis of how Indonesia both taxes and subsidizes production and consumption of oil, gas, coal and electricity most of which is generated with coal. Chapter 1 reviews the state of play in the oil, gas and coal sectors and in particular the role of state-owned enterprises.
Keen, M. You can read the Notice here. Alm, J. Easterbrook, K. Risk scoring for SMEs.
Chapter 2 focuses on the dynamics of government revenue from fossil fuels vs. Chapter 3 looks at the Indonesian policies linked to economic diversification.
Transition, Taxation And the State (Transition and Development) (Transition and Development) [Gerald Turley] on dynipalo.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying. Transition, Taxation and the State (Transition and Development) - Kindle edition by Gerard, Dr Turley. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC.