The evidence for a genetic influence on intelligence is massive and rock-solid. No one ever said intelligence was entirely genetic. What has been proven is that shared home life does not make siblings more alike.
Adopted children are more like their biological parents and siblings than their adopted parents and sibs. Regarding the Flynn Effect: African Americans scored one standard deviation behind whites in and in , while the Flynn effect was happening. That is, however absolute scores have changed over the years, the same people have stayed on top — and on the bottom. There is certainly evidence that other arbitrary labels we attach to people: given names, star signs, do influence how people label others, how people see themselves and the development of their personalities.
Does living in a black skin vs a white skin alter how wider society sees someone, and more importantly how people see themselves? Would this self perception alter the life choices and a persons self belief, leading to white skinned people on average having more confidence in their own innate academic ability, black skinned people having less confidence in their innate academic ability, but more confidence in their own athletic abilities? Creating self-fulfilling prophesies? And before you mention colonialism, before colonialism, the vast bulk of Sub-Saharan Arica was literally in the stone age — the exceptions being the areas colonised by Islam.
The averages of some metrics: life expectancy, literacy amongst the young are at similar levels. Western advances in science, medicine, technology etc are why those metrics have risen so rapidly. But, why then did Japan, South Korea and China, for example, rapidly assimilate western advances, and even outdo them in some instances, while sub Saharan Africa is still so far behind?
The sensible thing to do is wait and see before you attribute the blank slate to the human race. When you look back over the past few thousand years you can find examples of peeks of civilization in some places that were far ahead of Europe at that time but are backward compared to the West today. Various theories as to why Sub Sahara Africa never created that great civilization have been suggested: Does the equatorial climate not do enough to force the people into the practice of preparing for winter, thus encouraging longer term planning?
In Sub Sahara Africa each part of the continent blends into the next, not divided up by mountain ranges like the Himalayas, the European Alps and the Urals and bodies of water like the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and the waters separating Japan into islands and from the mainland. Is it coincidence that the greatest maritime empire ever created was from the island nation of Britain, that Britain itself was the welding together of 4 peoples each to a degree geographically partitioned from the others?
The problem is, Europe has played a major role in all the epochs of human civilisation, from Bronze age, iron age, the classical period, the middle ages, however you want to classify them …and yes, so has Asia, middle east and North Africa. In fact, if you want to be extremely politically incorrect, you could argue that really, the humanity is separated by sub-saharan Africans and everyone else.
Every other group, for example, has Neanderthal DNA. The most is seen in east Asian,s and they have highest average intelligence levels. They were almost all semi-isolated from the populations around them, protected by geography which created the language differences we see today, this is especially noticeable in Europe where Italy, France, Britain, Iberia, Greece and other peoples were semi-isolated from each other by geography, enabling the development of sizable distinct populations to develop.
If true then todays average of about would have been 70 threshold for intellectual disability. The environmental influences a child experiences in the home should also be expected to differ from that of her siblings. Parents treat their kids differently because kids are different. Exactly right Stephanie.
There is a theory called the CLASH model — Climate, aggression and self-control in humans that examines why there is overall more violence and aggressive crime in hot climates. The researchers believe that hot climates and less variation in seasonal temperatures leads to a faster life strategy, less focus on the future, and less self-control — all of which contribute to more aggression and violence. There is an evolutionary advantage to having to plan for winter, having to plan ahead, store, harvest, etc.
Africa has always been considered the dark continent, and South America, and more particularly Central America were colonized the same way that Africa was and were also part of the slave trade. Technology and modernization is changing all of that around the globe. As more people, even in developing nations have access to means to keep them alive and medications and sanitation to keep tens of thousands from dying of plagues and other pathogenic infections, innovation and technology will increase the IQ of those that have the ability to use technology to innovate, create and become entrepreneurs.
We are already witnessing it anecdotally with the dumbing down of society, reality TV, social media turning every moron into a keyboard warrior, and moves like Idiocracy play homage to that. Much of growing up is about differentiating yourself from parents and siblings. Are twins reared apart more alike in personality than those reared together? Counterintive possibilities is precisely what science must check. Having 5 siblings and raised 3 daughters over 3 continents I must also point out the dualistic nature of personality traits inclines and subjects them to different forms of nurture.
Similarly, in some places violent resolutions personal conflict are the norm and in others taboo. Most of personality is innate but much of its expression is cultural. Of course this is obviously right wing propaganda for those that fear science. Trump is obviously responsible for his suicide. Only triplets of color toc have anything valuable to teach us. Even in triplet studies the white privilege rears its ugly head at quillette. But I might be wrong. The most terrible thing is that today these babies, and twins, regardless of their skin colour, would not be alive.
Very few unwanted babies are placed up for adoption anymore. Feminists prefer that they be murdered by abortion? Anita Yes, and as a society we should hang our heads in shame. Instead, in New York at least, they have standing ovations.
Cheung Ha ha! Triplets of color! Albino ones probably the most intriguing, and of course being the most white, the most privileged. Ha ha, triplets of color! Obviously, albino triplets would be the most privileged, that would be a most invaluable study! Cheung, fyi.
Someone claimed the name on another post recently and S. Cheung said something about it. Sweet Jesus man. You are a pathetic moron. Grow a set and post with your own handle. I cannot believe Quillette tolerates this. I wonder if the effort and cost of having to moderate the comments is why they keep it so simple?
The creator is based out of Australia, correct? Perhaps they have laws that de-incentivize making the comments more substantial. I thought we could tell the fake S. I have a biological child who experienced wild, lengthy, violent rages from very early. I have absolutely NO doubt that if he had been raised by another parent according to the trends and dictates of conventional medicine, conventional mental health, conventional parenting, and conventional schooling, he would VERY likely be jailed or otherwise institutionalized by this point. The twin studies show that IQ and personality are largely genetic, although environment also plays a lesser role.
Nutritional deficiencies and exposure to lead among children are known to cause cognitive deficiencies, but as these childhood problems become less common environmental factors as explanations for individual differences in IQ and personality will likely become even smaller relative to genetic factors. Twin studies are not ideal for studying intelligence and personality—they were used mostly because psychologists had no way to study human genetics directly in the pre-molecular era.
MZ twins share not only their genomes but also their prenatal environment [placenta and amniotic sac]. DZ twins have different genomes AND different prenatal environments. This sets up a genotypeXenvironment covariance that inflates heritability estimates. MZ twins are often dressed and named similarly by their parents, another source of GXE covariance.
Adoption studies purport to break up this covariance, but the notion that adoptions are done randomly or even haphazardly is wrong—there is still some covariance. Small and unrepresentative sample sizes, which cause heritability estimates to vary widely among different studies. For example, is heritability of intelligence lower in families with lower SES? Studies disagree on that and other points. IQ and personality are largely genetic, although environment also plays a lesser role…..
Certainly there are always weaknesses with any study that deviates from true random experimental design, which are usually not ethically allowed in human studies. As noted by Stephanie and James Smith above, it also seems very likely that genetic factors influence the nurture side, since parents, teachers, friends, etc. DNA research does not seem to be calling into question the genetic inheritance findings of twin studies when it comes to IQ or personality, and in fact seem to be moving towards conclusions of more nature and less nurture.
These consistent findings of the high genetic causation of IQ differences are especially impressive given the considerable amount of effort expended by social justice warriors to discourage, vilify, and discredit IQ research. This is an excellent point. Rearing of children is not only planned, often subconsciously, but is also reactive.
A truly remorseful infrequently misbehaving child will be disciplined differently for the same offense committed by the belligerent frequently misbehaving child. Parents tend to play the hand they are dealt, frequently relying upon similar child rearing resources.
Additionally these studies either rarely study or rarely mention studying the adoptive parents. For instance are parents who are prone to adopt more likely to come from similar or varied socioeconomic groups? On average are adoptive parents more likely to be church going, liberal, conservative, ect… Finally did the adoptive parents of separated twins employ similar parenting techniques and disciplines. Of the few separated twins stories I have heard the siblings are often found living in proximity to one another, suggesting they may be subject to the same regional influences.
They acknowledge both factors, but make the opposite conclusions to you as to their relative importance. Twin studies are included in their assessments. Nuff said. Elsewhere, you mention trial design. There is actually no way to do such a study in the current sense, because you cannot randomly assign intelligence. Nor have we mapped any such genes.
We are a long way from there presently.
Olson- The Plomin stuff is interesting indeed. As you say, early stages. But the methods he seems to be using will only show correlation even when assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Right now, the polygenic scores capture only a fraction of the genetic determinants of intelligence and none of the environmental ones. That means the predictions remain fuzzy. Obviously your preference is for genetics to trump all. There is certainly nothing wrong with saying that you wish it to be so. And it may yet be proven to be so. But as of today, there is nowhere near the proof that it is so.
Yet you still proceed as if the science is settled today, when clearly it is not. SG — the main reason I favor genetics as the likely cause of most IQ differences is simple observation and knowledge of history.
It is also readily observable that smart parents tend to have smart kids, and that dull parents tend to have dull kids. It is hard to reconcile these persistent differences in time and place primarily to environmental factors, but much easier to see the much greater likelihood of genetics as the primary driver. But in summary box at bottom, see link the CDC site. SC — Lead exposure is much lower today because it has been taken out of gasoline.
Yes it remains in some older buildings — ironically often in public housing that is supposed to help the poor, but even that exposure is almost certainly less than years ago when all vehicles were burning leaded fuels and many painted surfaces in houses had lead paint. Exposure will almost certainly be reduced further in coming years so one environmental factor is almost eliminated. Olson- As you note, that irony is additive to the socioeconomic situation that already exists ie not only are poor people poor, they get more lead to boot.
CDC also says such exposure remains high in a non-negligible number of households. That is in fact my entire point over 2 threads. Equality of opportunity to me is to remove barriers lead or otherwise to allow people, individually and as a group, to fully realize that potential, and the rest is up to them. But with lead or otherwise, we are clearly and obviously not there yet. Thank you Anita. The interesting thing about the desire for equality of outcome is that it is mostly self-defeating because outcomes are mostly genetic based.
For example, if we invest more in education, whatever small effect that might have will magnify the difference between the smart and dull, because the smart will get more out of any resources that are directed towards them than the dull. That is a political claim, not a scientific fact. What outcomes? Getting married and having children?
Living to age 90? Winning the Nobel Prize? Completing high school? Becoming a venture capitalist? But IQ score is not perfectly correlated with intelligence [as shown by retests] and intelligence is not perfectly correlated with life outcomes. You know, accidents, infectious diseases, bad luck, etc. The chain of causality is too weak. In all civilised countries man accumulates property and bequeaths it to his children. So that the children in the same country do not by any means start fair in the race for success. But this is far from an unmixed evil; for without the accumulation of capital the arts could not progress; and it is chiefly through their power that the civilised races have extended, and are now everywhere extending, their range, so as to take the place of the lower races…..
JBN — IQ is the single most important predictor of life success or failure. Low IQ is strongly associated with going to prison, drug abuse, single parenthood, and dropping out of school early, while high IQ is strongly associated with doing well in school, higher career earnings, and marriage success. Certainly environmental factors play a role, but IQ and personality are typically found to be the more important drivers of life success.
DNA research is only starting, but has already found many markers of intelligence that are highly correlated with IQ, and further work is almost certain to confirm the absolute dominance of genetic factors in IQ. Again, these are right-wing political claims for which you supply no links, and for which there is little factual evidence.
That claim is false, given that you freely acknowledge that nutrition and exposure to pollutants and contaminants [pre- and post-natal] have a significant effect on intelligence. There are plenty of associations, but trying to turn general intelligence into some accurate predictor of life outcomes is entirely lacking in empirical evidence. Does IQ predict which quarterback will win the starting spot?
Does it predict which sales manager will earn the most sales? Which actor will win an Oscar? But there are plenty of associations- We know that being slightly taller, or physically attractive, or gregarious are all associated with positive life outcomes. Because of course! Accomplishing a large complex task like an Oscar or NFL career or profitable company require the successful application of all of our human attributes, in combination with each other. Probably not, but it will predict pretty well which player will be QB vs other positions, because a good QB is almost always the smartest guy on the team.
Perhaps you prefer videos? Chip — these are the types of IQ charts or lists of occupations associated with high and low IQ. But in any case- If you look at the scale on the occupational link, you will notice that the ranges are really, really broad, with a tremendous overlap. So a janitor and a surgeon have a good chance of sharing the same IQ level.
And the ranges have nothing to say about success in any field of endeavor; a given worker at the bottom of the range may outperform one at the top. Its to say that placing it as the primary driver of outcomes is unsupported; Complex systems demand complex skillsets, where oftentimes a deficit in one set can be compensated by another.
More exaggeration from a chronic exaggerator. The MIT technology review article is mostly a puff piece about R. My son is now He is genetically the child of another man but I have raised him from the age of 18mts. He is in nature and character the son of his natural father. He is absolutely nothing like me in nature or temperament. I love him more than life itself. That was until I met Mary. Mary is one of the toughest SOBs I know. She is a captain at a firehouse and can stand toe to toe with any man I know on any topic or situation.
Why should I be appalled?
Ray — from what I understand there is some evidence that the triplets were put up for adoption in separate households as part of an experiment, which brings up some troubling ethical issues. So their separation itself was contrived? The article is scarce on details. I suppose the question is what would have happened otherwise. Population studies in Japan show a strong increase in average height, certainly due to improved nutrition.
I suspect that the population wide improvement in IQ also comes from nutrition. You might want to examine those MZs who were reared apart in different countries as well. For years South Korea was one of the largest senders of infants and children overseas. You might want to check with the International Korean Adoptee Association.
Every single living organism on planet earth is completely dominated by their genes…except for humans, which are If the author is going to write a book on this subject, she needs to learn to stay on topic. I happened to have seen info on the film when it came out, and consequently searched out information on it. First of all, none of us are new here. We have all been here many times incarnations before. We also have a superficial social personality face and an unconscious deeper personality which carries over the deep structures of our existence-being via our etheric energy body from lifetime to lifetime.
Interesting to note that my use of the word etheric was questioned by the spell-checker associated with the Quillette website. The unconscious contents of that deeper personality vehicle determine and pattern much of what we dramatize on to the world stage. Furthermore, everyone also has a deeply patterned emotional-sexual Oedipal script or which they again unconsciously dramatize in all circumstances.
In relation to all other human beings and the World-Process. That having been said the contents of the website introduced via this reference show that nurture is a very important factor in the growth of every single human being. No way though. Poor business practice in my view.
Find More Posts by expatsinspain. Originally Posted by expatsinspain. I agree. Trying to book a flight right now, and there's something wrong with the online form, so in addition to all the fees they keep adding on I have to make an international call just to book this flight. However if you're going to use it, get a prepaid master card. Last edited by mightykaboosh; 20th February at AM. Find More Posts by mightykaboosh.
Wishful Thinking book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. One stormy night Maevis Etherwood came home and found her husband in. After an opening night performance of Giselle, Mave Etherwood came home and found her husband in bed with another woman. What exactly transpired.
One of the many "lovely" stories about Rip-off Air. I hear you, I hear you. I'm not a fan of RipOffAir but I do sneakily admire the hard nosed profit seeking misrepresenting publicity seeking approach. It's almost funny. I have flown with them and I have vowed to never repeat the experience. I decided that I will never want a "cheap flight" enough to be willing to endure that process. The queues, the extra charges, the people repacking cases to avoid the surcharges, the staff Speaking of the staff, I was chatting to one of the cabin crew one time and when I was told of the employment practices I was amazed.
Clearly I'm not going to repeat here - maybe over a beer sometime. I have played in a number of bands over the years and some venues do not pay the group, instead they charge the group for the use of the room in a systems called "pay to play". On the other hand there is another budget airline that is orange and I have never had a bad experience. I find the process to be easy, the flights on time, OK prices and lovely cabin crew. I fly regularly with Easyjet between Liverpool and various Spanish cities and recommend them heartily. Not all budget airlines are equal.
Find More Posts by kenpeace. I agree with Ken - easyjet are amongst the best - they cancelled their services from EMA this year and the transfer of business fro them to an alternative carrier was very smooth and at no cost to me. Jet2 and BMI are pretty good too I find. And, at the risk if a tirade of abuse, I have never had any problems touch wood with RyanAir. People moan but they keep on flying - if you want frills fly BA, but if you want cheap shorthaul cattleclass you know where to get it - your wallet your choice!!
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I don't like Ryanair but sometimes, due to cost, nearest airport to destination, etc. If I'm travelling alone it's okay: I don't really care where I sit and don't particularly need speedy boarding. With my girlfriend and son, however, it's different: more hassles, more stress. I'm sure others here can confirm this. So far though, not many big problems. I do agree with the comments here and elsewhere concerning the rip off re online check in, the incredibly arrogant attitude of the Ryanair boss, and the sometimes chaotic pre-boarding scenes of the actual flights themselves.
Lots of "you pays your money you takes your choice" type comments but the fact is that, at busy times, Ryanair isn't particularly cheap. Find More Posts by Culebronchris.
He later married Connie Stevens. So, as admitted by Mr Poo, sometimes confirmation bias is excusable, or at least understandable. Based on in-store sales from hundreds of independent bookstores across America! In addition, she has voiced characters in animated films such as Horton Hears. I am glad you ask -- since the English word is computer and not hamfuther as it would need to be if the term had been inherited. It is also readily observable that smart parents tend to have smart kids, and that dull parents tend to have dull kids.
This was sent around by email last year after the pay as you go toilet story. It's not mine - I don't know who is the originator. I returned from Tenerife last night and whilst I was waiting near our departure gate to open I flew with easyjet. Would it not have been better to check the hand luggage at the same time as the suitcases when they first arrived thus avoiding any unecessary costs to the passengers?
A lot of the hand baggage was filled with presents from the duty free shops etc and although some may have been a little bigger than the guide and I stress a little bigger , which was to me quite harsh. Another thing that gets me is how you checkin your flight.
Would not be better that each person was allocated a seat number when checking in and so remove the scrummage at the boarding gate? When people are traveling with families Im sure it would be better for all if the family was seated together instead of the mother or falther going up and down the isle to check their son or daughter is alright 10 rows further on.
Originally Posted by Andy. I already had my share of trouble with low cost airlines, and I agree, they end up being not so low-cost after all hidden extra charge. It's been a while now since I only travel with flag-carrier airlines : they still treat their customers accordingly, they have the best slot times, they always use top hub airports, they are way more relayable meaning if the cancel a flight due to 'technical yet unspecified reasons' they will take care of you untill they put you into the next immediate flight instead of leaving you at your own risk in the middle of nowhere in Morocco waiting for the next plane due in seven days -true stoty with easyjet on flights from Marrakech to Madrid- all the price they show is upfront, etc.
I'd rather have a flight booked with Ryanair tha BA right now! You pays your money and you takes your choice! I'm happy to fly Ryanair on a 90 minute flight for an overnight stay no case to check in without wife and kids, and where it is convenient for me I live near Stansted. If I have to check a case in or travel with family, then I will fly with another carrier. I enjoy travelling with Iberia to Spain. Ryanair is not so bad depending on where you need to go I've flown with them a few times and they've been ok, but let's just say you've got to go real easy on the amount of luggage you have.
I once made a connection through Stansted after a transatlantic flight and it was a real headache trying to accommodate the difference in luggage allowance.