Although self-efficacy beliefs can be seen as a general construct e. In other words, as higher is the fit between the efficacy beliefs measured and the behavior analyzed, higher the predictive power of self-efficacy Bandura, The latter rationale is the mainstream approach of educational researchers e.
Rosario et al. According to Bruning and Kaufmann , research on writing self-efficacy follows two different approaches: on one hand, studies associating writing self-efficacy with writing outcomes and conditions which are related with differences in self-efficacy like gender or grade and, on the other hand, those which are focused on self-efficacy as outcome, showing the relevance of self-regulatory processes. Although research efforts on this topic are remarkable, Bruning et al. That is, writing is a complex process that can be divided into dimensions, and people may have different efficacy beliefs for each of these dimensions.
Following this rationale, Bruning et al. To verify its model they developed a scale i. Continuing with their work, through the present paper we want to validate the SEWS in another kind of students i. In Spain, there are not so much instruments to assess self-efficacy for writing, especially validated at the University-level. The EAPCE is a item scale focused on cognitive processes that were answered by students between nine and fifteen years old. The items have a Likert response format.
Unfortunately, the authors do not report the content of the scale, the dimensions included or their psychometric properties excepting reliability. EAPCE is a multidimensional scale with nine dimensions, one for each cognitive process. Another scale in Spanish can be found, but is developed in Argentina.
It is the translation into Spanish of Pajares et al. Based on their content, it is focused mainly on the conventions dimension of SEWS. Given the scarceness of appropriate scales i. SEWS scale has a three dimensions ideation, conventions, and self-regulation distributed among 16 items in response format. Its response format have shown is considered more appropriate and accurate than traditional Likert scales with a small set of responses Bandura, ; Pajares et al.
From our point of view, this scale has many advantages such as: 1 it is theory-driven; 2 it assesses three different areas of writing Ideation, Conventions, and Self-regulation , making easier the further intervention; 3 it is an instrument reliable and valid; 4 it provides a more detailed understanding of dimensions of efficacy that is being activated; and 5 its response format have shown better results than the traditional approach with few steps. Moreover, there is empirical evidence that shows differences among men and women in written expression in academic contexts e.
Additionally, literature also highlights differences in academic self-efficacy related with sex i. Thus, we want to explore is, as is expected by prior studies, differences in self-efficacy for writing regarding also exist. An observational, descriptive, longitudinal study was performed.
Once translated, the SEWS was included in an online questionnaire that includes sociodemographic information and other two self-efficacy scales. The questionnaire was answered by university students at the beginning of the 1st or 2nd semester, depending on the subject where it was applied. Of them, Practically all the participants stated that they need to improve their academic writing skills It is a scale with 16 items examining three different dimensions of self-efficacy for writing: 1 Ideation 5 items ; 2 Conventions 5 items ; and 3 Self-regulation 6 items.
The items where answered in a Likert scale from 0 I'm not sure I could do to I'm totally sure I could do according with the recommendations by Bandura and Pajares et al.
Ann Rash, Education Specialist with TSBVI Visually Impaired Outreach, is currently collecting data on the use of uncontracted Braille in Texas and invites those who are interested in trying uncontracted Braille to contact her at or to participate in the collection of this data. Materials We followed Walster and Fausey and Boroditsky and used a single scenario for each language group. Published by Uni. The Sound Pattern 01 English. All students who are referred for evaluation or reevaluation to determine eligibility as visually impaired must receive a learning media assessment conducted by a certified teacher of students with visual impairments. The Conversion of Scripts. Factor validity was carried out by exploratory factor analysis EFA.
The whole scale in English and Spanish can be seen on the appendix. This instrument assesses an overall perception of efficacy. Self-Efficacy for Writing Pajares et al. This is a unidimensional scale focused on perception of efficacy regarding conventions of writing. Reliability of the SEWS was estimated using the Spearman-Brown formula arranging the items by mean in order to compose the two halves.
Factor validity was carried out by exploratory factor analysis EFA. Convergent validity was carried out analyzing the correlations between the SEWS and the remaining self-efficacy scales. Lastly, we explored the mean differences regarding sex. All statistical analyses were performed using the program SPSS As can be seen on Table 1 , item means varied between Regarding item standard deviations, they ranged from Talking about the distribution of responses, we can see that all items have at least one participant who scores on the top of the scale, but in eight items the minimum value are higher than zero i.
All items show a negative skewness, but different degrees of kurtosis. For all the items, univariate normality hypothesis is rejected. EFA was performed using the correlations between items to statistically determine their underlying factors.
The results of the EFA are showed in Table 2. As can be see there, both the KMO test,. Given than item communalities are.
Regarding the dimensionality of SEWS, and following the K1 method, we retained three dimensions composed by the same items as in the original scale, that account for The first factor, composed by the items 1, 3, 2, 4, and 5 is Ideation, and has an eigenvalue of 7. The second factor is composed by items 8, 9, 7, 6, and 10 is Conventions, and has an eigenvalue of 1. The last factor is composed by items 12, 11, 13, 14, 15, and 16 is Self-regulation, which an eigenvalue of 1. Structure matrix. Some descriptive statistics for the instruments used can be found on Table 3.
The results are on Table 3. As we can see there, all the dimensions of SEWS are linearly and directly correlated. Between dimensions, the higher association is between Ideation and Self-regulation dimensions, as in the original Bruning et al. More interesting for our research is the relationship with the other self-efficacy scales.
Finally, we want to explore the existence of differences regarding sex. Means and standard deviations can be seen on Table 4. We found significant differences on SEWS and general self-efficacy suggesting than male students reports higher efficacy beliefs than female students: SEWS-Ideation, t Self-efficacy for writing is a construct related directly and indirectly with writing outcomes. Item added to your basket View basket. Proceed to Basket. View basket.
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